Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary)

by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 169,805 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The English translation of the Chandogya Upanishad including the commentary of Madhva called the Bhasya. This text describes in seven sections the importance of speech, the importance of knowledge and the journey towards salvation.. It is one of the largest Upanishads and is associated with the Sama Veda. The Mundaka Upanishad is variously spelled...

Fifth Adhyaya, Third through Tenth Khandas (29 mantras)

Mantra 5.3.1.

1. Śvetaketu Āruṇeya went to the court of the king of the Pañcālas. Pravāhana Jaibili said to him “Boy, has thy father instructed thee?” “Yes, Sir,” he replied.—336.

Mantra 5.3.2.

2. “Knowest thou that Path on which the creatures go from this world (to the Brahma’s world or the Candra’s world)?” “No Sir,” he replied. “Knowest thou by what Path they return?” “No Sir,” he replied. “Knowest thou the cause of the divergence of the two paths the Devayāna and the Pitṛyāna?” “No Sir,” he replied.—337.

Note.—The third question relates to the causes of the divergence of these two paths. What are the means and acts which make the Jīva take one of these two paths? Why some go on the Devayāna and the others the Pitṛyāna?

Mantra 5.3.3.

3. “Knowest thou how that world never becomes full?” “No Sir,” he replied. “Knowest thou how in the fifth libation, the water gets the name of Man?” “No Sir,” he replied.—338.

Mantra 5.3.4.

4. Pravāhaṇa said “Then why didst thou say—‘I am instructed.’ He who does not know these things, how can he say ‘I am instructed’?” The boy being thus silenced, went to his father’s place, and said to him “Without fully instructing me, your honor said ‘I have fully instructed thee.’”—339.

Mantra 5.3.5.

5. “That fellow of a Kṣatriya asked me five questions, and I could not answer one of them.” The father said “Dear boy, I myself do not know, the answers fully to any one of these questions which thou hast told me. If I knew these questions, why should I not have told thee?”—340.

Note.—Then Gautama said to Śvetaketu. “If thou hast a mind to learn this vidyā come with me and let us go to the king and remain there as religious students and learn it from him.” But Śvetaketu after the rebuff that he had got, did not like to court another discomfiture, and said “You may go. I won’t.” Then Gautama alone went to the king.

Mantra 5.3.6.

6. Then Gautama went to the king’s place. He (the king) honored his visitor. Next morning when the king had entered the court house, Gautama again went to him. The king said to him “O venerable Gautama! ask a boon of such things as men possess.” He replied “O king! Let such human possessions remain with you. Tell me the (answer to the) questions which you addressed to my boy.”—341.

Mantra 5.3.7.

7. The king was perplexed: and commanded him, saying: “Stay for sometime here”: and further added “O Gautama, what thou hadst asked me, (I shall tell thee then, on completion of the probationary period): because this knowledge has never gone to any Brāhmaṇa before thee. Therefore the ruling power belongs to the Kṣatriyas in all the worlds.” Then (when the probation was over) he said to him.—342.

[Note.—Avadaḥ—thou hadst said. The King said “Dwell for sometime here, after that, as thou shalt tell me, I will do.” According to scriptures, the student must live at least for a year with his teacher, before any instruction could be given to him. The rule could not be relaxed even in favor of Gautama.]

Mantra 5.4.1.

1. O Gautama! that Luminous (dwelling in Heaven world) and the Prāṇa is the (Lord Viṣṇu indeed called first) Agni. Of Him the form that attracts is called Nārāyaṇa, the Most High; the form that delights Vāsudeva, the Terrible; the form which transcends ignorance is Saṅkarṣaṇa, the Adorable; the form which is gladness is Pradyumna, the Thriller; and the form that is omnipotent is Aniruddha, the Inspirer.—343.

[Note.—Dhūmaḥ (Dhūma)—smoke: the shaker; he who causes trembling. √dhu=‘to tremble, the terrible’.]

[Note.—Nakṣatrāṇi—the stars: He who has no (na) other rule (Kṣatra) over him is called Nakṣatra. Aniruddha.]

[Note.—Viṣphuliṅgāḥ (Viṣphuliṅga)—the sparks; he that causes diverse (vi) intuition (sphurana) of the wise. The Inspirer.]

Note.—Literally the verse means:—The Agni is that world, O Gautama; its fuel is the Sun itself, the smoke his rays, the light the day, the coals the moon, the sparks the stars. This, however, describes the Heaven world or the Devacan under the simile of a Fire altar. The Lord in Heaven appears as the Sun, which illumines the whole heaven: and is therefore likened to samit or fuel. “Samit” also means the Highest manifestation of the Lord in Heaven. Technically it is Nārāyaṇa. The terror inspiring form of the Lord in Heaven is Vāsudeva, the Rays that proceed from the Sun; all evil is destroyed by the vibration of these rays; the day in Heaven is the Saṅkarṣaṇa and called arciḥ or light or the adorable: the moon in Heaven is Pradyumna aspect of the Lord, the stars in Heaven are His Aniruddha form. Thus the Lord presides in His five forms in heaven. The five forms are called by various names which have come to apply to fire-altar and its accessories.


Samit—fuel=the Summit i.e., Nārāyaṇa.
Dhūma—smoke=the Awe-inspiring i.e., Vāsudeva
Arcis—flame or light=the Adorable i.e., Saṅkarṣaṇa.
Aṅgāra—the livc-coals=the Thriller i.e., Pradyumna.
Viṣphuliṅga—the sparks=the Inspirer i. e., Aniruddha.
The sun, moon, stars, day and rays in heaven are all forms of the Lord.

Mantra 5.4.2.

2. The Devas (of Heaven) offer in that Fire (Nārāyaṇa) the Faithful soul; and from that oblation he enters the kingdom of the King Soma (and gets a mental body)—344.

[Note.—Śraddhām (Śraddhā)—the Faith i.e., the disincarnate pious man who had performed with faith all the sacrifices while living on earth. It represents the Jīva surrounded by water of faith: i.e., the five permanent atoms.]

Note.—The Devas carry the soul and present him to the Lord in Heaven: and it is thus that the Soul of the pious enters heaven, where the sun, moon, and stars, mists and light are all forms of the Lord. The soul is here called Śraddhā or Faith. This word also means water, because water is the great vehicle of sacrifice. This is the first oblation of water.

Pravāhana takes up the answer to the fifth question first. The fifth question was “why in the fifth libation the water is called Man.” The five stages in the soul’s reincarnation are meant here. The first stage is the entrance of the soul in the Somaworld the Devacan.

The word Śraddhā generally translated as faith or water may mean the permanent atoms—the physical, the astral, the mental molecule, and the mental atoms which cling to man throughout his life journey. The life of faith is the functioning of these atoms.

Mantra 5.5.1.

[Note.—Parjanyaḥ (Parjanya)—the Father of the Great One, param=great and janya=father: the Lord Vāsudeva called Parjanya.]

[Note.—Vāyuḥ (Vāyu)—the air: the Lord as wisdom and life: =wisdom and āyus=life. Samit, Nārāyaṇa.]

[Note.—Abhram (Abhra)—the cloud: the Lord as the supporter (bhra) of water (ap). Dhūmaḥ Vāsudeva.]

[Note.—Vidyut—the lightning, the Lord as illumining (vidyota). Arciḥ, light.]

[Note.—Aśmiḥ (Aśmi)—thunderbolt; the Lord as Eater (aśana=eating). Aṅgārāḥ, coals.]

[Note.—Hrādunayaḥ (Hrāduni)—the thunderings: the Lord as ever glad (hrada=glad).]

1. O Gautama! That Great Father (dwelling in Indra Loka) is (the Lord Vāsudeva indeed called the second) Agni. Of Him (the form which is Intelligent Life is the Most High (Nārāyaṇa), the form which is the supporter of waters is the Terrible (Vāsudeva), the form which is Illuminating is the Adorable (Saṅkarṣaṇa), the form which is the All-eating is the Thriller (Pradyumna), and the form which is Ever-glad is the Inspirer (Aniruddha).—345.

Note.—This describes the Intermediate Region or the Astral plane, where the soul now descends from the Devacan. The air, the cloud, the lightning, thunderbolt and the thunderings are the elementals and elemental essence of the astral world. The Lord in His five forms dwells in these also.

Mantra 5.5.2.

2. The Devas (of the astral plane) offer in that fire (Vāsudeva, in the Astral world) the king Soma (the soul enveloped in Somic matter). From that oblation, (the soul) arises with an astral body (literally, arises rain).—346.

[Note.—Somam rājānam—the king Soma namely the soul descending from the kingdom of Soma, and surrounded by a coating of Soma or mental matter.]

[Note.—Varṣaḥ (Varṣa)—the rain: the soul is enveloped in rain, i.e., in a coating of astral matter.]

Note.—Thus in the second oblation the Jīva gets another coating. The soul has now two sheaths—the mental and the astral: the two atoms now become active.

Mantra 5.6.1.

1. O Gautama, that Vast Expanse (dwelling in the earth) is the (Lord Saṅkarṣaṇa indeed called the third) Agni. Of him the form which is the perfect enjoyer is the

Most High (Nārāyaṇa), the perfect light is the Terrime (Vāsudeva), the joy-giver is the Adorable (Saṅkarṣaṇa), the Teacher of Divine Wisdom is the Thriller (Pradyumna), the Teacher of Inferior wisdom is the Inspirer Aniruddha—347.

Note.—The (Lord Sṅkarṣaṇa in) the earth is the Agni O Gautama, in the year itself is the Highest (Nārāyaṇa) in the ether is the Awe-inspiring (Vāsudeva), in the night is the Adorable (Saṅkarṣaṇa), in the quarters is the Thriller (Pradyumna), in the Intermediate quarters is the Inspirer (Aniruddha).—347.

Mantra 5.6.2.

2. The Devas (of the Physical plane) offer in that fire (Saṅkarṣaṇa) the Rain (the soul enveloped in astral matter). From that oblation (the soul) arises with an etheric body (lit. the food).—348.

[Note.—Varṣam (Varṣa)—the soul enveloped in astral matter.]

[Note.—Annam (Anna)—food. The soul gets a physical body i.e., the etheric body.]

Note.—In the third oblation, the soul enters the plants, etc., which are food of man.

Mantra 5.7.1.

1. O Gautama! that Super-abundance (dwelling in man), is (indeed the Lord Pradyumna called the fourth) Agni. Of him, the Word is the Most High (Nārāyaṇa), the Life is the Terrible (Vāsudeva), the Sacrificer is the Adorable (Saṅkarṣaṇa), the All-seeing is the Thriller (Pradyumna), and the All-hearing is the Inspirer (Aniruddha).—349.

Note.—The (Lord Pradyumna in) man is the Agni O Gautama, in the speech itself is the Highest (Nārāyaṇa), in the breath is the awe-inspiring (Vāsudeva), in the tongue is the adorable (Saṅkarṣaṇa), in the eye is the Thriller (Pradyumna), in the ear is the Inspirer (Aniruddha).

Mantra 5.7.2.

2. The Devas (of the body of man) offer in that fire (Pradyumna) the food. From that oblation (the soul) arises as seed.—350.

[Note.—Annam (Anna)—food; the soul dwelling in food.]

[Note.—Retaḥ (Retasa)—seed: the sperm cell.]

Mantra 5.8.1.

1. O Gautama! that Beloved (dwelling in woman) is (indeed the Lord Aniruddha called the fifth) Agni. Of Him the Nearest is the Most High (Nārāyaṇa), the Conciliator is the Terrible (Vāsudeva), the Uniter is the Adorable (Saṅkarṣaṇa), the Absorber is the Thriller (Pradyumna) and the Joy-maker is the Inspirer (Aniruddha).—351.

Mantra 5.8.2.

2. On that Agni, the devas (in the body of Man) offer seed. From that oblation rises the germ (the etherial man is now coated with a physical body).—352.

Note.—Thus Man called Śraddhā or water of faith, in the fifth oblation becomes Man i.e., endowed with a physical body. The sacrificers are Devas here. They are the true hotās here. The first oblation is made to the Lord as He is in Heaven, the second to the Lord as He is in the Intermediate Region, the third to the Lord as He is in the Higher Regions of the earth, the fourth to the Lord as He is in Man, and the fifth to the Lord as He is in Woman,

Mantra 5.9.1.

1. For this reason is the Water in the fifth oblation called Man. That Jīva, covered by placenta and dwelling in the womb for ten months or as long as necessary, is then born.—353.

[Note.—Apaḥ (Apas)—the waters, the permanent atoms that go with the Jīva when he throws off his bodies at death.]

Mantra 5.9.2.

2. When born, he lives his allotted span of life. When dead, these very Devas carry him up, to the particular Agni, in the same manner (as they had brought him down from it)—(to that Fire) from whom (they brought him) to this plane, where he took birth.—354.

Note.—Going back is in the reverse order—men and women take the physical corpse to the physical fire; etherial corpse is taken to the etherial fire (Saṅkarṣaṇa) by the ether Devas where the etherial corpse is consumed and the astral set free; the astral corpse is taken to the astral Fire Vāsudeva who disintegrates the astral body and sets free the mental, the Mental Devas carry the mental corpse to the Mental Fire Nārāyaṇa who disintegrates the mental body.

Mantra 5.10.1-2.

1-2. Those who know this thus, and those who perform works of faith and hardship (altruistically) in some secluded pleasant place go (after death) to light, from light to day, from day to the light half of the moon, from the light half of the moon to the six months when the sun goes to the north, from the six months when the sun goes to the north to the year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the moon, from the moon to the lightning. There is the person the servant of God (Manu), he leads them to Brahman. This is the path of the Devas.—355-356.

[Note.—Now an answer is being given to the first and third questions. “Tat”—therefore; because the performance of all Kāmya Karmas (self-regarding acts), lead to repeated births and deaths: one should become disgusted with such Karmas....]

[Note.—Ye—who (have become indifferent, Virakta).]

[Note.—Ittham—thus, this secret of the Five Fires, and the Jīvas being born through them. The five aspects of the Lord.]

[Note.—Upāsate—follow, practise: namely those who are great in wisdom and those who are great in unselfish works (tapas and śraddha).]

[Note.—Arciṣaḥ (Arcis)—from light. The rest of the words up to the end of mantra 2, ending with “Devayānaḥ panthāḥ” are the same as in Adhyāya Fourth, Khaṇḍa Fifteenth, mantra 5.]

Mantra 5.10.3.

3. But they who live in a village, and practise sacrifices, works of public utility, alms, etc., they go to the lord of smoke, from the smoke-lord to the night-lord, from the night-lord to the lord of the dark-fortnight, from the lord of the dark-fortnight to the lord of the six months when the sun moves southerly. But they do not reach the yearlord.—357.

Mantra 5.10.4.

4. From tire Lord of the southern months, he goes to the world of the Pitṛs, from the world of the Pitṛs to the world of Vināyaka (the lord of fourth dimension), from Vināyaka to the moon. That moon is verily the sparkling Soma (elixir). That is the food of the Devas: the Devas eat that.—358.

Note.—The Moon world is the place where the Devas drink the ambrosia, and the Soul that reaches the Lunar World drinks Soma in the company of the gods.

Mantra 5.10.5.

5. Having dwelt there, till the finish, they return again by that very way by which they had gone up. (Or from the moon) to the Vināyakaloka from the Vināyakaloka to the world of Vāyu, from the Vāyu-loka to the world of smoke, from the smoke world, they enter the mist.—359.

Note.—The return from the Moon is either by the same path by which one had ascended. Or by a different path altogether. The alternative path is mentioned in order to produce disgust with the Moon-World. It is not like the Svarga, from which the descent is by the same path as the ascent. This alternative path of descent from the moon is beset with difficulties, as will appear later on; and so Moon ought not to be the goal of any wise person. The Kāmya Karmas must be renounced, and all one’s works must be altruistic—duty performed for duty’s sake, and performed well.

Mantra 5.10.6.

6. Having been in the mist, he enters the cloud, having been in the cloud, he enters the rain (and falls down). Then he is born as a rice or barley, herbs or trees, sesamum or beans, etc. From this point there is constant (tantalising) rise and fall. For whoever eats the food and begets offspring, (the Jīva) is there in that food and that seed.—360.

Note.—The Jīva does not become rice or barley, etc., but is a co-tenant with the Jīvas of rice etc. It is an unconscious dwelling in rice etc.

Mantra 5.10.7.

7. Of these, whose conduct here has been good, will quickly attain some good birth, the birth of a Brāhmaṇa, or a Kṣatriya, or a Vaiśya. But those whose conduct here has been evil, will quickly attain an evil birth, the birth of a dog, or a hog or a Caṇḍāla.—361.

Note.—This shows the necessity of rebirth on a physical globe (generally on this very earth). Emotional and intellectual acts, good or bad are expiated in the invisible worlds, the Svarga or the Moon worlds. The acts done physically on the earth must be expiated on this plane. Moreover the period of rebirth is not delayed ad infinitum. The Jīva must be reborn within one year from its fall from heaven or any other higher world. Hence the Śruti use t he word “quickly”—the rebirth may be delayed, but never for a period longer than a year from the downward fall.

Mantra 5.8.10

8. On neither of these two ways those men of small (hearts) and mixed deeds go: who are returning continually (to rebirth) and of whom it is said, “Live and die.” Theirs is the third place. Therefore that world never becomes full. So let him despise (such rebirth).—362.

[Note.—Kṣudra-miśrāṇi—small mixed; men of small deeds mixed with pleasure and pain: the majority of men who never rise to any height of action or wisdom, the lukewarm.]

[Note.—Jāyasva mriyasva iti—(of whom it is said) “be born and die.” Who are born quickly and die quickly—between whose death and rebirth there is no interlude of heaven world.]

[Note.—Jugupseta—let him despise it. This answers the question why the next world does not become full, for some do not go there at all, others come back from it. The whole object of this description is to teach Vairāgya—“tasmāt jugupseta”—let one learn to despise this low living, but have high aspirations and perform altruistic deeds.]

Mantra 5.10.9.

9. On this is the following stanza:—“The stealer of gold, the drinker of spirits, the violator of the bed of his teacher, and the killer of a pious man, are the four who fall (into lower worlds), and as a fifth he who associates with them.”—363.

[Note.—Tat—on this subject: i.e., on the point that the knower of this “Pañcāṅga vidyā” is never tainted by the evil of bad company. They may mix with the greatest sinners and will not be defiled.]

Mantra 5.10.10.

10. But he who thus knows (the Five Divine Aspects called) the Five Fires, is not tainted with sin even though associates with those (sinners). (On the contrary,) being (himself) pure, he purifies (them); and obtains the world of the pious: he who knows thus, yea, he who knows thus.—364.

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

In the previous Khaṇḍas, has been thus taught the Prāṇa Vidyā appertaining to the “Apara Brahman”. Now will be taught the doctrine of Five Fires, appertaining to the “Para Brahman”, in order that men may acquire vairāgya or indifference. The two paths—the Devayāna and the Pitṛyāna, will also be now described in these six Khaṇḍas (from Khaṇḍa three to Khaṇḍa ten). The five Agnis are not Svarga, etc., but the Lord Himself in His five aspects. If the Five Fires meant svarga, astral, etc., then this doctrine would also be a teaching about the phenomenal, and not a Brahmavidyā. But the Upaniṣad says that it is a “Brahmo vidya” for the knower of it goes to Devayāna from which there is no return (see Khaṇḍa tenth “ye ittham viduḥ”, etc.) and so Agnis here cannot mean Svarga, etc. This Pañcāṅg [Pañcāṅgā?] Vidyā relates to the Supreme Lord and this the Commentator proves by quoting the well-known Sāma-Saṃhitā.

It is thus written in the Sāma Saṃhitā:—“The words Dyu, Parjanya, Varṣā, Puruṣa and Yoṣā are the five forms of the Lord, namely Nārāyaṇa, Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha respectively. These are called the Five Agnis. The word Agni is derived from √ad to eat, or from √aga+ni the mover of the immobile, or from √a+gani never moving. (It thus means: 1. The Eater or Destroyer. 2. The Mover of all immoveables. 3. The Never Moving.)

Thus (1) “ad+ni=ag+ni=agni” the eater. (2) (that which by itself is immobile) “+ni=agni” the Mover of the Immobile. (3) “a” (not) “+gam+ḍa+ni=a+g+ni=agni” Unmoving.

Every Agni has samit, dhūma, arcis, aṅgāra and viṣphuliṅga—namely fuel, smoke, flame, live-coal, and spark. But as Agni does not mean here the physical fire, but God; so these words samit, etc., do not mean fuel, etc., but are the names of the five manifestations of the deity—namely Nārāyaṇa, Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.

Viṣṇu is called Samit, because He is super-excellent. (Sam=super, it=edha=excellent). He is called Dhūma because He causes all evil-doers to tremble. (Dhū=to tremble). He is called Arcis, because He is the most adored. (Aram = most, cita = adored). He is called Aṅgāra because He delights in the bodies of all Jīvas. (Aṅga = limb or body. Rati = delight or because He takes delight in his own body). He is called viṣphulinga because he flashes on the wise in diverse ways (vi = diverse, sphuraṇa = flashing on the mind).

Thus samit—which by the bye is the same word etymologically as the English word Summit—means the Highest or the Most High; dhūma=the Awe-inspiring, the Terrible; arcis=the Ever Adored; aṅgāra=the Thriller; viṣphuliṅga—the Inspirer.

Moreover Lord Viṣṇu has again five forms, as Nārāyaṇa, (Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha).

Every Agni has five forms. Thus the five forms of the first agni are called āditya, raśmi, ahar, candra and nakṣatra, generally meaning the sun, the rays, the day, the moon and the stars. But as forms of the Lord, these words have different meanings here.

He is called Āditya because He takes up or attracts every thing (suck as the lives of men etc.). He is called Raśmi because He is joy and delight (ra=deliglit, śa=joy or wisdom) He is called Ahar because ignorance cannot overpower Him. (A=not; ha=to kill or overpower, from √han to kill). He is called Candra because He is supreme happiness (√cand = to gladden). He is called Nakṣatra, because He has no ruler above Him. (Na = not, kṣatra = protector, ruler).

Thus āditya=the Attractor; raśmi=the delight-giver ahar=the untouched by Evil, the Ever-wise Omniscience. Candra=the joyful, nakṣatra=Omnipotent. Thus these five words denote the five Primary attributes of God, namely All-beautiful (attractor), all compassionate (because giver of joy), Omniscient, All-Bliss, and Omnipotent.

Similarly the words vāyu, abhra, vidyut, aśani, hrāduni are used with regard to the second Agni. They generally mean air, cloud, lightning, thunderbolt and thundering. But here they describe the five attributes of God.

Viṣṇu is called Vāyu because He is essentially wisdom and life. (=wisdom āyus=life). He is called Abhra because He is the support of waters. (Ap=water, bharaṇa=support). He is called Vidyut because He enlightens all. (Vidyotana=enlighten, illuminating). He is called Aśani because He eats up all. (Aśana=to eat) He is called Hrāduni because He is always cheerful.

Thus Vāyu=Wisdom and Life, Abhra=support of waters, Vidyut=the illuminator, Aśani—the Eater, Hrāduni—the ever-happy.

With regard to the third Agni, similarly five words are used, namely samvatsara, ākāśa, rātri, dik, and avāntara dik, ordinarily meaning, the year, the ether, the night, the quarters and the intermediate quarters. But as appellations of God they have different meanings.

He is called Samvatsara because He causes delight to all children, or because He enjoys and dwells in all. (Sam=all, vasa=dwell, ra= enjoy: or sam=all, vatsa=Calf or child, ra=delight). He is celled Ākāśa because He illumines all (ā=fully, kāśa=illumining). He is called Rātri because He gives delight. (Ram=delight, trāti[rāti?]=dadāti =gives). He is called Diś, because He teaches the supreme truth (diś=to teach). He is Avāntara-diś, because He teaches the secondary truths.

Thus Samvatsara=the perfect enjoyer in all, Ākāśa=the perfect delight, Rātri=the giver of joy, Diś=the Teacher of the highest truth. Avāntara-diś=the Teacher of the lower truth.

Similarly with regard to the fourth Agni the five words used are vāk, prāṇa, jihvā, cakṣu, and śrotra, ordinarily meaning the speech, the breath, the tongue, the eye and the ear. But when applied to the Lord they have different meanings.

He is called Vāk because He is the Word, He is called Prāṇa, because He is the Life and Leader (prāṇa=to lead forward). He is called Cakṣu because He is All-seeing, He is called Śrotra because He hears all, He is called Jihvā because all oblations homa) are offered to him or because He is the Great Sacrificer.

Thus Vāk=the Word, Prāṇa=the Guide, Cakṣu=the All-seeing, Śrotra=the All-hearing, Jihvā=the offering, the sacrifice. Similarly the words mentioned in the fifth Agni have different meanings.

He is called Upastha, because He is near to all. (Upastha=standing near because He is in the heart of all Jīvas). He is said to persuade, because He is the great Conciliator. He is called Yoni because He unites (yuj=to unite) all. He is called Antakṛt because He draws every one within himself at Pralaya. He is called Nandana because He is delight.

Five tilings are mentioned as five Agnis: namely Asau Lokaḥ, Parjanya, Pṛhivī, Puruṣa and Yoṣā, ordinarily meaning that World (Heaven), the Rain-god, the Earth, the Man and the Woman. But here they are names of God.

The Lord Keśava called “Asau Lokaḥ” because He is in Prāṇa (asu=Prāṇa and asau is locative singular of asu), and because He is illuminer (loka=to illumine). He is called Parjanya because He is the Creator of the Great (jan=to produce, param=great). He is called Pfithivī because He is vast (pratha=vast, expanse). He is called Puruṣa because He is abundance, and from Him is all abundance (puru=abundance). He is called Joṣā because He is served or worshipped by all. (Joṣya=served, loved or worshipped). Thus it is in the Sāma Saṃhitā.

In khaṇḍa tenth, mantra six, is described the descent of the soul from higher planes. It is said there: “Having become a mist He becomes a cloud, having become cloud, He rains down.” Apparently it would mean that the soul had become a cloud, a mist etc. The Commentator corrects this misconception.

The phrases like “He becomes smoke,” “He becomes a cloud” mean that the soul (Jīva) dwells in smoke, dwells in the cloud, etc. (He moves when the smoke, or cloud, etc., moves, He remains stationary when his habitat is stationary. It does not mean that He becomes identical with Smoke-god or Cloud-god, or Smoke-matter or Cloud-matter). Because tlie wise alone attain the status of becoming the presiding deity of smoke, cloud etc. (The Mukta Jīva alone becomes an Adhikārī Puruṣa—acosmic, agent, a ruler of the cloud or of rain, etc., and not ordinary pious men).

The word Parjanya has been explained in the above quotation as the Pro-creator. The Commentator now explains in his own words, how Parjanya means etymologically the Great Father.

The word Parjanya means the Creator (janya) of the Great (namely of the four-faced Brahmā, hence He is called the Great Father.

The Lord Hari in His five-times five forms dwells in the Sun etc. The heaven and the rest get their names of dyu, etc., because the Lord by dwelling therein gives His name to it.

The Lord, for example, is called dyu “the Shining One.” The heaven is called dyu, the Lord Dyu dwells there. Thus the twenty-five objects mentioned in this Pañcāgni Vidyā, are named after the Lord, and not that the Lord is named after them. These words are not primarily the names of objects, but names of God; in other words as ruḍhi [rūḍhi?] words they are God-names. Secondarily they are names of objects).

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