Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary)

by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 169,805 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The English translation of the Chandogya Upanishad including the commentary of Madhva called the Bhasya. This text describes in seven sections the importance of speech, the importance of knowledge and the journey towards salvation.. It is one of the largest Upanishads and is associated with the Sama Veda. The Mundaka Upanishad is variously spelled...

Seventh Adhyaya, Fourth through Fourteenth Khandas (24 mantras)

Mantra 7.4.1.

1. Will (Mitra) is better than Mind. For when a man wills, then he thinks in his mind, then he utters speech, and sends it forth in a name. In a name all Mantras are included, and in Mantras abide all ritual works.—480.

Mantra 7.4.2.

2. All these therefore, have their one refuge in Will, have the Will as their lords and abide in Will. Heaven and earth were produced by Will; Air and ether were produced by Will; Water and Fire were produced by Will. These being determined, the Will determines the rain, the rain being determined, he determines food, the food being determined, the life breaths are determined, the life breaths being determined, the sacred hymns are determined, the sacred hymns being determined, the sacred works are determined, the sacred works being determined, the regions of reward and punishment are determined, the regions being determined, everything is determined. This is Will. Meditate on Brahman in Will.—481.

Mantra 7.4.3.

3. He who meditates on Brahman in Will, attains Worlds eternal, being eternal; he gets worlds unchangeable, being himself unchangeable, he gets worlds free from pain, being free from pain, he accomplishes all that he wills. So far as the scope of Will extends, throughout that, he has the freedom of movement—he who meditates on Brahman in Will. “Sir, is there something better than Will.” “Yes, there is something better than Will.” “Sir, tell it to me.”—482.

Mantra 7.5.1.

1. Flickering memory (Agni) is verily greater than Will. For when a man recollects, then he thinks in his mind, then he sends forth speech and sends it forth in a name. In name all Mantras are included, and in Mantras abide all ritual works.—483.

Mantra 7.5.2.

2. All these (beginning with mind and ending in sacrifice) have Citta as their centre, have Citta as their lord and are supported in Citta. Therefore, even if one had much learning, but had no Citta, people say “he is nothing for had he known or had he been truly learned he would not have been thus devoid of Citta.” Therefore, even if one has less learning, but has Citta, people for that very reason, (respectfully listen to him and) serve him (diligently). Citta verily is the centre, Citta is the self, Citta is the support of all these. Meditate on Brahman in Citta.—484.

Mantra 7.5.3.

3. He who meditates on Brahman in Citta attains worlds eternal, being eternal, he gets worlds unchangeable, being himself unchangeable, he gets worlds free from pain; being free from pain, he accomplishes all that he wills. So far as the scope of Citta extends throughout that he has the freedom of movement—he who meditates on Brahman in Citta. “Sir, is there something better than Citta.” “Yes, there is something better than Citta,” “Sir, tell it to me.”—485.

Mantra 7.6.1.

1. Dhyāna is better than Citta. The earth is in meditation, as it were; and thus also the sky, the intermediate region, the Heaven, the water, the mountains and Divine Men. Therefore, those who among men have obtained greatness here, on earth, seem to have obtained a portion of Dhyāna. While small and vulgar people are always quarelling, backbiting, and abusing each other; great men seem to have obtained a portion of the gift of Dhyāna. Meditate on Brahman in Dhyāna.—486.

Mantra 7.6.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in Dhyāna (Varuṇa) gets freedom of movements throughout all that region on which Dhyāna has his scope—he who meditates on Brahman in Dhyāna. “Is there something better than Dhyāna?” “Yes, there is something better than Dhyāna.” “Sir, tell it to me.”—487.

Mantra 7.7.1.

1. Understanding is better than Dhyāna. Through understanding one understands the Ṛg Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Samaveda [Sāmaveda?], and as the fourth the Atharvaṇa, the Itihāsa-purāṇa, which is the fifth book among the Vedas, the science of ancestors, the science of numbers, the science about Devatās, the science of finding treasures, the original Veda, the divided Veda, the science known only to the Devas, the science taught in the forests, the science of politics, the science of stars, the science of serpents, and Gandharvas heaven, earth, air, ether, water, fire, Gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, all beasts down to worms, insects, and ants. What is right and what is wrong, what is true, and what is false, what is good, and what is bad, he who knows the God and he who does not know the God, food, and its savours, this world and that, all this we understand through understanding. Meditate on Brahman in understanding.—488.

Mantra 7.7.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in Understanding (Soma) gets the world belonging to those who possess Understanding and knowledge; he is master of all that region over which Understanding has scope—He who meditates on Brahman in Understanding. “Sir, is there something better than Understanding.” “Yes, there is something better than Understanding.” “Sir, tell it me.”—489.

Mantra 7.8.1.

1. Spiritual power is verily greater than understanding. Here in this world, one powerful man of spirit makes a hundred men of understanding tremble. If a man is spiritually powerful, he rises to higher planes, rising to higher planes, he serves the masters, serving the masters, he attracts their attention, attracting their attention, he gets their teachings and gets their audience; then he ponders over their teachings, and begins to understand them, and act upon them; thus he becomes wise. By power the earth stands firm, by power the intermediate world stands firm, by power the Deva Loka stands firm, by power the mountains and Divine men, by power the cattle and birds and herbs and trees and beasts down to worms, insects and ants stand firm, by power the world stands firm. Meditate on Brahman in power.—490.

[Note.—Balam (Bala)—power both physical and spiritual. The knowledge of the conditions of mukti or release is spiritual power; the God, Pravāha, the presiding deity of moral and physical courage.]

Mantra 7.8.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in Power gets freedom of movements throughout the region on which Power has his scope—he who meditates on Brahman in Power. “Sir, is there something better than Power.” “Yes, there is something better than Power.” “Sir, tell it me.”—491.

Mantra 7.9.1.

1. Food (Aniruddha or spiritual love) is better than power (spiritual knowledge). Therefore if one does not take food for ten nights, though he may live, yet, he will be like one who cannot see or hear, or perceive, or think, or act, or understand. But if he eats he begins to see, to hear, to perceive, to think, to act, and to uepnrstand [understand?]. Meditate on Brahman in food.—492.

Mantra 7.9.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in food, obtains the worlds full of food and drink and gets freedom of movement over all that region on which food has scope—he who meditates on Brahman in food. “Sir, is there something better than food?” “Yes, there is something better than food.” “Sir, tell it me.”—493.

Mantra 7.10.1.

1. Water (Prāṇa or Spiritual Peace) is higher than food (spiritual love). Therefore, if seasonable rain were not to fall, all living beings become wretched from a dread of food being scantily produced; while if the fall of rain is seasonable, all living beings rejoice, saying there will be plenty of food. Water, verily is all the different forms:—this earth, this intermediate region, this heaven, these divine men, these cattle and birds, and herbs and trees, and beasts down to worms, insects, and ants—water, verily has assumed all these different forms. Meditate on Brahman in water.—494.

Mantra 7.10.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in Waters, obtains all desires, he becomes satisfied, he has freedom of movements, throughout all that region, over which Prāṇa has his scope—he who meditates on. Brahman in Prāṇa. “Sir, is there something better than Water?” “Yes, there is something better than Water.” “Sir, tell it me.”—495.

Mantra 7.11.1.

1. Fire (Indra or the fire of genius) is verily greater then Waters (spiritual peace). Therefore, when it pervading the air, heats the atmosphere; people say “It is warm and sultry, it will rain.” Fire thus having shown its sigh, creates water (Rain). Again when these thundering clouds move with fire in them, in the form of lightning flashing upwards and across, then the people say “it is flashing, it is lightning, it will rain.” Heat thus having first shown its sign, creates water. Meditate on Brahman in Fire.—496.

Mantra 7.11.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in Fire, becomes himself full of fire, and obtains verily the worlds full of (Heat and) Light and free from darkness.

He gets freedom of movement throughout all that region over which Fire has his scope. He who meditates on Brahman in Fire. “Sir, is there something better than Fire?” “Yes, there is something better than Fire.” “Sir, tell it me.”—497.

Mantra 7.12.1.

1. Ether (Umā or the steady light of genius) is higher than Fire (or the fire of genius). In Ether exist both Sun and Moon, the Lightning, the Stars and Fire. Through Ether one calls, through Ether one hears, through Ether one answers. It is Ether that causes us rejoice, it is Ether that causes us not to rejoice. In Ether everything is born, and into Ether they merge. Meditate on Brahman in Ether.—498.

Mantra 7.12.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in Ether, obtains the worlds of Ether and of Light, which are free from pain and full of divinity. He gets freedom of movements throughout all that region over which Ether has her control—He who meditates on Brahman in Ether. “Is there something better than Ether?” “Yes, there is something better than Ether.” “Sir, tell it me.”—499.

Mantra 7.13.1.

1. Memory (Rudra or Spiritual Omniscience) is higher than Ether (or Spiritual genius). Therefore, where many people are present, but their memory is blank, they would hear no one, perceive no one, nor understand any one. If however, they remember, then they would hear, then they would perceive, then they would understand. Through memory verily he knows the sons; through memory, the cattle. Meditate on Brahman in memory.—500.

Mantra 7.13.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in Memory, gets freedom of movements, throughout all that region over which Memory has his control—He who meditates on Brahman in Memory. “Sir, is there something better than Memory?” “Yes, there is something better than Memory.” “Sir, tell it me.”—501.

Mantra 7.14.1.

1. Hope (Sarasvati [Sarasvatī?] or the bliss of divine vision) is better than Memory. Kindled by Hope, Memory reads the Sacred Hymns, performs sacrifices, desires sons and cattles, desires this world and that. Meditate on Brahman in Hope.—502.

Mantra 7.14.2.

2. He who meditates on Brahman in Hope, has all his desires fulfilled by Hope, his blessings are infallible. He gets freedom of movement throughout all that region over which Hope has her control—He who meditates on Brahman in Hope. “Sir, is there something better than Hope?” “Yes, there is something better than Hope.” “Sir, tell it me.”—503.

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

In this Khaṇḍa it is said Saṅkalpa is greater than Manas. What is this Saṅkalpa? The Commentator explains it thus

Greater than Parjanya, whether in bondage or Mukti, is Mitra called the Saṅkalpa Devatā (because he produces the Saṅkalpa or will in all creatures). During day time one makes Saṅkalpa or determination to do a certain thing, and so remains awake; and in the night time, since the saṅkalpa is absent, one goes to sleep.

Mitra is the God of day, and ho is the God of Saṅkalpa or will or suggestion which remains active throughout the day. In sleep Saṅkalpa loses its hold, and so man goes to sleep. Will is absent in dream and in sleep states. Therefore Mitra is the God of Day and is very appropriately called the God of Saṅkalpa.

Similarly Agni is better than Mitra, whether in the state of bondage or release, he is the Devatā of Mind, and he is called Citta, because he is spread and collected (Cita) in the Kuṇḍa or other.

Higher than Agni is Varuṇa the God of Dhyāna; and he is called Dhyāna, because in order to distinguish truth and falsehood, Brahman has made it an organ or instrument (Nidhāna).

Higher than Varuṇa is Soma, the Lord of night, the deity of Vijnana or knowledge. He is called Vijñāna, because he discriminates the truth (Vivecana).

Higher than Soina is the elemental air the Devatā of strength.

Higher than the elemental air is Aniruddha the Deva of Food. He is called Anna because he frightens all enemies by sounds, in battle (Anunādi).

Higher than Aniruddha is Taijas Vāyu produced from the Taijas Ahaṅkāra; he is called also Prāṇa Vāyu and is the diety of waters. He is called Āpas because he pervades (Vyāpta) the body as the vital principal.

Higher than Prāṇa Vāyu is Purandara the deity of Tejas. He is called Tejas because Tejas and Ojas are the same.

Note.—Purandara or Indra is the magnetic force, higher than the Vital Force. This is called Ojas and through it everything below it may be conquered and brought under one’s control. This Ojas has some correspondence with the Odyle force. If Taijas Vāyu corresponds with the health aura of a person, this Purandara, Lord of Ojas would correspond with mental and astral aura.

Higher than Ojas is Umā, the deity presiding over Buddhi or Ākāśa she is called Ākāśa, because she is fully luminous, (ā=fully, kāśa=luminus).

Higher than Umā, is Sadā Śiva, the Lord of steady memory. He is called Smara, because he is devoted (ra) to the “Sma”, the Lord of equality (Sama) i.e., the Supreme Brahman

Higher then Śiva is the beloved of the Chief Vāyu, the Goddess Sarasvatī, in all attributes, whether bound or released she is better than Śiva, she is called Āśā, because she is the presiding deity of hope, and because Āśā literally means Full Bliss. “Ā” meaning full and “Śam” meaning joy.

Note.—Āśā means also faith or Śraddhā.

Higher than Sarasvatī is the Chief Vāyu called Prāṇa. He is so called because (1) He is the leader (ana) of all these excellent ones (pra). Prāṇa is the highest in this hierarchy. (2) The second reason why he is called Prāṇa is this. “Ṇa” means joy, “Āṇā” means full joy, and is the name of Sarasvatī. Prāṇa means the Lord of Āṇā or Sarasvatī and possessing most excellent joy. Therefore the supreme Vāyu is called Prāṇa or the Lord of Āṇā.

These hierarchies are so graded, that every higher Deva is ten times superior to the one below it. To this rule however, there is the following exception. Parjanya, Mitra and Agni, as well as the elemental Air called Bhuta [Bhūta?] Vāyu are only twice as great as those immediately below them. Aniruddha is five times as great as the Bhuta [Bhūta?] Vāyu. Varuṇa is one quarter greater than Agni. Soma is one eighth greater than Varuṇa. āśā is hundred times greater than Śiva; while the Chief Vāyu is hundred times greater than Āśā.

The following table will show the gradation of these Devas. The lowest is Puṣkars, the deity of karmas:—

Nāma—10 times greater than Puṣkara—10P.
Svāhā10 times greater than Nāma—100P.
Parjanya—2 times greater than Svāhā—200P.
Mitra—2 times greater than Parjanya—400P.
Agni—2 times greater than Mitra—800P.
Varuṇa—¼ times greater than Agni—1000P.
Soma—⅛ times greater than Varuṇa—1125P.
Bhūta Vāyu—2 times greater than Soma—2250P.
Aniruddha—5 times greater than Bhūta Vāyu—11250P.
Taijas Vāyu—10 times greater than Aniruddha—112500P.
Purandara—10 times greater than Taijas Vāyu—1125000P.
Umā—10 times greater than Purandara—11250000P.
Śiva—10 times greater than Umā—112500000P.
Āśā—100 times greater than Śiva—11250000000P.
Mukhya Vāyu—100 times greater than Āśā—1125000000000P.

Viṣṇu infinitely greater than all.

But says an objector—we sometime find different figures about the relative greatness of these deities. How do you make then this strict rule. To this the Commentator replies:—

Where there are found, in other scriptures, different figures, there it must be understood, that either some higher deity has entered the lower, and thus increased its power or some lower has risen up to the higher. And thus there has arisen a decrease. All the qualities of lower are under the control of the higher.

Note.—Thus a lower one may be spoken of as having a higher figure when a higher deity has entered into it; or a higher one may be spoken of with a lower figure when it has given a portion of its energy to a lower.

The Lord Viṣṇu is higher than Prāṇa, in all respects infinitely high. He is of super-excellent qualities, eternally free, omnipotent, omnipresent, whose qualities are infinitely eternal, the Lord of all. Thus it is in the Tattva Viveka.

Note.—This gradation of Devas is shown in the Taittirīya Upaniṣad also. In describing the various grades of Ānandas or joys the Upaniṣad says:—

The gradation of joys is thus (Ta. Up. 11 8-1) Hundred times more than human joy is the joy of the Manuṣya Gandharvas; hundred times more than the joy of the Manuṣya Gandharvas is the joy of the Deva Gandharvas; hundred times more than the joy of the Deva Gandharvas is the joy of the Pitṛs; hundred times more than theirs is the joy of Ajānaja Devas; hundred times more than theirs is the joy of Karma Devas; hundred times more than theirs is the joy of Devas; hundred times more than the Devas is the joy of an Indra; hundred times more than his is the joy of a Bṛhaspati; hundred times more than his is the joy of a Prajāpati; hundred times more than his is the joy of Brahmā.

very idea is expressed in another Śruti thus:—Now then creation is being described. From the Supreme comes Vidyā, from Vidyā comes Prāṇa, from Prāṇa comes Śraddhā (faith), from Śraddhā arises Śiva, from Śiva arises Buddhi (intuition), from Buddhi arises Indra, from Indra comes Taijas Prāṇa, from Taijas Prāṇa comes Aniruddha, from Aniruddha comes Bhūta Vāyu (the elemental air, the tangible air), from him Soma (Moon) from Soma comes Varuṇa, from Varuṇa comes Agni, from Agni comes Mitra, from Mitra comes Parjanya, from Parjanya comes Svāhā, from Svāhā, Uṣā. Every one that precedes is greater than one that comes after it, in all qualities; and every one that succeeds is lower in quality than one that precedes it. When they get Mukti, the lower merges in the higher and attains its own form and condition. This gradation is never destroyed, this gradation is no where destroyed, in this regular gradation they reach Brahman, through this regular gradation the released souls exist and move about freely throughout the Universe.

Note:—The names given in the Taittirīya differ from those given here, but the idea is the same. All admit the existence of this hierarchy. The word Vidyā in the above text refers to Lakṣmī or Ramā. Śraddhā is the wife of Prāṇa. Buddhi is the same as Uma. The first in order is greater than one that follows it, because the Mukti of the latter is dependent upon the former. The Mukti of the Devas consists in everyone of them existing in his own condition, unalloyed by anything else. For Mukti is defined “existence in ones own form (Svarūpa), leaving superimposed forms.” This gradation, exists even in the condition of Mukti. It is not that the Mukta Devas lose their gradation; no more than the Mukta Jīvas lose their gradation. Therefore, the text says “this gradation is never and no where destroyed.”

In the Ch. Up. the words are “Nāma Brahma Iti Upāsva” “worship Name as Brahman.” Similarly in other places “worship Speech as Brahman,” “worship Manas as Brahman” etc. In all these places, we have explained the words Nāma, Manas, Speech, etc., by a locative case, and translated these pharses [phrases?] as “worship Brahman in Name,” “worship Brahman in Speech,” “worship Brahman in Mind, etc.”

The Commentator now quotes an authority for this interpretation:—

It is thus written in the Sat Tattva:—“Hari gives salvation, when he is worshipped in the various deities, beginning with Nāma and ending with the Mukhya Vāyu. By meditating upon him as existing in these and yet separate from these, there is Mukti. There is no doubt in it.

But says an objector these Devas Nāma, etc., differ in qualities and powers, does the Lord existing in them differ also in qualities and powers? To this the Commentator replies:—

The Lord called Sama (the Equal) exists in His fulness in every one of these, beginning with Uṣā and ending with the Mukhya Vāyu; yet when He is meditated in a higher vehicle, He becomes highly pleased.

Though Hari is the same in all these Devas, yet meditating on Him in a higher form, conduces to greater satisfaction of the deity. The result is that He should be always worshipped in the Highest, namely, in the Mukhya Prāṇa corresponding with the Christ, worshipped through the Christ becomes most highly propitiated.

Since the Lord loves the higher more than the lower, therefore, when one meditates, in the highest, he thereby conduces to be highest propitiation of the Lord. Not only the Lord is highly pleased, but the worshipper also, who thus meditates on the Lord in the highest, undoubtedly gets the highest love manifesting in his own soul. The Lord gives salvation, when He is thus meditated in these Devas, with the full knowledge of this gradation. There is no other way of getting His grace, for this is the final conclusion of all scriptures. Thus it is written in the Tattva Viveka.

Note.—Because the Lord loves a Deva of higher hierarchy more than one in a lower hierarchy, therefore he who worships the Lord in a higher Deva gets the higher grace of God: while the highest grace is obtained if worshipped in the Chief Prāṇa (Christ).

The word Nāma, etc., have been explained in the locative case, namely, worship Brahman in name, etc. The Commentator now quotes a clear authority for this

The words beginning with Nāma and ending with Prāṇa have been said to be in the seventh case, (they are to be translated as in Name, in Speech, in Manas, etc.). They should be construed everywhere in the third, fourth, fifth and sixth cases also.

Thus we may not only translate it “worship Brahman in Name” but also “worship Brahman through Nāma, (Nāmnā, third case), also “worship Brahman as revealed by name (Nāmnaḥ Adhivyaktam, fifth case), so also “worship Brahman as the Lover of Name and beloved of Name” (Nāmnaḥ, Prītivisayaḥ, sixth case); so also, “worship Brahman as the giver of rewards to name (Nāmne, Phala-pradam, fourth case). Thus Nāma Brahma Upāsva, should never be construed in the case it is shown in the text, namely, in the case of apposition, and should never be translated as “worship Brahman as name,” for then name and Brahman would become identical; while the whole object of the Upaniṣad teaching is to show the great difference between God and everything else.

Thus everywhere, when these words Nāma, etc., are found in connection with Brahman, they are to be construed in the above manner. As in the well-known Ṛg Veda Hymn (X. 90. 12) “Brāhmaṇaḥ Asya Mukham Āsīt”, the word Mukham though shown in the first case is explained as not identical with Brāhmaṇa, for Brāhmaṇa is not the mouth of God, but it is explained in the fifth case, namely, from the mouth of God came out the Brāhmaṇa caste. Or as in the phrase “Ātmā Vai Putrakaḥ”, the word Ātmā, though in the first case, is explained as in the ablative and means “from the self or from one’s own body;” or is also explained in the sixth case, meaning then “the son belongs to one’s own self” and does not mean that “the self is identical with the son.” Or as in the phrase “Yūpa Ādityaḥ”, the word Yūpa, though in the first case is explained in the seventh case. As everywhere, in these examples, the case of apposition is set aside, in favour of a more appropriate case, so in these passages also the words Nāma, etc., are to be construed not in the case of apposition but differently. This is done on the strength of the following Śutra [Sūtra?]:—A word in the first case may always be construed in all the seven cases.

Since each succeeding Deva is shown to be greater than one before it, Brahman cannot be construed as identical with Nāma, etc., for then, it would be absurd to say Brahman is identical with Nāma and at the same time to say Speech is greater than Nāma, for then Speech would become greater than Brahman. In other words Brahman himself would become greater and smaller.

Admitted that where a word is in the first case, as in the phrases Mano Hi Brahma, it may be construed in all the other cases as described by you. But when a word is in the objective case, as in the phrase, “Vācam Brahma Iti Upāste”, how are you going to explain it. Is there any Sutra of Grammar, by which a word in the second case may be similarly explained?

To this the commentator replies:—

The second or the accusative case is employed in all the six cases, that is to say, it may be construed in all cases except the nominative case. Because all these (Nāma, etc.) have the Supreme as their cause.

Says an objector, we also do not say that Brahman is identical with Nāma, etc. All that we say is that Brahman is to be meditated upon as identical with Nāma, etc. It is only for the purposes of meditation, that we assume this fanciful identity, we never say that Brahman is really identical with Nāma, etc. To this the Commentator replies:—

When one thing is meditated upon as something else, such meditation cannot be conducive to the production of the end of man.

(For a thing must be meditated in its true form in order to give any result. If a man meditates upon Brahman as Uṣā or Rudra, etc., he can never know Brahman, though he may know Uṣā and others. Not only is this meditation perfectly useless to attain its own object, but it is dangerous also as the Commentator next shows)

There is not only want of the attainment of Puruṣārtha, but there is positive danger in such meditation; just as there is danger in paying Royal Honors to a mere servant of the King. The person who thinks the servant of the King, to be the King, and by such thinking pays all Royal Honours to him, incurs the displeasure of the King and is destroyed by him, because the servant is under the control of the King; therefore, he who meditates upon Nāma and the rest, as if they were Brahman, is thrown by Brahman along with these Devas, namely Nāma and the rest into hell called blind darkness. Therefore, let no one meditate upon these as Brahman. Thus it is in the Sāma Saṃhitā.

Note:—Idol worship is not only useless, but positively sinful. If an idol, whether of clay or stone or of subtler bodies like that of Devas, etc., is worshipped as Brahman, the worshipper goes to hell, and so also does the Deva who accepts such worship. But if the man worships Brahman, in the idol or in the Deva, realizing all the while the separation of Brahman from the idol, and from the Deva, and knows that he is worshipping Brahman and not the idol or the Deva, such a worshipper gets the grace of Brahman and final release.

According to you, O Advaitin, these Naina and the others are not Devas, but insentient objects. You have therefore less reason to fancy them as Brahman, and according to your own theory no good will result by worshipping them as Brahman.

Therefore the Commentator says:—

Let no one meditate or worship any insentient object, or in an unworthy way, or in an untruthful way. For by such worship there is great disaster to the worshipper.

To meditate improperly is as when one thinks that Brahman weeps. In the Vedas we find a phrase “Sorodīt”—“he wept,” and some persons say it means that the worshipper must meditate that Brahman is weeping. Such a meditation is called unworthy meditation, for Brahman never weeps. The untruthful worship is that in which you think of an object what it really is not, as when you think of a rose, not as a rose, but as a daisy. Similarly when you think of Nama, etc., not what they really are, but as Brahman, such worship is called false worship. Therefore, the worship of inanimate objects, the unworthy worship, and the false worship are all disastrous.

If an inanimate object like grass or skin is worshipped as God, such worship is that of an inanimate object. No one should worship grass (Darbha) or skin (Carma) and where the scriptures use these words, they are to be interpreted as referring to certain Devatās, who have the Abhimāna of Darbha and Carma; for an inanimate object can never give any fruit (whether worshipped at the time of Yajña or at any other time).

Says an objector, all inanimate objects are not useless, for we see herbs and drugs etc., when regularly used produce results. To this the Commentator replies

The very fact that drugs and herbs produce medicinal results proves that the Devas are dwelling in the herbs and drugs, and the good results of the medicines really depend on these Devas. The ignorant, who do not see the Devas in these herbs and drugs, get only ordinary results, by the use of medicines; but the wise who see the action of the Devas in these, get in addition, super-physical results also (invisible results—adṛṣṭa phala). For it is a well known thing that no results can happen but through the intervention of some Deva or other. As a King feeds all his subjects, whether they know of his existence or not, (for the King maintains an open house and looks to the fact that no one of his subjects should die of starvation); but the ignorant subject of the King, namely, a person who does not know of the existence of the King and so does not serve him, can never expect special benefits from the King, in the shape (of Jagirs, etc.) of grants of villages, (which is reserved only for those who know and serve the King), so the Devas give visible results to the ignorant, and invisible results in addition to that, to the wise.

But how is it that even when one takes medicine, he does not always get the desired results. Disease is not always cured. To this the Commentator replies

The favourable result of medicines, however little, requires something of Adṛṣṭa (invisible) knowledge, a man must have some faith in the Devas, and must use these drugs with some knowledge of the invisible forces in order to get invariably favourable results. The results called Adriṣṭa always accrue to the wise and not to any other.

Therefore, let no one ever worship any inanimate object; nor must his worship be untruthful, nor unworthy of the Lord; if he desires the best result (Mukti); and if he does not wish to go into hell, and if he wishes to work the will of Lord and to do that which is beloved of the Lord; or if he wishes to do what is the duty (of every right thinking man); or if he is a person desirous of getting release. Even the last two classes of persons (namely, he who worships through a sense of duty or is desirous of release) must desire to please the Lord Hari; there is no questioning about it. Thus it is in the Upāsana Lakṣaṇa.

Even Lord Bādarāyaṇa in his Vedānta Śutras (II. I. 5) says:—“Only the superintending deities are denoted (by such terms); for they have superior powers and are personally present (in all places).”

In such texts [the Earth spoke, (S. Br. VI-3) Waters spoke], the deities that preside over Earth, etc., are denoted. For they have, distinguished from other (beings), exalted powers, and they are also found present everywhere.

Similarly in the Sutra IL 2-3 the same idea is conveyed

“(If it be said that the Pradhāna can be the cause) as seen in the case of milk or water; (“no” we reply); for even there (there is the intelligent being guiding it.)”

It is not right to hold, that even the non-intelligent Pradhāna may be active as in the case of milk curdling or water flowing, etc. For the Śruti says, that even there the activity is caused by the Lord, as conveyed by the text. “All the different rivers abide by the command of this Imperishable (Lord), O Gārgi, the rivers which take their rise in the mountains of the Śveta, etc., and flow in different directions, some to the east, some to the west,” (Bri. V. viii. 9) “By this (Lord) indeed milk becomes curd, etc.” As a matter of fact the curdling of milk is due to a living organism, and not to dead matter.

Moreover the following sūtra of the Devatā Mimaṃsā [Mīmāṃsā?] shows the same:—“The names like Skin, etc., are used in denoting Devas, because we find them holding conversation, and the rest.” Thus in the following passage of the Ṛg Veda (X, 97-22) we find the trees holding a discourse:—“With Soma as their Sovran Lord the Plants hold colloquy and say: O King, we save from death the man whose cure a Brahman undertakes.”

The plants here must be the devas of the plants. So also in the following passage the stones must be the devas of the stones.

May Savitar the God, O Stones, stir you according to the Law. (Rv. X, 175, 1).

Not only the insentient matter has no directive activity of its own, but the animate world also has no independent activity of its own, as will appear from the following verse of the Ṛg Veda:—(X, 112-9.)

“Lord of hosts amid our bands be seated: they call thee greatest Sage among the sages. Nothing is done, even far away, without Thee, great, wonderous Mighty One, is the hymn I sing thee.”

This shows that nothing is done anywhere by any one, but under the command of the Lord of the hosts. So also it cannot be said the devas can be frustrated in their aims. When the devas want to reward or punish any one, they do so without any chance of being hindered by any one.

So also in the following (Rv. X, 33-9):—“None lives, even had he hundred lives, beyond the statute of the Devas.” So also (Rv. VIII, 47-1):—“Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.”

This shows that the aid of the gods are invincible, for the word “anehas” may be translated as invincible, that which cannot be furstrated. So also the following (Rv. X, 6-9):—

“The Holy ones engendered, for their several laws, the heavens and earth, the waters and the plants and trees. They filled the firmament with heavenly light for help, the Devas with will all free, made bodies beautiful for souls to dwell in.”

Admitted that nothing is done even far away, without the will of the Supreme Lord, but what is the necessity of admitting the existence of a hosts of devas, when God can do everything.

To this the Commentator answers in the words of the Brahma Tarka:—

The insentient objects get all their essential attributes, active powers, and various modifications, from the sentient beings, the sentient beings get their sentiency from the Devas, the Devas get their power from the Supreme Prāṇa (the Christ), while the Chief Prāṇa gets his from the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu, always. This is the law, and nothing can happen, but as directed by them. There is no example of an insentient object, showing any activity, without the directing agency of a sentient being. Since we always see all activity emanating from sentient beings, in every case, therefore the unseen things must be judged by the analogy of the seen. As when we find some grains scattered near an ant-hill we infer that the ants must have thrown them there, and they did not come there of themselves and though we do not see the ants, we cannot say that the scattering is not caused by the ants. Thus we infer from known examples, that the insentient is always under the control and direction of the sentient.

Admitted that this sentient regulates the insentient, what is the necessity of admitting the existence of the Devas to regulate the sentient beings, cannot the sentient beings regulate their own activities without the devas? The theory of the Devas is a cumbersome one. Rather say that every sentient being is self-moved. To this the Commentator says

When the evil spirits by obsessing can show their super-normal powers (such as bringing things from a distance, levitation, clairvoyance, etc.), why should the spirits of good, the Devas, be not active agents, also; and why should not the Highest Spirit, the Lord Hari be active? Thus in the Brahma Tarka.

In Khaṇḍa second occurs the word hṛdayajñam, a word generally translated as pleasing, but the Commentator shows that it has not that meaning here.

The word hṛdayajña [hṛdayajñam] means he who knows the truth about the Lord. The word hṛdaya is a name of the Lord, literally meaning “He who moves in the hearts of all, or He who controls the hearts of all.” Thus in the Aitareya Āraṇyaka we find the following:—“The Ṛṣis called Śārkarākṣyas meditate on Brahman as Udara; while the Ṛṣis called Āruṇeyas adore him as Hṛdaya (II. I. 4-5).

Thus hṛdaya is a well-known name of God. The word kola occurs in this Khaṇḍa (second). The Commentator thus gives its meaning.

The Abhidhāna (Lexicon?) says:—kola is the name of the pūga fruit, that is the betel nut; while the betel leaf is called kala [kalam].

In the fourth Khaṇḍa Saṅkalpa or Mitra is said to be the producer of heaven and earth, etc. The Commentator shows that all inanimate creation is the work of Mitra, and all the animate is the work of Prāṇa and the rest.

Mitra called Saṅkalpa is the fashinoner of the whole host of inanimate creation, such as the elements, the elementary objects, the mantras, and the multitude of sacrificial objects, and of the various worlds. Mitra is the fashioner of inanimate objects; and Vāyu and the rest, fashion all animate beings. All objects are dual having a material and a vital part, the first is the work of Mitra, the second that of Prāṇa. Thus it is in Vastu Tattva.

Says an objector why do you make this division? In this very khaṇḍa we find that everything is created by Saṅkalpa, the word is sarva [sarvam] or “all”. Tho Commentator says that the word must be restricted in its meaning here.

“Saṅkalpa” creates or fashions “all,” that is, all inanimate objects. “Citta” is that memory which is unsteady, liable to forgetfulness. “Smara” is that memory which is steady and permanent. Thus it is in the Śabda Nirṇaya.

In the fifth Khaṇḍa it is said “yad ayam veda yad vā ayamvidvān”. What is the difference between “veda” and “vidvān”, both mean “he who knows.”

To this the Commentator answers:—

A man is said to know (veda) a thing, when he has a general knowledge of it; he is said to be an expert (vidvān) when he has special knowledge of a subject.

In the same Khaṇḍa are used the words “ekāyanam” and “pratiṣṭhā”, both generally meaning abode. The Commentator however shows that there is a shade of difference.

“Pratiṣṭhā” means primarily the Abode, that is, the place in which one abides in Release, the Mansions of the blest.

The word pratiṣṭha is applied to ordinary places of dwelling in a secondary sense only: (primarily it denotes the abode of the Released). This is the difference which the knowers of words draw between the meaning of these two words.

The word Deva manuṣya has been used several times in this Adhyāya. It does not mean the devas and men, but the devas who have assumed the body of men.

They should be known as deva-maṇuṣya who being devas, have obtained an human incarnation. The phrases “the earth is in meditation,” etc., in Khaṇḍa sixth mean “as if they were in meditation,” for they are always reserved in their speech, and are never given to much talk. But when they speak, they utter words pregnant with deep and many a meaning, for every word of theirs has more than one meaning. Thus it is in the Padma Purāṇa.

In the next few Khaṇḍas, it is said that bala is greater than Vijñāna, that anna [annam] is greater than bala [balam], that apas is greater than anna [annam], that tejas is greater than apas, and so on. If bala [balam], etc., be taken in their literal sense, then it would reduce the teaching into absurdity, for to say that the brute force is greater than knowledge, is not correct. The Commentator explains that all these words have two meanings and refer to the spiritual force and the physical force. The spiritual force is greater than knowledge and not the physical force.

As says the Tattva Sara:—By the word Force is meant two kinds of forces, the force of the knowledge appertaining to the conditions of Release; and the external force. The knowledge which relates to Release is higher than ordinary knowledge (vijñāna). Similarly annam or Food has also two meanings. It means the essence of the knowledge relating to Release and the ordinary food. The spiritual food is higher than spiritual force, as the physical food is greater than physical force (for without food there would be no force). The spiritual food means the love of spiritual knowledge, and it is certainly higher than mere spiritual knowledge. And since the physical prowess depends upon physical food, hence the food is said to be greater than force. Similarly water is said to be of two sorts:—the spiritual Waters, and the physical. The satisfaction resulting from the love of spiritual knowledge is called spiritual Waters, this peace of conscience is the inner water, the external water is the liquid element. Thus the inner water is higher than inner food, as the physical water is higher than the physical food (for no food will grow without water, and a man can live without food but not without water). Similarly Fire has also two meanings, the Inner fire, which is the fire of genius (pratibhā) and the External fire, pratibhā fire is greater than the satisfaction of soul, for pratibha [pratibhā?] or the spiritual insight is greater than soul-satisfaction, (as fire or oxygen is a greater necessity of life than even water). Similarly Ākāśa is of two sorts, the spiritual Ākāśa and the physical Ākāśa. The Inner Ākāśa is within the pratibhā; (it is the life of the spiritual fire); the external Ākāśa or the ether is that which pervades through every interstice of matter. The spiritual Ākāśa is the steady light of genius, the spiritual fire is the erratic flame of genius; hence Ākāśa is greater than fire. (A man may live without air, as in yoga hybernation, but not without ether, for when the etheric double leaves the body, disintigration sets in). But higher than the steady light of genius is the steady memory, called smara:—it is the uniform memory in the state of meditation. But higher than spiritual memory is the spiritual hope called āśā. Āśā means the bliss of direct vision of the Lord. But higher than the joy of direct vision is the joy one feels in Release, when he attains the Chief Prāṇa (the Christ). That is the highest joy.

The last three, namely Smara, Āśā, and Prāṇa are purely spiritual and have no external correspondence. They are inner objects. But if these are purely spiritual, why not take food, water, fire, etc., as purely material, and why explain them as Devatās of food, etc. To this the Commentator replies:—

Commencing with food and ending with Prāṇa, the external force, food, water, and fire are respectively surpassed by external food, water, fire, and Ākāśa; because from physical water is produced the physical food, and so on, but never otherwise. But the case is different with the inner food, etc., for the evolution or unfoldment of the inner ones is by a reverse process: (the unfoldment of the lower precedes that of the higher).

The manifestation of the inner faculties is in a reverse way. Thus the unfoldment of the spiritual force (bala) leads to the unfoldment of the spiritual love (rati), the unfoldment of spiritual love leads to the evolution of the spiritual satisfaction (tripti), which unfolds pratibhā, which leads to the opening of the steady memory, etc. Thus here the lower in scale is the cause of the manifestation of the higher; just the reverse of it takes place in the physical plane. In other words, the higher Devatā can manifest in man only after the lower has evolved, and manifested itself. But says an objector—if this be so, why call the succeeding ones greater, when they depend upon the others for their manifestation. In fact your so-called lower is the cause of the so-called higher: and cause being greater than the effect: the so-called lower ought to be called the higher.

To this the Commentator replies:—

Though the manifestation of Mokṣa depends upon the (successive unfoldment of the) lower Devatās, yet as the bliss of Mokṣa is innate, natural, and eternal, while that even of the direct vision (aparokṣa) is lower than that of Mokṣa in an infinitely less degree, and compared with Mokṣa it is transitory and ephemeral, therefore, the gradation is as mentioned above; (that is to say, the quantity of bliss regulates the grade, and not the order of manifestation).

As the joy of the state of release is innate, and natural, therefore it is eternal, and since it is eternal, all other joys are lower to it. The ecstasy of direct vision is considered to be the highest, but it even is. not innate, for it depends upon antaḥkaraṇa, and is a modification of the inner organ, and consequently aparokṣa knowledge is temporary. Moreover, here also the lower are the effect of the higher. For the production of the aparokṣa knowledge is dependent upon the fitness for Mokṣa; similarly the steady memory is dependent upon fitness for aparokṣa vision, while the pratibhā is caused by steady memory and so on.

This steady memory is dependent upon the fitness for aparokṣa vision, the pratibhā (the fire of genius) is dependent upon the fitness for steady memory, while the erratic genius exists where there is fitness for the steady genius; from genius comes satisfaction, and from satisfaction comes love, for how can there be love where there is no satisfaction. Thus in this order also, there is superiority of the attribute born of Prāṇa over every other quality.

Though the order of unfoldment of the spiritual qualities is reverse of that of the physical, yet as a matter of fact, no lower quality unfolds, until the person is fit for the higher. Only the man eligible for Mokṣa, gets his aparokṣa vision unfolded, the man unfit for Mokṣa will never have his vision unfolded, and so on. Thus Mokṣa is really the cause of the unfoldment of all the latter.

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