Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

यज् जीव्यते क्षणम् अपि प्रथितं मनुष्यैर् विज्ञान-विक्रम-यशोभिर् अभज्यमानम् ।
तन् नाम जीवितम् इह प्रवदन्ति तज्-ज्ञाः काको ऽपि जीवति चिराय बलिं च भुङ्क्ते ॥ ४३ ॥

yaj jīvyate kṣaṇam api prathitaṃ manuṣyair vijñāna-vikrama-yaśobhir abhajyamānam |
tan nāma jīvitam iha pravadanti taj-jñāḥ kāko 'pi jīvati cirāya baliṃ ca bhuṅkte || 43 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 2.43 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (2.43). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Kshanam, Kshana, Api, Prathita, Manushya, Vijnana, Vikrama, Yashas, Abhajyamana, Tat, Tad, Tan, Naman, Jivita, Iha, Pravat, Anti, Jna, Kaka, Kaku, Jivat, Cira, Bali,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 2.43). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “yaj jīvyate kṣaṇam api prathitaṃ manuṣyair vijñāna-vikrama-yaśobhir abhajyamānam
  • Cannot analyse yaj*jī
  • jīvyate -
  • jīv (verb class 1)
    [present passive third single]
  • kṣaṇam -
  • kṣaṇam (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    kṣaṇa (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    kṣaṇa (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    kṣaṇā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition)
    [indeclinable preposition]
    ap (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
  • prathitam -
  • prathita (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    prathita (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    prathitā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    prath -> prathita (participle, masculine)
    [adverb from √prath]
    prath -> prathita (participle, neuter)
    [adverb from √prath]
    prath -> prathitā (participle, feminine)
    [adverb from √prath]
    prath -> prathita (participle, masculine)
    [accusative single from √prath class 1 verb], [accusative single from √prath class 10 verb], [accusative single from √prath]
    prath -> prathita (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √prath class 1 verb], [accusative single from √prath class 1 verb], [nominative single from √prath class 10 verb], [accusative single from √prath class 10 verb], [nominative single from √prath], [accusative single from √prath]
  • manuṣyair -
  • manuṣya (noun, masculine)
    [instrumental plural]
    manuṣya (noun, neuter)
    [instrumental plural]
  • vijñāna -
  • vijñāna (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • vikrama -
  • vikrama (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • yaśobhir -
  • yaśas (noun, masculine)
    [instrumental plural]
    yaśas (noun, neuter)
    [instrumental plural]
  • abhajyamānam -
  • abhajyamāna (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    abhajyamāna (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    abhajyamānā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • Line 2: “tan nāma jīvitam iha pravadanti taj-jñāḥ kāko 'pi jīvati cirāya baliṃ ca bhuṅkte
  • tan -
  • tat (indeclinable correlative)
    [indeclinable correlative]
    tad (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    tan (noun, masculine)
    [vocative single]
  • nāma -
  • nāman (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • jīvitam -
  • jīvita (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    jīvita (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    jīvitā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    jīv -> jīvita (participle, masculine)
    [accusative single from √jīv class 1 verb]
    jīv -> jīvita (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √jīv class 1 verb], [accusative single from √jīv class 1 verb]
  • iha -
  • iha (indeclinable adverb)
    [indeclinable adverb]
    iha (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
  • pravad -
  • pravat (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single]
    pravat (noun, masculine)
    [compound]
    pravat (noun, neuter)
    [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • anti -
  • anti (indeclinable adverb)
    [indeclinable adverb]
    anti (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    antī (noun, feminine)
    [adverb], [vocative single]
  • Cannot analyse taj*jñ
  • jñāḥ -
  • jña (noun, masculine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural]
    jñā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative plural], [vocative plural], [accusative plural]
  • kāko' -
  • kāka (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    kāku (noun, feminine)
    [vocative single]
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition)
    [indeclinable preposition]
    ap (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
    api (Preverb)
    [Preverb]
  • jīvati -
  • jīvat (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    jīvat (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
    jīv -> jīvat (participle, masculine)
    [locative single from √jīv class 1 verb]
    jīv -> jīvat (participle, neuter)
    [locative single from √jīv class 1 verb]
    jīv (verb class 1)
    [present active third single]
  • cirāya -
  • cira (noun, masculine)
    [dative single]
    cira (noun, neuter)
    [dative single]
  • balim -
  • bali (noun, masculine)
    [accusative single]
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • bhuṅkte -
  • bhuj (verb class 7)
    [present middle third single]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 2.43

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 2.43 in Gujarati sript:
યજ્ જીવ્યતે ક્ષણમ્ અપિ પ્રથિતં મનુષ્યૈર્ વિજ્ઞાન-વિક્રમ-યશોભિર્ અભજ્યમાનમ્ ।
તન્ નામ જીવિતમ્ ઇહ પ્રવદન્તિ તજ્-જ્ઞાઃ કાકો ઽપિ જીવતિ ચિરાય બલિં ચ ભુઙ્ક્તે ॥ ૪૩ ॥

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