Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary)

by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 169,805 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The English translation of the Chandogya Upanishad including the commentary of Madhva called the Bhasya. This text describes in seven sections the importance of speech, the importance of knowledge and the journey towards salvation.. It is one of the largest Upanishads and is associated with the Sama Veda. The Mundaka Upanishad is variously spelled...

First Adhyaya, Thirteenth Khanda (3 mantras)

Mantra 1.13.1.

1. This world verily is called Hau, because it is the place of invocation, Vāyu is called Hāyi the mysterious mover and giver of joys, the moon is called Atha; the reflected light, the subsequent, the Supreme Self is called Iha the Ever-present, the Great Here, and Agni is called I the incense.—92.

Mantra 1.13.2.

2. The Sun is the great heat-giver in this temple. Indra is the messenger; all Mukta Jivas form the congregation assembled in the Lord; Brahma himself is the teacher on the pulpit; the Great Breath is the musician. Sarasvatī is the accompaniment, and Śrī herself the great light.

2. The Sun is called “U” because he gives heat; Indra is called “E” because he conies whenever invoked, the Viśvedevas are called “Auhoyi”, because they are gathered in Viṣṇu when released; Prajāpati or Brahmā is called “Hiṅ” because he possesses definite knowledge, Prāṇa in human beings is called “Svara” because he causes the delight of souls in the Lord; the food is called “Yāyā” because it is led to all parts of the body by Prāṇa (or Sarasvatī is called “Yāyā”, because she always accompanies Vāyu) and Śrī is called “Virāj”, the most resplendent.—93.

[Note.—Auhoyikāraḥ—is called Auhoyi summoned or called (huyante) in Viṣṇu called “U” (“Au”, locative singular of “u”) in the state of Mukti When released all Devas arc summoned or called before the presence of the God. Prajāpatiḥ, the Lord of creatures, Brahmā.]

[Note.—Hiṅkāraḥ (Hiṅkāra)—called Hiṅ; the word Hiṅ means any certain and definite knowledge.]

[Note.—Svaraḥ—is called Svara because this Prāṇa dwelling in human bodies causes the Jīva to take delight in “Sva” or Viṣṇu (“Sva”, Viṣṇu and, “Ra” to take delight).]

[Note.—Yāyā—Sarasvatī called Yāyā as Vāyu is called Yāyi because of his constant motion; Sarsavatī the wife of Vāyu because she always accompanies him. Vāyu called Yayī and food is called Yāyā: because it is led by Prāṇa, the great guide.]

Mantra 1.13.3.

3. The undefinable, the thirteenth stobha is the all-pervading Lord Nārāyaṇa called “Hup”, He who protects all who pray to Him. The Lord gives him (Release) which is the reward of knowledge. He becomes wealthy and healthy who knows thus the secret meaning of these thirteen Sāma syllables. Yea who knows the secret meaning.—94.

[Note.—Huṅkāraḥ (Huṅkāra)—called “Hun”: Madhva reads it as “Hup”, he who protects (pa) all when invoked or entreated (hu).]

Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:

The meditation on a portion of the Sama Veda was enjoined before. The Śruti now teaches the meditation on “Hāu”, etc. In this 13th Chapter in the text, the words “Hāu”, “Hāi”, “Iha”, etc., are so placed that they apparently look like the names of earth, air, moon, etc., because they are in apposition to those words.

The Commentator sets aside this superficial interpretation and shows that these are epithets and not synonyms. He says this earth is called “Hāu” because on it invocations (huyate) are made to Devas, &c.—the place of invocations. The stobha called “Hāu” also is hereby explained. Because “Hāu” is uttered herein, it is called “Hāu-Kāra.” All the thirteen Stobha syllables of the Sama singing are spiritualised here.

Because Agnihotras, &c., are invoked (performed) herein, hence this world is called Hāvu Kāra.

The air is called Hāyi-Kāra, because it comes as a surprise (—wonder surprise) or because it gives pleasure, for √hi means “to please” also.

The particle “Hā” is a word of exclamation, of wonder—Ha! Oh, etc. Since wind comes no one knows whence and goes away no one knows where, it is called “Hāyikara”. This is one meaning, Another interpretation is that the √hi means “to gratify,” “to please” also.

Since it gives pleasure and gratification the air is called Hāyikara [Hāyikāra?].

The moon is called “Atha”, which means “now,” and is a word denoting immediate sequence. Since the light of the moon follows immediately after that of the sun, and is its reflection, the moon is called “Atha” or the subsequent.

The word “Atha” means sequence, and therefore the moon is called “Atha”, because its illumination (light) comes after that of the sun (or because it shines after the sun by borrowed light).

Or though the moon and the sun are both similar, inasmuch as both give light, yet the moon was created after the sun, hence moon is called the subsequent.

The Lord Viṣṇu is always called “Here,” because—He is near every one. The fire is called “ī” because it is kindled (indhana-kindled). The sun is called ū-kāra, because it heats or is a heated mass (√uṣ to heat, to burn).

The word “Nihava” is a name of Indra, because he is constantly (ni) invoked (hva), the “much invoked.”

Nihava is called ekāra because he comes (eti) to (all sacrifices when so invoked). All Devas are called Auhoyikāra.

Because in the word called “U”, which is the name of Viṣṇu, all Devas are summoned (collected together) in the state of Mukti, therefore all Devas in their collective form are called Auhoyins, moaning collected in the “U”. “Au” is the locative singular of “U”.

Viṣṇu is called “U” as he is the most high (uucca), because all Devas in the state of Mukti are called or summoned (huyante) in this “U” (“Au”) therefore they are called Auhoyinas; so, this is the name of Viśvedevas.

The Commentator next explains the sentence Prajāpati is Hiṅkāra.

The syllable “Hi” means “certainty”; and this certainty comes from knowledge always. Therefore Brahmā is called “Hiṅ”: “hi” meaning “certainty” and the nasal sound “ṅg” means knowledge. “Hiṅg” meaning “certain knowledge” and it is the name of Brahmā.

The Vāyu as breath in the human body is called “Svara”. This word “Svara” means literally he who causes the soul (Jīva) to take delight (ra) in Viṣṇu called “Sva”.

The Commentator next explains the sentence the food is Yāyā.

This shows that Vāyu has two forms, in its cosmic form it is called Yāyi, in its physiological form it is called Svara. Vāyu is called Yāyi because it is constantly moving. She who is the constant companion and follower of Yāyi is called Yāyā: and this is the name of Sarsavatī the wife of Vāyu. She verily is said to be the presiding deity of food; therefore the Śruti says “the food is Yāyā.” Another meaning of this text is, the food is called Yāyā because it is conducted or led by Prāṇa to all parts of the body.

The Commentator next explains the sentence the speech is Virāj.

Śrī is called Virāj because she is the most (vi) resplendent (rāj) object; as she is essence of all speech.

(The Commentator next explains the sentence undefinable is the thirteenth Stobha, viz., the indefinite syllable “hup.”)

The undefined is the all-pervading Nārāyaṇa alone, and because when invoked, He alone protects all, He is called Hupkāra; because when called (hu) He protects (). This is the name of Janārdana. Hari is called the undefined, because He is inexpressable (not fully expressed). He is the Supreme Person. This is in the Māhātmya.

The word Sañcara means that which moves completely the full mover. This also is the name of God.

Note.—Though God was mentioned before also as “Iha” (Here) and he is mentioned again in this place also; there is no repetition here. The God mentioned before as “Iha” referred to the Kṣetrajña or the Inner Ruler of all, the God within every human being; while the God mentioned now is in His All-pervading aspect and therefore the Commentator has used the word Vyāpta.

This Khaṇḍa may be explained as an allegory—the whole world being a vast temple, praising God and it is so translated in small type. This is merely a suggestion for the consideration of our readers.

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