by Srisa Chandra Vasu | 1909 | 169,805 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165
The English translation of the Chandogya Upanishad including the commentary of Madhva called the Bhasya. This text describes in seven sections the importance of speech, the importance of knowledge and the journey towards salvation.. It is one of the largest Upanishads and is associated with the Sama Veda. The Mundaka Upanishad is variously spelled...
1. Now the psychological. (The Devī Sarasvatī called) Ṛk (pervades the organ of) speech, (the Deva Vāyu called) Sāman (pervades the organ of) respiration. Thus respiration is seen to rest on (the organ of) speech; therefore, the Sāman is sung as resting on the Ṛk. Sā is (the organ of) speech and Ama is (the organ of) respiration. That makes Sāma.—53.
[Note.—Ṛk—the Ṛk, i.e., the Sarasvatī presiding (deity) over the Ṛk, and named Ṛk, the presiding deity of the earth.]
2. (The Devī Sarasvatī risiding in) the eye is called Ṛk, and (Vāyu residing in the Jiva) is Sāma; this Sāma is seen to rest on the Ṛk; therefore, the Sāma is sung as resting on the Ṛk. Sā is the eye and Aina the Jiva; that makes Sāma.—54.
3. (The Devī Sarasvatī residing in) the ear is called Ṛk, and (the Vāyu residing in) the mind is called Sāma; this Sāma is seen to rest on that Ṛk; therefore, the Sāma is sung as resting on the Ṛk. Sā is the ear and Ania is the mind. That makes Sāma.—55.
4. (Now the Devī Sarasvatī residing in) the white light of the eye is indeed Ṛk; again (the Deva Vāyu residing in) the blue exceeding dark light of the eye is Sāman. This Sāman is refuged in that Ṛk. Therefore the Sāman is sung as refuged in the Ṛk. Sā is (Sarasvatī in) the white light of the eye, Ama is (Vāyu in) the blue exceeding dark light, and that makes Sāma.—56.
5. Now the Person that is seen in the eye is All-wise, All-harmonious and Uplifter of all (or Wisdom, Equality and Veneration). He is All-adorable, He is All-full. The form of that Person in the eye is the same as the form of the other Person in the sun, the ministrels of the one are the ministrels of the other, the name “Ut” of the one, is the name of the other.—57.
6. He is (the Lord) who rules the worlds beneath (the physical), and awards all the wishes of men. Therefore all who sing on the (harp before kings really) sing to Him, and thus from Him really they obtain all wealth (though outwardly the human king, &c., gives it).—58.
[Note.—Tat, therefore, in order that the Lord may give desired objects to mankind and because He is competent to give such objects.]
7. Now he who knowing this (viz., Adhidaivata and Adhyātma aspects of the Lord) sings a Sāman, sings to both (adhyātma and adhidaivata, that is to the Person in the sun and to the Person in the eye) He verily sings (as inspired) by him, and obtains, (through the grace of the Lord) the worlds beyond that and the wishes of the Devas (for his Yajamānas).—59.
[Note.—Amunā, by that, i.e., according to the grace of the Lord or through the impulsion of the Lord: because He wills it so and inspires him to it.]
8-9. Now through this alone (i.e., through the grace of the Lord dwelling in the eye) he obtains all the lower worlds and the desires of human beings. Therefore, the Udgātṛ who knows this should say (to his yajamāna) “do accomplish what particular desire of yours, shall I sing out.” For he, who knowing this, sings out the Sāman, is able to accomplish the desires (of his Yajamāna) through his song, yea, through his song.—60.
Note.—There are two Udgātṛs in this world, the divine and the human. The divine Udgātṛ is Vāyu himself, called the Chief Prāṇa. He by his songs accomplishes the desires of the angels of heaven and all the higher worlds are under his jurisdiction. The human Udgātṛ is the knower of the Sāma-Veda; the true priest who knows how to praise the Lord. The prayer of such a priest is heard by the Lord, and he accomplishes the desires of his Yajamānas or congregation.
A human Udgātṛ can lead his fold only up to the Svarga-loka. The divine Udgātṛ leads the men and the Devas above the Svarga-loka. For the principal Udgātā of the Lord is Vāyu; the subordinate Udgātās are human beings, holy men, Masters of wisdom and compassion.
Madhva’s commentary called the Bhāṣya:
In the passage “the eye is even Ṛk, the Ātman is Sāman,” the word Ātman has been explained by some as the “Shadow-self.” This explanation is wrong, and, therefore the Commentator says
How do you get this meaning? Can not the meaning given by Sankara be also valid? To this the Commentator replies by quoting an authority
It is thus written in the Mānasa:—“Sarasvatī verily dwells in the eye, and Vāyu is said to dwell in the Jīva; thus knowing these two Devas, let one meditate always on the Lord Hari as dwelling in these two.”
It has been said in the Mantras 1.6.6 and 1.7.5.—“Now that golden Person who is seen within the sun” and “now the Person who is seen in the eye” are one and refer to God and mean that God is visible. An objector says ‘this is not right. For God is not seen by the eyes, and there are many texts which declare Him to be invisible. Therefore those two verses are opposed to the general teaching of the Upaniṣads.’ The Commentator answers this objection thus:—
So also:—“He who is seen by the eye of wisdom (not ordinary sight but by the vision of the illumined sage) as residing in the sun and in the eye, is the sole Monarch, (the one Lord); called Ṛk because He is All-wisdom; called Sāman because He is equal to all (He makes no distinction of races or of individuals) or He is Equality itself (or He is same always); He is called Uktha [Uktham], because He is the Up-lifter of all (sinners, or animating all); He is called Yajus because He has the essential nature of being worthy of worship namely Adorable, and lastly, He is called Brahman, because He is Full of all attributes. Thus all names belong to Him and He is called by all terms.”
The above also explains the verse “He is Ṛk, He is Sāman, He is Yajus, He is Brahman.” It does not mean that He is Ṛg Veda, etc., or that He is the presiding deity of Ṛg Veda, etc. These words are to be taken in their etymological sense here. The word Ṛk comes from the √ṛ ‘to know,’ ‘to go’: and so Ṛk means wisdom. Sāman comes from the word Sāma meaning ‘same’; and hence equality. The word Yajus comes from the √yaj ‘to sacrifice,’ ‘to worship’; hence Yajus means worshipful, adorable, sacred. The word Brahman comes from the √bṛh ‘to grow,’ ‘to increase’; therefore, the word Brahman means ‘fully grown,’ ‘full,’ ‘infinite.’ Thus the above two sentences do not apply to any Jīva, whether dwelling in the sun, or in the eye; but to the Supreme Lord Himself. Had it applied to Jīva, then the next sentence would not be appropriate, which says “He the golden Person in the sun is the Lord of the worlds beyond the sun and of all wishes of the Devas; and He the Person in the eye is the Lord of the worlds beneath and of all wishes of men.” For though it may be said that some Jīva may be so highly evolved, that he may become the Lord of the worlds beyond, the sun, yet there is no Jīva who is of the worlds beneath, namely, of Pātāla.
Another objection is raised, if the Lord is the Ruler of the worlds beyond the sun, how can He be said to be the Ruler of the worlds beneath the earth, namely of Pātāla; if He is light how can you call him darkness; if He is Lord of Heaven, how can He be the Lord of Hell? To this the Commentator says:—
So also:—“As one Viṣṇu is called both the Lord of Badarikā (Badarikā Nātha) as well as the Lord of Dvārikā (Dvārikā Nātha), so here also, He is called both the Lord of the regions above the sun, and of those below the earth.”