Cidgaganacandrika (study)

by S. Mahalakshmi | 2017 | 83,692 words

Cidgaganacandrika 42 [Nada, the cause of creation and plurality], English comparative study extracted from the two available commentaries—the Divyacakorika and the Kramaprakashika. The Cidgagana-candrika is an important Tantric work belonging to the Krama system of Kashmir Shaivism. Written by Kalidasa (Shrivatsa) in 312 Sanskrit verses, it deals with the knowledge regarding both the Macrocosmic and Microcosmic phenomena

Verse 42 [Nāda, the cause of creation and plurality]

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English commentary of verse 42:

बिन्दुरक्षरमयं क्रियामयं यो नियन्त्रयति बुद्धिलक्षणः ।
नाद इष्टतनुरस्य कारणं । त्वं परे ! त्रितयधर्मरूपिणी ॥ ४२ ॥

bindurakṣaramayaṃ kriyāmayaṃ yo niyantrayati buddhilakṣaṇaḥ |
nāda iṣṭatanurasya kāraṇaṃ | tvaṃ pare ! tritayadharmarūpiṇī || 42 ||

Comparative analysis of commentaries and excerpts in English:

[Nāda, the cause of creation and plurality]

Nāda, is taking the form and becomes knowledge and dissolves itself into the three fold form in the Bindu spanda, ruffled state; (the letter or eternal sound; and action, inner desire and outer, spoken word, unsounded or sounded word,) She is that Nāda, cause of creating the letter “a” and the cause of plurality. At this stage Śakti is called Parā the sum total of the three maṇḍalas, Soma, Sūrya and Agni. Thus , She is taking her seat in Īśvara, in whom the three maṇḍalas shine.[1]

Mahābindurūpa, Ambā activates the subtle forms—Nāda, Bindu and Bīja

The Prapañcasāra Tantra says[2] that Śakti, who as the first Tattva (mere “thatness”), quickens under the influence of Cit (Śiva) which She reflects; then She as Icchāśakti longs to create (Vicikīrṣu) and becomes massive (Ghanībhutā [Ghanībhūta?]) and appears as Bindu (Parābindu). Ghanībhūta means that which was not dense or Ghana but which has become so (Ghanāvasthā). It involves the notion of solidifying, coagulating, becoming massive. This is the first gross condition (Sthūlāvasthā); The Parābindu is thus a compact aspect of Śakti wherein action or Kriyāśakti predominates. It is the state of Śiva-Śakti in close and undivided union. The Bindu is symbolized by a circle. The Śūnya or empty space within is the Śiva pada.[3] The supreme Light is formless, but Bindu implies both the void and guṇā, for, when Śiva becomes Bindurūpā He is with guṇā. According to [Prapañcasāra-tantra], Śakti alone can create. When the desire for appearance as all Her tattvas captures Her, She assumes the state of Bindu whose characteristic is action (Kriyāśakti). This Bindu is the sprouting root of the universe, is called the supreme Bindu (Parābindu), or causal or Kāraṇa Bindu. In Niṣkala Śiva, Prakṛti exists in a hidden potential state. The Bindu Śiva-Śaktimaya is the first movement of creative activity.

This Parābindu “divides”or “differentiates”. She, intent on creation (Unmukhī) becomes threefold, and then on this differentiation in Śiva and Śakti arises creative apprehension (Sṛṣṭikalpanā). As so unfolding, the Bindu is known as Śabdabrahman. On the differentiation of the Parābindu there arose unmanifested sound (Bhidyamānat parād bindor avyaktātmā ravo, 'bhavat). Śabda here of course does not mean physical sound, which is the guṇa of the Karyākāśa or atomic ākāśa. The latter is integrated and limited and evolved at a later stage in Vikṛti Pariṇāma from Tāmasika Ahaṅkāra. Śabdabraman is in the undifferentiated Cidākāśa or Spiritual Ether of philosophy, in association with its Kalā, or Prakṛti or the Sakala Śiva of religion. It is Cit-Śakti vehicled by undifferentiated Prakṛti, from which is evolved Nādamātra (“Sound only” or the “Principle of Sound”) which is unmanifest, from which again is displayed the changing universe of names and forms. It is Praṇava or Om which is the cosmic causal Principle and the manifested Śabdārtha. Avyakta Nāda or unmanifested Sound is the undifferentiated causal principle of Manifested Sound without any sign or characteristic manifestation such as letters etc., which mark its displayed product. Śabdabrahman is the allpervading, impartite, unmanifested Nādabindu substance, the primary creative impulse in Paraśiva which is the cause of the manifested Śabdārtha. This Bindu is called Parā because It is the first and supreme Bindu. Like the Śakti and Nāda which precede It, It is considered as Śakti on the point of creating the world, and as such It is from this Parābindu that Avyakta Sound is said to come.

The Parābindu on such differentiation manifests under the threefold aspects of Bindu, Nāda, Bīja. This is the fully developed and kinetic aspect of Parāśabda. The Bindu which thus becomes threefold is the Principle in which the germ of action sprouts to manifestation producing a state of compact intensive Śakti. The threefold aspect of Bindu, as Bindu (Kārya), Nāda and Bīja are Śivamaya, Śivaśaktimaya, Śaktimaya; Parā, Sūkṣma, Sthūla; Icchā, Jñāna, Kriyā; Tamas, Sattva, Rajas; Moon, Fire and Sun; and the Śaktis which are the cosmic bodies. All three, Bindu, Bīja, Nāda are the different phases of Śakti in creation, being different aspects of Parābindu “am” the Ghanāvasthā of Śakti.

Thus, Parā Nāda (Śiva) which is the subtlest becomes the cause of Mahābindu. The combination of these two, results in creation of the three orders Nāda, Bindu and Bīja. Nāda is identified by Buddhi only. Bīja is the Akṣaras, which result in the creation of (Nāma and Rupa) universe of names and forms. Bindu is the cause of Nāda. Thus each of these unfold from the previuos principle which becomes their cause in evolution and get merged in the same way in involution. Nāda is Śakti’s form of knowledge in five fold viz., Svara, Varṇa, Bindu, Nāda and Kalā. Three Dharmas are Kāraṇa, Kārya and Kriyā. Kriyāśakti positioning Herself as one’s Self between the cause and effect of actions, brings about the transformations.

Notes and Sanskrit references:

[1] Cf. [Divyacakorikā] p 83-[Cidgaganacandrikā] 42.—

pūrvoktadaśavahnikalātmanā nādanavakasamaṣṭimahākāraṇanādasya daśaprāṇasamaṣṭijāṭharavaiśvānara syeva bījayonividhibhedena kriyāmaya mātṛkāśarīrahetutāṃ nirupya, kāryakāraṇakriyā mayanādanavakatripuṭītraya samaṣṭiddetutayā'bhijinnakṣatratāmapi nirūpayati.

[2] Cf. (Quote-Ps 42) [Kramaprakāśikā] p-27-[Cidgaganacandrikā]-42.—

sātattvasaṃjñā cinmātrā jyotiṣaḥsannidhestathā |

vicikīrṣurghanībhūtā kvacidabhyeti bindutām ||
kālenabhidyamānastu sa bindurbhavati tridhā |
sthūlasūkṣamaparatvena tasya traividhyamiṣyeta ||
sabindunādabījatvabhedena ca nigadyate iti ||

[3] Cf. Yogamīnākṣī-stotra [Yogamīnākṣīstotram]—

ṣaḍante navānte lasadvādaśānte |
mahābindumadhye sunādāntarāle ||
śivākhye kalātīta niśśabdadeśe sadā saṃcarantīṃ bhaje pāṇḍyabālāṃ ||

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