Harivamsha Purana

by Manmatha Nath Dutt | 1897 | 293,872 words | ISBN-10: 8178542188 | ISBN-13: 9788178542188

This page is entitled “account of various families; daksha’s offspring” and represents Chapter 3 of the first book (‘Adi Parva’) of the Harivamsa (English translation in Prose). The Harivamsha Purana narrates the lineage and life-story of Krishna (Hari). Although not officially mentioned in the list of Puranas, this book includes topics such as geology, creation theory, time (manvantaras), ancient historical legends and accounts of royal dynasties.

Chapter 3 - An Account of Various Families; Daksha’s Offspring

1. Janamejaya said:—O Vaishampayana, do you describe at length the origin of the gods, Danavas, Gandharvas, serpents and Rakshasas.

2. Vaishampayana said:—O king, hear how Daksha created progeny when he was commanded by Swayambhuva, saying "create progeny."

3. The capable Daksha first created his mental offspring—the Rishis, gods, Gandharvas, Asuras, Rakshasas, Yakshas, goblins, Pishachas, beasts, birds, and reptiles.

4-6. When this his mind-born creation did not multiply, for such was the thought of the intelligent Mahadeva, the Patriarch, thinking again of the multiplication of his creation and desirous of creating progeny by sexual intercourse, married Asniki, the daughter of the Patriarch Virana, engaged in a penance for a son and capable of giving birth to a great race.

7. Thereupon the energetic Patriarch Daksha begat five thousand sons on Asniki, the daughter of Virana.

8. Beholding those great men desirous of multiplying progeny, the celestial saint Narada, ever fond of carrying news, for their destruction and for his own imprecation, said.

9. Afraid of Daksha and his imprecation the ascetic Kashyapa begat on his daughter the same celestial saint Narada who had been begotten by Brahma.

10. Narada was formerly begotten by Brahma; and then that foremost of celestial saints (Kashyapa) again begat that best of ascetics on Asniki, daughter of Virana.

11. Undoubtedly by him the sons of Daksha, celebrated under the name of Haryasvas were freed from attachment to body through scriptural knowledge and rendered invisible.

12. When Daksha, of immeasurable prowess, was ready to destroy Narada, Parameshti (Brahma), with leading saints before him, begged him (not to do it).

13. Thereupon Daksha made this contract with Parameshti that his son Narada would be born as the son of his (Daksha’s) daughter.

14. Thereupon Daksha gave away his daughter unto Parameshti: and the Rishi, in fear of the imprecation of Daksha, begat Narada on her.

15. Janamejaya said:—O foremost of the twice-born, I wish to hear truly why Daksha’s sons were killed by the great saint Narada.

19. Vaishampayana said:—When the highly energetic sons of Daksha called Haryasvas came there with a view to multiply the progeny Narada said to them, "

17. O you sons of Daksha, how stupid you are all, since you do not know the cause of all and still desire to create progeny; with out knowing him who is in heaven, earth and nether region how do you wish to create progeny?"

18. Hearing his words those descendants of Daksha, without caring for each other, repaired to various directions to see the cause of all.

19. Having restrained vital airs, and attained to the pure Brahman they secured emancipation. Even now they have not returned like the rivers from the ocean.

20. When the Haryasvas were thus lost sight of, Daksha, the son of Pracetas, capable of creating progeny, again begat one thousand sons on the daughter of Virana.

21. When those Shavalashvas were again desirous of multiplying progeny they were addressed by Narada with the self-same words.

22. They then spoke amongst themselves, "The great saint Narada has spoken the just thing. We should follow the footsteps of our brothers; there is no doubt about that.

23. Learning the dimension of the earth, we will, at ease and with whole minded attention, create progeny in due order".

24. They, by the same way, repaired to various directions. Even now they have not returned like the rivers from the ocean.

25. When the Shavalashvas too were lost sight of, Daksha, possessed by anger, said to Narada:—"Do you meet with destruction and experience the pain of living in the womb".

26. Since then, O king, if a brother issues out in quest of another he meets with destruction. So the learned should not do it.

27. Knowing his sons thus exiled and destroyed the Patriarch Daksha again begat sixty daughters on the daughter of Virana. This we have heard.

28. O descendant of Kuru, the Patriarch Kashyapa, the Moon, Dharma and other Rishis took their wives from among those daughters of Daksha.

29-30. Of them Daksha conferred ten on Dharma, thirteen on Kashyapa, twenty seven on the Moon, four on Arishtanemi, two on Vahuputra, two on Angiras and two on the learned Krisashva. Hear from me their names.

31. Arundhuti, Vasu, Yami, Lamva, Bhanu, Marutvati, Sankalpa Muhurta, Sadhya and Vishva, these ten, O descendant of Bharata, were the wives of Dharma. Hear from me of their offspring.

32. Vishvadevas were the sons of Vishva and Sadhya gave birth to Sadhyas. Marutvati was the mother of Maruts and Vasus were the sons of Vasu.

33. Bhanus were the sons of Bhanu and the Muhurttas of Muhurtta.

34. Gosha was born of Lamva and Nagavithi of Yami. Arundhuti gave birth to all the herbs of the earth.

35. The Deity of determination, the soul of all, took his birth from Sankalpa and Vrihalamva took his birth from Nagabitha.

36. O king, all the daughters, whom Daksha conferred on the Moon, have been celebrated by the name of Nakshatras or planets in astrology.

37. The celestials, who have profuse effulgence before them, were celebrated by the name of eight Vasus. I will mention their names at length.

38. Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhara, Anila, Anala, Pratyusha, and Pravasha—these eight are known as eight Vasus,

39. Apa’s sons were Vaitandya, Sranta and Muni. Dhruva’s son was the Divine Kala, the destroyer of creatures.

40. Soma’s son was the Divine Varchas who begat Varcaasvi. Dhara’s son was Dravina the carrier of sacrificial oblations. He begat on his wife Manohara, Sishira, Prana and Ramana.

41. Anila’s wife was Shiva whose son was Manojava. Anila, whose course is not known, had two sons.

42. Agni’s son Kumara shone in the thickets of Sara grass. His names are Shakha, Vishakha, Naigameya and Prishthaja.

43. And on account of his being an offspring of Kirtikas[1] he was called Kartikeya: With the fourth part of his energy Agni created Skanda and Sanat Kumar.

44. Pratyusha’s son was the Rishi Devala whose two sons were forgiving and observant of hard austerities.

45. Shorn of attachment Vrihaspati’s sister, the beautiful Yogasiddha, who led a life of celibacy, ranged all over the earth.

46. She became the wife of the eighth Vasu Prabhasa. The noble Patriarch Vishvakarma was born of her.

47-48. He made chariots for the celestials, was their architect, the maker of thousands of fine things and dresses and the foremost of artizans. Adopting his art as their profession mankind are now making their livelihoods.

49. By the grace of Siva and having her heart purified by virtue of asceticism, Surabhi gave birth, through Kashyapa, to the eleventh Rudra.

50. O descendant of Bharata, Ajaikapat, Ahir-Budhna, Rudrashva, Tasta, Sriman and Vishvarupa, those were the highly illustrious sons of Tastu.

51-52. Hara, Vahurupa, Tryamvaka, Aparajita, Vrishakapi, Sambhu, Kapardi, Raivata, Mrigavyadha, Sarpa and Kapali—these are known as the eleven Rudras who lord over the three worlds.

53. O foremost of Bharatas, in Puranas, hundreds, of such Rudras of incomparable energy, have been mentioned who have spread over the mobile and immobile creation.

54-55. O foremost of Bharatas, hear from me of the wives of Kashyapa who have spread over all the worlds: They are Aditi, Diti, Dana, Aristha, Surava, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavasha, Ira, Kadru, Muni and Svasa; hear now of their offspring.

56. In the previous Manvantara they were twelve leading celestials. In the Manvantara of Vaivasvata they used to address one another by the name of Tushita.

57. During the reign of the present highly illustrious Manu Cakshusha, they all assembled together for the benefit of all creatures and said. "

58. Let us all enter into the womb of Aditi to be born in the Manvantara of Vaivasvata and we will attain well-being".

59. Vaishampayana said:—Having said this during the Manvantara of Manu Cakshusha, they were begotten on Aditi, daughter of Daksha by Kagyapa the son of Marichi.

60-61. Sakra and Vishnu were also born of her. Besides, O descendant of Bharata, Aryama, Dhata, Twasta, Pusha, Vivashman, Savita, Mitra, Varuna, Ansha, and the highly effulgent Bhaga—these eight were also born of Aditi; so it is said.

62. Those who passed by the name of Tushita during the Manvantara of Cakshusha were known as twelve Adityas during the Manvantara of Vaivasvata.

63. The twenty seven wives of Soma, observant of vows and of incomparable energy, gave birth to luminous bodies as their offspring.

64. Arishthanemi’s wives had sixteen sons. The learned Patriarch Vahuputra had four sons:—Vidyut (lightning), Ashani (thunder-bolt), Megha (cloud) and Indradhanu (rain-bow).

65. The best of works Riks originated from Pratyangiras and the celestial saint Krishasva begat deities presiding over various celestial weapons.

66. O child, these deities take their births again after a thousand Yugas. Of them thirty three[2] take birth of their own accord.

67-68. As in this world the sun rises and sets, so O king, the origin and disappearance of all these gods are also mentioned. They appear and disappear at every Yuga.

69. Kashyapa begat on Diti two sons, the powerful Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha. This we have heard.

70. He had a daughter (also) by name Sinhika whom Vipracitti espoused. Her highly powerful sons were celebrated by the name of Saihinkeyas. It is said, O king, that their number was ten thousand.

71. They had, O you having mighty arms, hundreds and thousands of sons and grandsons. Hear now from me of the children of Hiranykashipu.

72. He had four sons of well-known prowess—Anurhada, Hrada, and the energetic Pralhada.

73. And Sanghrada was the fourth. Hrada’s son was Hrada. Sangrada’s sons were Sunda and Nisunda.

74. Anurahada’s sons were Ayu, Sivi and Kala. Virocana was Pralhada’s son; and his son was Vali.

75-76. O king, Vali had a hundred sons, of whom Vana was the eldest. Dhritarashtra, Surya, Candrama, Indratapana, Kumbhanabha, Gardhabhaksha, Kukshi and others were their names. Of them Vana was the eldest, powerful and a beloved votary of Pashupati.

77. In the previous Kalpa, Vana, having propitiated the Divine Lord of Uma, prayed to him for the boon "I shall remain by your side.".

78. Vana begat on his wife Lohita, a son, by name Indradamana. Hundreds and thousands of Asuras yielded to his power.

79-80. The five sons of Hiranyaksha were learned and highly powerful—they were Jarjara, Sakuni, Bhutasantapana, the powerful Mahanabha and Kalanabha. Hundred sons of dreadful prowess were born to Danu. They were all ascetic and endued with great energy. Hear their names in order of precedence.

81-89. Dvimurdha, Shakuni, Shankushira, Vibhu, Shankukarna, Virava, Gaveshtha, Dundubhi, Ayomukha, Shamvara, Kapila, Vamana Marichi, Maghavana, Ira, Vrika, Vikshovana, Ketu, Ketuvirya, Shatahrada, Indrajit, Satyajit, Vajranabha, the powerful Mahanabha, Kalanabha Ekacakra, the highly powerful and mighty-armed Taraka, Vaishvanara, Puloma, Victravana, Mahasura, Svarbhanu, Vrishaparva, the great Asura Tuhunda, Sukhshma, Nicandra, Urnanabha, Mahagiri, Asiloma, Sukeshi, Shatha, Valaka, Mada, Gaganamurdha, the great ascetic Kumbhanabha, Pramada, Daya, Kupatha, the energetic Hayagriva, Vaisripa, Virupaksha, Supatha, Hara, Ahara, Hiranyakashipu, Salya and the energetic Vipracitta—these sons of Danu were begotten by Kashyapa. Amongst those highly powerful Dinavas Vipracitta was the head.

90. O king, I cannot enumerate the offspring, sons and grandsons, of all these Danavas.

91. Sarvana’s daughter was Prabha, Puloma’s daughter was Saci, Hayasira’s daughter was Upadanavi and Vrishaparva’s daughter was Sharmishtha.

92. Vaishvanara had two daughters Puloma and Kalika-they were both highly powerful, gave birth to many children and were the wives of Kashyapa, the son of Marichi.

93. They gave birth to sixty thousand Danavas; of them fourteen thousand lived in the city of Hiranya.

94. Being observant of rigid austerities Kashyapa begat highly powerful Danavas called Paulamas and Kalakeyas.

95. Those living in the city of Hiranya were placed by Brahma above destruction even by the gods. They were afterwards killed by Savyasaci in battle.

96. Nahusha was Prabha’s son, Jayanta was Saci’s son, Sarmistha gave birth to Puru and Upadanavi gave birth to Dushmanta.

97. Vipracitta begat on Singhika another class of highly dreadful Danavas.

98. By the union of Daity and Danava energies they grew of dreadful prowess. Those thirteen highly powerful Danavas were celebrated by the name of Sainghikeyas.

99-100. They were the powerful Aisha, Nabha, Vala, Vatapi, Namuchi, Ilvala, Khasrima, Anjika, Naraka, Kalanabha, Shara, Potarana, and the energetic Vajranabha.

101. Of them Rahu, the represser of the sun and the moon, was the eldest. Hrada had two sons, Suka and Tuhunda.

102. Sunda begat on Taraka a son by name Marachi, another (by name) Sivamana, energetic like a celestial.

103. All these Danavas, multiplying the race of Danu, were great. Their sons and grandsons were hundreds and thousands in number.

104. The noble Nivatakavacas endued with great asceticism were born in the race of the Daitya Sanghrada.

105. Those Danavas, living in the city of Manimati, begat three Koti offspring. The gods could not destroy them and they were slain by Arjuna.

106. It is said that Tamra gave birth to six highly powerful daughters—Kake, Sweni, Bhasi, Sugrivi, Suchi, and Gidhrika.

107-108. Kaki gave birth to crows, Uluki to owls, Sweni to Swena birds, Bhasi to Bhasa birds, Gidhri to vultures, Suchi to waterfowls and Sugrivi to horses, camels and asses. Such is the description of Tamra’s family.

109. Vinata had two sons, Aruna and Garuda. Suparna, the foremost of birds, grew immensely powerful by his own action.

110. Surasa gave birth to a thousand highly powerful serpents and high-souled sky-rangers of many heads.

111. Powerful, and many headed Nagas endued with immeasurable energy, the offspring of Kadru, were born as being subject to Suparna.

112-117. Amongst them Sesha, Vasuki, Takshaka, Airavata, Mahapadma, Kamvala, Asvatara, Ekapatra, Shankha, Karko taka, Dhananjaya, Mohaneela, Mahakarna, Dhritarashtra, Valahaka, Kuhara, Pushpapangstra, Durmukha, Sumukha, Shankhapala, Kapila, Vamana, Nahusha, Sangkaroma and Manu were the heads. Fourteen thousand sons and grand sons of these dreadful serpents were devoured by Garuda, living on serpents. Know this class to be full of anger. All animals having teeth, those born on land, birds and those produced by water are the offspring of Dhara. Surabhi gave birth to kine and buffaloes.

118. Ira produced trees, creepers, groves and all kinds of grasses and Khasa gave birth to Yakshas, Rakshas, Munis and Apsaras.

119. Aristha gave birth to the powerful Gandharvas of unmitigated prowess and the mobile and immobile creation is said to have originated from Kashyapa.

120. Hundreds and thousands of sons and grandsons have been born to them. Such was the creation, O my child, in Swarocisha Manvantara.

121. I shall now describe to you the creation of the Patriarch Brahma who offered oblation to fire at the long-extending sacrifice of Varuna in Vaivasvata Manvantara.

122. Formerly when seven Rishis were procreated by his mind the grand-father considered them as his sons.

123. O descendant of Bharata, when the conflict between the gods and demons raged on, Diti, who had her sons slain, began to propitiate Kashyapa.

124-125. Being duly adored by her and propitiated, Kashyapa pleased her by giving a boon. She too prayed for a highly powerful son for killing Indra. That great ascetic, when thus begged, conferred on her the same boon.

126-127. Having conferred on her the boon without the least anxiety the son of Marichi said:—"If being pure and observant of vows you can hold your conception for one hundred years you will give birth to such a son as will slay Indra."

128. O monarch, saying so be it and being pure Diti obtained her conception from her that great ascetic husband.

129-130. Thinking of one of the leadings gods of immeasurable power and infusing energy which the immortals even can not destroy he knew Diti. Then that one of great vows repaired to a hilly region for carrying on penances.

131-132. From that day the slayer of Paka (Indra) began to seek her fault. One day before hundred years were complete Diti, without washing her feet, lay down on her bed. Beholding her impure state the king of gods entered into her abdomen and made her asleep.

133. Then the holder of thunderbolt sundered the embryo into seven pieces. Cut into pieces with the thunderbolt the embryo began to cry.

134-135. Sakra again and again prevented him saying "Do not cry! Do not cry!" The embryo was then divided into seven pieces. Indra too, the slayer of enemies, worked up with anger, again cut every piece into seven portions with his thunder-bolt. From them originated the gods called Maruts, O foremost of Bharatas.

136. Because they were addressed by Maghavan (saying "Do not weep" Ma ruda) so the Maruts were born and they all became of help to the holder of thunder-bolt.

137-138. When creatures thus multiplied, O Janamejaya, Hari consoled that foremost of gods of immeasurable energy, and then conferred kingdoms on various Patriarchs of whom Prithu was first installed as king.

139. That Hari is the heroic person Vishnu, Jishnu, the Patriarch, the king of rains and is the air in his visible form. The whole universe is His.

140. O foremost of Bharatas, he, who is informed of this creation of creatures, and he who reads or hears the auspicious birth of the Maruts, has no fear of being born again in this world—what of fear in the next world?

Footnotes and references:


They are nymphs and the nurses of Kumara.


The thirty three gods are:—8 Vasus, 11, Rudras, 12 Adityas, Brahma and Indra.

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