Hitopadesha [sanskrit]

8,857 words

The Sanskrit edition of the Hitopadesha referencing the English translation and grammatical analysis. Written by Narayana in the 8th century, the Hitopadesha represents a collection of short stories involving human and animal characters, instructing the reader on basic ancient Indian moral values and ethical conduct. Alternative titles: हितोपदेशः, Hitopadeśa, Hitopadesa.

स हि गगन-विहारी कल्मष-ध्वंस-कारी दश-शत-कर-धारी ज्योतिषां मध्य-चारी ।
विधुर् अपि विधि-योगाद् ग्रस्यते राहुणासौ लिखितम् अपि ललाटे प्रोज्झितं कः समर्थः ॥ २१ ॥

sa hi gagana-vihārī kalmaṣa-dhvaṃsa-kārī daśa-śata-kara-dhārī jyotiṣāṃ madhya-cārī |
vidhur api vidhi-yogād grasyate rāhuṇāsau likhitam api lalāṭe projjhitaṃ kaḥ samarthaḥ || 21 ||

The English translation of Hitopadesha Verse 1.21 is contained in the book The Hitopadesa of Sri Narayana Pandita by Satya Narayana dasa. This book is not available online so in order to read the full text and translation you should buy the book:

Buy now! English translation by Satya Narayana dasa (1997)

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: This extracts Sanskrit terms and links to English definitions from the glossary, based on an experimental segmentation of verse (1.21). Some terms could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned. Click on the word to show English definitions.

Gagana, Viharin, Vihari, Kalmasha, Dhvamsa, Kari, Karin, Dasha, Shata, Kara, Dhari, Dharin, Jyotisha, Jyotis, Madhya, Cari, Carin, Vidhu, Api, Vidh, Vidhi, Yoga, Rahu, Asi, Asu, Adah, Likhita, Lalate, Lalata, Projjhita, Kah, Samartha,

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit text (Hitopadesha Verse 1.21). If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “sa hi gagana-vihārī kalmaṣa-dhvaṃsa-kārī daśa-śata-kara-dhārī jyotiṣāṃ madhya-cārī
  • sa -
  • sa (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    sa (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • hi -
  • hi (indeclinable particle)
    [indeclinable particle]
  • gagana -
  • gagana (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • vihārī -
  • vihārī (noun, masculine)
    [compound]
    vihārī (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [nominative single]
    vihārin (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • kalmaṣa -
  • kalmaṣa (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    kalmaṣa (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • dhvaṃsa -
  • dhvaṃsa (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    dhvaṃs (verb class 1)
    [imperative active second single]
  • kārī -
  • kārī (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [nominative single]
    kāri (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    kāri (noun, masculine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    kārin (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • daśa -
  • daśa (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    daśa (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    daṃś (verb class 1)
    [imperative active second single]
  • śata -
  • śata (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • kara -
  • kara (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    kara (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    kṛ (verb class 1)
    [imperative active second single]
  • dhārī -
  • dhārī (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [nominative single]
    dhāri (noun, masculine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    dhāri (noun, feminine)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual]
    dhārin (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • jyotiṣām -
  • jyotiṣā (noun, feminine)
    [accusative single]
    jyotis (noun, masculine)
    [genitive plural]
    jyotis (noun, neuter)
    [genitive plural]
  • madhya -
  • madhya (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [vocative single]
    madhya (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [vocative single]
  • cārī -
  • cārī (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [nominative single]
    cārin (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • Line 2: “vidhur api vidhi-yogād grasyate rāhuṇāsau likhitam api lalāṭe projjhitaṃ kaḥ samarthaḥ
  • vidhur -
  • vidhu (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    vidhu (noun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition)
    [indeclinable preposition]
    ap (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
  • vidhi -
  • vidhi (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    vidhi (noun, masculine)
    [compound], [adverb]
    vidhī (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [vocative single]
    vidhī (noun, feminine)
    [compound], [adverb], [vocative single]
    vidhī (noun, neuter)
    [compound], [adverb], [nominative single], [vocative single], [accusative single]
    vidh (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    vidh (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
  • yogād -
  • yoga (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [ablative single]
  • grasyate -
  • gras (verb class 1)
    [present passive third single]
  • rāhuṇā -
  • rāhu (noun, masculine)
    [instrumental single]
  • asau -
  • asi (noun, feminine)
    [locative single]
    asi (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    asu (noun, masculine)
    [locative single]
    adaḥ (pronoun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    adaḥ (pronoun, feminine)
    [nominative single]
  • likhitam -
  • likhita (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    likhita (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    likhitā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
    likh -> likhita (participle, masculine)
    [accusative single from √likh class 6 verb]
    likh -> likhita (participle, neuter)
    [nominative single from √likh class 6 verb], [accusative single from √likh class 6 verb]
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition)
    [indeclinable preposition]
    ap (noun, neuter)
    [locative single]
    api (Preverb)
    [Preverb]
  • lalāṭe -
  • lalāṭe (indeclinable)
    [indeclinable]
    lalāṭa (noun, neuter)
    [nominative dual], [vocative dual], [accusative dual], [locative single]
  • projjhitam -
  • projjhita (noun, masculine)
    [adverb], [accusative single]
    projjhita (noun, neuter)
    [adverb], [nominative single], [accusative single]
    projjhitā (noun, feminine)
    [adverb]
  • kaḥ -
  • kaḥ (indeclinable interrogative)
    [indeclinable interrogative]
    ka (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
    kaḥ (pronoun, masculine)
    [nominative single]
  • samarthaḥ -
  • samartha (noun, masculine)
    [nominative single]

Other print editions:

Also see the following print editions of the Sanskrit text or (alternative) English translations of the Hitopadesha Verse 1.21

Cover of edition (2015)

The Hitopadesa of Narayana
by M. R. Kale (2015)

Edited with A Sanskrit Commentary "Marma-Prakasika" and Notes in English; 9788120806023; Published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Buy now!
Cover of Gujarati edition

Hitopadesa (in Gujarati)
by Dr. Narayan M. Kansara (2007)

[હિતોપદેશ]—[ડો. નારાયણ એમ. કંસારા] Sanskrit Text With Gujarati Translation; Published by Saraswati Pustak Bhandar, Ahmedabad

Buy now!

Preview of verse 1.21 in Gujarati sript:
સ હિ ગગન-વિહારી કલ્મષ-ધ્વંસ-કારી દશ-શત-કર-ધારી જ્યોતિષાં મધ્ય-ચારી ।
વિધુર્ અપિ વિધિ-યોગાદ્ ગ્રસ્યતે રાહુણાસૌ લિખિતમ્ અપિ લલાટે પ્રોજ્ઝિતં કઃ સમર્થઃ ॥ ૨૧ ॥

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