Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary)

by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 169,805 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The English translation of the Chandogya Upanishad including the commentary of Madhva called the Bhasya. This text describes in seven sections the importance of speech, the importance of knowledge and the journey towards salvation.. It is one of the largest Upanishads and is associated with the Sama Veda. The Mundaka Upanishad is variously spelled...

Third Adhyaya, Fourteenth Khanda (4 mantras)

Mantra 3.14.1.

1. This Brahman is indeed the Full. Let one meditate with devotion on Him as the Mover-on-the-water. (Such meditation leads to faith.) Next because a man is a creature of faith, as is his faith in this life, so will be his condition in the next after death. So let him generate full faith (in the Lord).—199.

Mantra 3.14.2.

2. (The Lord is) Omniscient, Omnipotent, Glorious, Resolute, All-wise, the Agent, the Ordainer, the Heart’s-desire, the most Sweet-scenting and Sweet-tasting, the Supporter of all this, the Silent Impartial Witness.—200.

Mantra 3.14.3.

3. This my Self within the heart is smaller than a corn of rice, smaller than a corn of barley, smaller than a mustard seed, smaller than a canary seed or the kernel of a canary seed. He also is my. Self within the heart, greater than the Earth, greater than the Intermediate region, greater than the Heaven, greater than all these worlds.—201.

Mantra 3.14.4.

4. He is the Enjoyer of all works, all desires, all sweet odours, and all tastes. He embraces all this, and is the silent Impartial (witness). This my Self within the heart is that Brahman. (Let one meditate on Him, with this idea) when departing from this body I shall reach Him. He who has this faith (verily obtains Him), there is no doubt in it. Thus said Śāṇḍilya, thus said Śāṇḍilya.—302.

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

In a former chapter it was shown that the Lord within the heart was also the Lord pervading the entire universe. The same meditation is taught in the present chapter also. It shows that the Lord is both minuter than the atom, and thus pervades the Jīva which is atomic, and he is greater than the whole cosmos. In fact, the Lord within the heart is infinitely big also.

In the “Sad guṇa” it is thus written:—The Lord Brahman is called idam or “this,” because He is the nearest of all. (He is inside all Jīvas.) He is called sarvam also, because He possesses all infinite qualities. That Brahman is called Jalan also, because that Lord Viṣṇu moves on the waters (jala=water; ana=move). (The Vedas declare that the Lord Viṣṇu moves on the waters; as the Ṛg Veda.) “Anīt avātam, etc.” is the clear text of the Veda showing that the Lord breathes, in the waters of cosmic matter, without air. In that infinite mass of surging matter, Brahman alone breathes; hence He is called Nārāyaṇa (the Mover on the waters.

(The whole Mantra means:—At the time of pralaya, that One Supreme Lord breathed (“ānīt”, i.e., worked easily) without air. There was no air, yet He breathed He worked svadhayā) easily, happily, not for the sake of getting happiness, but lie was happy to work. There existed then no one greater then Him. Tamas alone existed then. In that time of Great Latency, Tamas, namely, Jīvas and root-matter alone, co-existed with the Lord. This Tamas was in the form of apraketa [apraketam] or infinitely spread out salila [salilam] or water. This covered all. The word Nārāyaṇa also means the same. See Manu. This chapter also teaches the meditation on the Lord in the heart.

Thus let one calmly meditate. Because a man consists of thoughts, therefore he must have right thoughts. The word kratu means definite, certain knowledge, belief or faith, and nothing else. As is the faith of a man, so is the state of his life after death. His mukti is according to his kratu or conviction. It is, therefore, necessary to have right kratus or convictions, so that there may be right state of mukti. The right kratu is the firm conviction in the Lord Viṣṇu, the All-Full, and Greatest. As Viṣṇu possesses infinite wisdom, He is called Manomaya or All-Intelligence.

As His body is nothing but strength, He is called Prāṇa-śarira “Strong-bodied.” As He illumines all on all sides, He is called ākāśa (all-luminous) (ā=all, kāśa—light). He is all odours, etc., as well as the Eternal Enjoyer of all odours, etc., He who has such firm conviction in the Lord, verily reaches the Highest Person. Thus it is in the Sad Guṇa.

The words sarva-gandha, etc., occur twice in this chapter. In the first passage it means that the Lord is all odours, etc., the nature of which is not like physical odours, etc., for the Lord is not physical; but his nature is all-intelligence. The odours consist of mind stuff, and bliss stuff, cidānanda-ātmaka. In the second passage the words sarva-gandha, etc.; mean that the Lord enjoys all odours, etc.

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