by Swami Lokeswarananda | 165,421 words | ISBN-10: 8185843910 | ISBN-13: 9788185843919
This is the English translation of the Chandogya-upanishad, including a commentary based on Swami Lokeswarananda’s weekly discourses; incorporating extracts from Shankara’s bhasya. The Chandogya Upanishad is a major Hindu philosophical text incorporated in the Sama Veda, and dealing with meditation and Brahman. This edition includes the Sanskrit t...
तधैतद्ब्रह्मा प्रजापतयै उवाच प्रजापतिर्मनवे मनुः प्रजाभ्यः आचार्यकुलाद्वेदमधीत्य यथाविधानं गुरोः कर्मातिशेषेणाभिसमावृत्य कुटुम्बे शुचौ देशे स्वाध्यायमधीयानो धर्मिकान्विदधदात्मनि सर्वैन्द्रियाणि सम्प्रतिष्ठाप्याहिंसन्सर्व भूतान्यन्यत्र तीर्थेभ्यः स खल्वेवं वर्तयन्यावदायुषं ब्रह्मलोकमभिसम्पद्यते न च पुनरावर्तते न च पुनरावर्तते ॥ ८.१५.१ ॥
॥ इति पञ्चदशः खण्डः ॥
tadhaitadbrahmā prajāpatayai uvāca prajāpatirmanave manuḥ prajābhyaḥ ācāryakulādvedamadhītya yathāvidhānaṃ guroḥ karmātiśeṣeṇābhisamāvṛtya kuṭumbe śucau deśe svādhyāyamadhīyāno dharmikānvidadhadātmani sarvaindriyāṇi sampratiṣṭhāpyāhiṃsansarva bhūtānyanyatra tīrthebhyaḥ sa khalvevaṃ vartayanyāvadāyuṣaṃ brahmalokamabhisampadyate na ca punarāvartate na ca punarāvartate || 8.15.1 ||
|| iti pañcadaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ ||
1. That which is described as space manifests names and forms. These names and forms are within Brahman. Brahman is immortal; it is the Self. May I attend the court of Prajāpati. May I attain the fame of a brāhmin, and also of a prince and a merchant. I wish to have real fame. I want to be famous among all famous people. May I not have to be born again and have a body covered with blood and dirt, which is toothless and at the same time always wanting to eat.
Ākāśaḥ vai nāma, that which is described as ‘space’; nāmarūpayoḥ nirvahitā, is manifest through names and forms; te, those [names and forms]; yat antarā, are within that; tat brahma, that is Brahman; tat amṛtam, that [Brahman] is immortal; saḥ ātmā, it is the Self [the inmost being in everyone]; prapadye, may I be able to enter; sabhām veśma, the court; prajāpateḥ, of Prajāpati; aham bhavāmi yaśaḥ brāhmaṇānām, may I attain the fame of a brāhmin; yāśaḥ rājñām, the fame of a prince; yaśaḥ viśam, the fame of a merchant; aham yaśaḥ anuprāpatsi, I wish to have real fame; saḥ ha aham yaśasām yaśaḥ, I want to be famous among all famous people; mā abhigām, may I not be born again; śyetam adatkam adatkam śyetam lindu, so that I may not have a body covered with blood and dirt, and which is toothless yet always wanting to eat. Iti caturdaśaḥ khaṇḍaḥ, here ends the fourteenth section.
How do we meditate on the infinite? One way is to think of ākāśa, space. Sri Ramakrishna used to advise this also. If we can think we are one with the infinite, then slowly the consciousness that we are the body, that we are limited and bound, will go.
We must not make the mistake of thinking that Brahman and ākāśa are the same, however. They are by no means synonymous. Ākāśa is matter, and Brahman is not. Brahman is pure consciousness. But often we find that, just to give us some idea of what Brahman is like, ākāśa is used as an example. This is because we cannot see it or feel it, yet we know it is everywhere.
How do we identify something or someone? Only by mentioning its name and form. If we take away the names and forms, there is just one vast Existence. I am Existence. You are Existence. Everything is Existence, Sat. And this Sat is one and undivided. But as soon as we give something a form and a name, it becomes individualized. Then one individual becomes separate from another. The Upaniṣad says, that in which all these names and forms exist, and which is unattached and unaffected by them, is Brahman.