Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

Verse 1.129

दारिद्र्याद् ध्रियम् एति ह्री-परिगतः सत्त्वात् परिभ्रश्यते निःसत्त्वं परिभूयते परिभवान् निर्वेदम् आपद्यते ।
निर्विण्णः शुचम् एति शोक-फिहितो बुद्ध्या परित्यज्यते निर्बुद्धिः क्षयम् एत्य् अहो निधनता सर्वापदाम् आस्पदम् ॥ १२९ ॥

dāridryād dhriyam eti hrī-parigataḥ sattvāt paribhraśyate niḥsattvaṃ paribhūyate paribhavān nirvedam āpadyate |
nirviṇṇaḥ śucam eti śoka-phihito buddhyā parityajyate nirbuddhiḥ kṣayam ety aho nidhanatā sarvāpadām āspadam || 129 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 1.129 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (1.129). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Daridrya, Dhri, Parigata, Sattva, Nihsattva, Paribhu, Uyat, Paribhava, Nirveda, Apad, Yat, Yata, Yati, Nirvinna, Shuc, Shuca, Shoka, Hita, Buddhi, Parityaj, Nirbuddhi, Kshaya, Ahan, Nidhanata, Saru, Sarva, Apada, Aspada,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 1.129). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line1: “dāridryād dhriyam eti hrī-parigataḥ sattvāt paribhraśyate niḥsattvaṃ paribhūyate paribhavān nirvedam āpadyate”
  • dāridryād -
  • dāridrya (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    dāridryāt (adverb)
    dāridryāt (ablative single)
  • dhriyam -
  • dhrī (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    dhriyam (accusative single)
  • eti -
  • eti (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    i (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    eti (present active third single)
  • hrī -
  • hrī (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    (compound)
  • parigataḥ -
  • parigata (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    parigataḥ (nominative single)
  • sattvāt -
  • sattva (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    sattvāt (adverb)
    sattvāt (ablative single)
    sattva (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    sattvāt (adverb)
    sattvāt (ablative single)
  • pari -
  • pari (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    pari (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    pari (Preverb); (1 der.)
    (Preverb)
  • bhraśyate -
  • bhraṃś (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    bhraśyate (present passive third single)
    bhraṃś (verb class 4); (1 der.)
    bhraśyate (present passive third single)
    bhraś (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    bhraśyate (present passive third single)
    bhraś (verb class 4); (2 der.)
    bhraśyate (present middle third single)
    bhraśyate (present passive third single)
  • niḥsattvam -
  • niḥsattva (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    niḥsattvam (adverb)
    niḥsattvam (accusative single)
    niḥsattva (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    niḥsattvam (adverb)
    niḥsattvam (nominative single)
    niḥsattvam (accusative single)
    niḥsattvā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    niḥsattvam (adverb)
  • paribhū -
  • paribhū (noun, masculine); (4 der.)
    (compound)
    (compound)
    paribhu (adverb)
    paribhu (vocative single)
    paribhū (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    paribhu (compound)
    paribhu (adverb)
    paribhu (nominative single)
    paribhu (vocative single)
    paribhu (accusative single)
    paribhū (noun, feminine); (4 der.)
    (compound)
    (compound)
    paribhu (adverb)
    paribhu (vocative single)
  • ūyate -
  • ūy -> ūyat (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    ūyate (dative single), from √ūy (class 1 verb)
    ūy -> ūyat (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    ūyate (dative single), from √ūy (class 1 verb)
    u (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    ūyate (present passive third single)
    u (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    ūyate (present passive third single)
    u (verb class 5); (1 der.)
    ūyate (present passive third single)
    ūy (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    ūyate (present middle third single)
    (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    ūyate (present passive third single)
  • paribhavān -
  • paribhava (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    paribhavāt (adverb)
    paribhavān (accusative plural)
    paribhavāt (ablative single)
  • nirvedam -
  • nirveda (noun, masculine); (4 der.)
    nirvedam (adverb)
    nirvedam (adverb)
    nirvedam (accusative single)
    nirvedam (accusative single)
    nirveda (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    nirvedam (adverb)
    nirvedam (nominative single)
    nirvedam (accusative single)
    nirvedā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    nirvedam (adverb)
  • āpad -
  • āpad (noun, feminine); (4 der.)
    āpat (compound)
    āpat (adverb)
    āpat (nominative single)
    āpat (vocative single)
    āp (verb class 5); (1 der.)
    āpat (aorist active third single)
  • yate -
  • yat (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    yate (dative single)
    yat (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    yate (dative single)
    yatā (noun, feminine); (8 der.)
    yate (nominative dual)
    yate (vocative single)
    yate (vocative dual)
    yate (accusative dual)
    yate (nominative dual)
    yate (vocative single)
    yate (vocative dual)
    yate (accusative dual)
    yati (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    yate (vocative single)
    yata (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    yate (locative single)
    yata (noun, neuter); (4 der.)
    yate (nominative dual)
    yate (vocative dual)
    yate (accusative dual)
    yate (locative single)
    yati (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    yate (vocative single)
    i -> yat (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    yate (dative single), from √i (class 2 verb)
    i -> yat (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    yate (dative single), from √i (class 2 verb)
    yam -> yata (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    yate (locative single), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yam -> yata (participle, neuter); (4 der.)
    yate (nominative dual), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yate (vocative dual), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yate (accusative dual), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yate (locative single), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yam -> yatā (participle, feminine); (4 der.)
    yate (nominative dual), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yate (vocative single), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yate (vocative dual), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yate (accusative dual), from √yam (class 1 verb)
    yat (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    yate (present middle first single)
  • Line2: “nirviṇṇaḥ śucam eti śoka-phihito buddhyā parityajyate nirbuddhiḥ kṣayam ety aho nidhanatā sarvāpadām āspadam”
  • nirviṇṇaḥ -
  • nirviṇṇa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    nirviṇṇaḥ (nominative single)
  • śucam -
  • śuca (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    śucam (adverb)
    śucam (accusative single)
    śuca (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    śucam (adverb)
    śucam (nominative single)
    śucam (accusative single)
    śucā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    śucam (adverb)
    śuc (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    śucam (accusative single)
    śuc (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    śucam (accusative single)
    śuc (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    śucam (injunctive active first single)
    śuc (verb class 4); (1 der.)
    śucam (injunctive active first single)
  • eti -
  • eti (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    i (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    eti (present active third single)
  • śoka -
  • śoka (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    śoka (vocative single)
    śoka (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    śoka (vocative single)
    śuk (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    śoka (imperative active second single)
  • phi -
  • phi (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
  • hito* -
  • hita (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    hitaḥ (nominative single)
    hitaḥ (nominative single)
    hi -> hita (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    hitaḥ (nominative single), from √hi (class 5 verb)
  • buddhyā -
  • buddhi (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    buddhyā (instrumental single)
  • parityajya -
  • parityajya (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    parityaj (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    parityaji (locative single)
    parityaj (noun, neuter); (4 der.)
    parityajī (nominative dual)
    parityajī (vocative dual)
    parityajī (accusative dual)
    parityaji (locative single)
  • ate -
  • nirbuddhiḥ -
  • nirbuddhi (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    nirbuddhiḥ (nominative single)
    nirbuddhi (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    nirbuddhiḥ (nominative single)
  • kṣayam -
  • kṣaya (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    kṣayam (adverb)
    kṣayam (accusative single)
    kṣaya (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    kṣayam (adverb)
    kṣayam (nominative single)
    kṣayam (accusative single)
    kṣayā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    kṣayam (adverb)
  • Cannot analyse ety*ah
  • aho* -
  • ahan (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    ahas (compound)
    ahaḥ (adverb)
    ahaḥ (nominative single)
    ahaḥ (vocative single)
    ahaḥ (accusative single)
    ahar (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    ahaḥ (adverb)
    has (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    ahaḥ (aorist active second single)
  • nidhanatā -
  • nidhanatā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    nidhanatā (nominative single)
  • sarvā -
  • saru (noun, masculine); (5 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    sarū (nominative dual)
    sarū (vocative dual)
    sarū (accusative dual)
    saru (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    saru (nominative single)
    saru (vocative single)
    saru (accusative single)
    saru (noun, feminine); (7 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
    sarū (nominative dual)
    sarū (vocative dual)
    sarū (accusative dual)
    sarvā (instrumental single)
    sarvā (instrumental single)
    sarva (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    sarva (vocative single)
    sarva (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    sarva (vocative single)
    sarvā (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    sarvā (nominative single)
    sarvā (nominative single)
  • āpadām -
  • āpad (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    āpadām (genitive plural)
    āpadā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    āpadām (accusative single)
  • āspadam -
  • āspada (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    āspadam (adverb)
    āspadam (nominative single)
    āspadam (accusative single)

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 1.129

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.129 in Gujarati sript:
દારિદ્ર્યાદ્ ધ્રિયમ્ એતિ હ્રી-પરિગતઃ સત્ત્વાત્ પરિભ્રશ્યતે નિઃસત્ત્વં પરિભૂયતે પરિભવાન્ નિર્વેદમ્ આપદ્યતે ।
નિર્વિણ્ણઃ શુચમ્ એતિ શોક-ફિહિતો બુદ્ધ્યા પરિત્યજ્યતે નિર્બુદ્ધિઃ ક્ષયમ્ એત્ય્ અહો નિધનતા સર્વાપદામ્ આસ્પદમ્ ॥ ૧૨૯ ॥

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