Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

लाङ्गूल-चालनम् अधश् चरणावपातं भूमौ निपत्य वदनोदर-दर्शनं च ।
श्वा पिण्डदस्य कुरुते गज-पुङ्गवस् तु धीरं विलोकयति चाटु-शतैश् च भुङ्क्ते ॥ ४२ ॥

lāṅgūla-cālanam adhaś caraṇāvapātaṃ bhūmau nipatya vadanodara-darśanaṃ ca |
śvā piṇḍadasya kurute gaja-puṅgavas tu dhīraṃ vilokayati cāṭu-śataiś ca bhuṅkte || 42 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 2.42 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (2.42). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Langula, Calana, Adhah, Adhas, Carana, Carani, Bhuma, Bhumi, Nipatya, Vadanodara, Darshana, Shvan, Pindada, Kuruta, Gaja, Pungava, Dhiram, Dhira, Viloka, Yat, Yati, Catu, Shata,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 2.42). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “lāṅgūla-cālanam adhaś caraṇāvapātaṃ bhūmau nipatya vadanodara-darśanaṃ ca
  • lāṅgūla -
  • lāṅgūla (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • cālanam -
  • cālana (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    cālanā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • adhaś -
  • adhaḥ (indeclinable preposition)
    [indeclinable preposition]
    adhaḥ (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    adhas (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
  • caraṇāva -
  • caraṇa (noun, masculine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    caraṇi (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    caraṇi (noun, feminine)
    [locative single]
  • apātam -
  • (verb class 1)
    [aorist active second dual]
    (verb class 2)
    [imperfect active second dual], [aorist active second dual]
    (verb class 2)
    [imperfect active second dual]
  • bhūmau -
  • bhūma (noun, masculine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    bhūmi (noun, feminine)
    [locative single]
    bhūmi (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
  • nipatya -
  • nipatya (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
  • vadanodara -
  • vadanodara (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • darśanam -
  • darśana (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    darśana (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    darśanā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • Line 2: “śvā piṇḍadasya kurute gaja-puṅgavas tu dhīraṃ vilokayati cāṭu-śataiś ca bhuṅkte
  • śvā -
  • śvan (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • piṇḍadasya -
  • piṇḍada (noun, masculine)
    [genitive single]
    piṇḍada (noun, neuter)
    [genitive single]
  • kurute -
  • kurutā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    kuruta (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    kuruta (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
    kṛ (verb class 8)
    [present middle third single]
  • gaja -
  • gaja (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    gaj (verb class 1)
    [imperative active second single]
  • puṅgavas -
  • puṅgava (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • tu -
  • tu (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
  • dhīram -
  • dhīram (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    dhīra (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    dhīra (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    dhīrā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • viloka -
  • viloka (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    viloka (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • yati -
  • yati (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    yatin (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    yati (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    yatī (noun, feminine)
    [adverb], [vocative single]
    yat (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    yat (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
    i -> yat (participle, masculine)
    [locative single from √i class 2 verb]
    i -> yat (participle, neuter)
    [locative single from √i class 2 verb]
    i -> yatī (participle, feminine)
    [vocative single from √i class 2 verb]
  • cāṭu -
  • cāṭu (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    cāṭu (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
    cāṭu (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
  • śataiś -
  • śata (noun, neuter)
    [instrumental plural]
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction)
    [indeclinable conjunction]
    ca (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    ca (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • bhuṅkte -
  • bhuj (verb class 7)
    [present middle third single]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 2.42

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 2.42 in Gujarati sript:
લાઙ્ગૂલ-ચાલનમ્ અધશ્ ચરણાવપાતં ભૂમૌ નિપત્ય વદનોદર-દર્શનં ચ ।
શ્વા પિણ્ડદસ્ય કુરુતે ગજ-પુઙ્ગવસ્ તુ ધીરં વિલોકયતિ ચાટુ-શતૈશ્ ચ ભુઙ્ક્તે ॥ ૪૨ ॥

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