Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

अश्वः शस्त्रं शास्त्रं वीणा वाणी नरश् च नारी च ।
पुरुष-विशेषं प्राप्ता भवन्त्य् अयोग्याश् च योग्याश् च ॥ ७५ ॥

aśvaḥ śastraṃ śāstraṃ vīṇā vāṇī naraś ca nārī ca |
puruṣa-viśeṣaṃ prāptā bhavanty ayogyāś ca yogyāś ca || 75 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 2.75 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (2.75). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Ashva, Shastra, Vina, Vani, Vanin, Nara, Nri, Nari, Purusha, Vishesha, Ayogya, Yogya, Yogi,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 2.75). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “aśvaḥ śastraṃ śāstraṃ vīṇā vāṇī naraś ca nārī ca
  • aśvaḥ -
  • aśva (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    śū (verb class 1)
    [aorist active second single]
  • śastram -
  • śastra (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    śastra (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
  • śāstram -
  • śāstra (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
  • vīṇā* -
  • vīṇā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural], [accusative plural]
  • vāṇī -
  • vāṇī (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [nominative single]
    vāṇi (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    vāṇin (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • naraś -
  • nara (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    nṛ (noun, masculine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural]
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • nārī -
  • nārī (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [nominative single]
    nāri (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • Line 2: “puruṣa-viśeṣaṃ prāptā bhavanty ayogyāś ca yogyāś ca
  • puruṣa -
  • puruṣa (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    puruṣa (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • viśeṣam -
  • viśeṣa (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    viśeṣa (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    viśeṣā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • prāptā* -
  • Cannot analyse bhavanty*ay
  • ayogyāś -
  • ayogya (noun, masculine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural]
    ayogyā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural], [accusative plural]
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • yogyāś -
  • yogya (noun, masculine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural]
    yogyā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural], [accusative plural]
    yuj -> yogya (participle, masculine)
    [nominative plural from √yuj class 7 verb], [vocative plural from √yuj class 7 verb]
    yuj -> yogyā (participle, feminine)
    [nominative plural from √yuj class 7 verb], [vocative plural from √yuj class 7 verb], [accusative plural from √yuj class 7 verb]
    yogī (noun, feminine)
    [ablative single], [genitive single]
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 2.75

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 2.75 in Gujarati sript:
અશ્વઃ શસ્ત્રં શાસ્ત્રં વીણા વાણી નરશ્ ચ નારી ચ ।
પુરુષ-વિશેષં પ્રાપ્તા ભવન્ત્ય્ અયોગ્યાશ્ ચ યોગ્યાશ્ ચ ॥ ૭૫ ॥

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