Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

मार्जारो महिषो मेषः काकः कापुरुषस् तथा ।
विश्वासात् प्रभवन्त्य् एते विश्वासस् तत्र नो हितः ॥ ८८ ॥

mārjāro mahiṣo meṣaḥ kākaḥ kāpuruṣas tathā |
viśvāsāt prabhavanty ete viśvāsas tatra no hitaḥ || 88 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 1.88 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (1.88). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Marjara, Mahisha, Mesha, Kaka, Kapurusha, Tatha, Vishvasa, Eta, Etad, Eti, Esha, Tatra, Asmad, Hita,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 1.88). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “mārjāro mahiṣo meṣaḥ kākaḥ kāpuruṣas tathā
  • mārjāro* -
  • mārjāra (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • mahiṣo* -
  • mahiṣa (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • meṣaḥ -
  • meṣa (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • kākaḥ -
  • kāka (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • kāpuruṣas -
  • kāpuruṣa (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • tathā -
  • tathā (indeclinable correlative)
    [indeclinable correlative]
    tathā (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    tathā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
  • Line 2: “viśvāsāt prabhavanty ete viśvāsas tatra no hitaḥ
  • viśvāsāt -
  • viśvāsa (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [ablative single]
  • Cannot analyse prabhavanty*et
  • ete -
  • eta (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    eta (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
    etā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative single], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    etad (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [accusative dual]
    eti (noun, feminine)
    [vocative single]
    eṣā (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [accusative dual]
    eṣa (noun, masculine)
    [nominative plural]
  • viśvāsas -
  • viśvāsa (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • tatra -
  • tatra (indeclinable adverb)
    [indeclinable adverb]
    tatra (indeclinable correlative)
    [indeclinable correlative]
    tatra (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
  • no* -
  • na (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    asmad (pronoun, none)
    [accusative plural], [dative plural], [genitive plural]
  • hitaḥ -
  • hita (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    hi -> hita (participle, masculine)
    [nominative single from √hi class 5 verb]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 1.88

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.88 in Gujarati sript:
માર્જારો મહિષો મેષઃ કાકઃ કાપુરુષસ્ તથા ।
વિશ્વાસાત્ પ્રભવન્ત્ય્ એતે વિશ્વાસસ્ તત્ર નો હિતઃ ॥ ૮૮ ॥

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