Chandogya Upanishad (english Translation)

by Swami Lokeswarananda | 165,421 words | ISBN-10: 8185843910 | ISBN-13: 9788185843919

This is the English translation of the Chandogya-upanishad, including a commentary based on Swami Lokeswarananda’s weekly discourses; incorporating extracts from Shankara’s bhasya. The Chandogya Upanishad is a major Hindu philosophical text incorporated in the Sama Veda, and dealing with meditation and Brahman. This edition includes the Sanskrit t...

Verse 3.16.5

अथ यान्यष्टाचत्वारिंशद्वर्षाणि तत्तृतीयसवनमष्टाचत्वारिंशदक्षरा जगती जागतं तृतीयसवनं तदस्यादित्या अन्वायत्ताः प्राणा वावादित्या एते हीदंसर्वमाददते ॥ ३.१६.५ ॥

atha yānyaṣṭācatvāriṃśadvarṣāṇi tattṛtīyasavanamaṣṭācatvāriṃśadakṣarā jagatī jāgataṃ tṛtīyasavanaṃ tadasyādityā anvāyattāḥ prāṇā vāvādityā ete hīdaṃsarvamādadate || 3.16.5 ||

5. Then the next forty-eight years are the third libation. The jagatī metre has forty-eight syllables, and the third libation is accompanied by a hymn which is in the jagatī metre. The Ādityas are connected with this third libation. The prāṇas are called Ādityas because they accept [ādā] all things.

Word-for-word explanation:

Atha, next; yāni aṣṭācatvāriṃśat varṣāṇi, that which is the next forty-eight years; tat, that; tṛtīya savanam, is the third libation; jagatī aṣṭācatvāriṃśat akṣarā, the jagatī metre is constituted of forty-eight syllables; jāgatam tṛtīya savanam, the third libation is accompanied by a hymn in the jagatī metre; asya, of this [i.e., this sacrifice of the human body]; tat, it [the third libation covering the next forty-eight years];

ādityāḥ, the deities called Ādityas; anvāyattāḥ, are connected; prāṇāḥ vāva ādityāḥ, the prāṇas are the Ādityas; hi, for; ete, these [Ādityas]; idam sarvam ādadate, accept [ādā] all objects.

Commentary:

A human being is supposed to live a total of a hundred and sixteen years, which has three phaṣes: the first twenty-four years, the next forty-four years, and the last forty-eight years. When this life is thought of as a sacrifice, the first twenty-four years would be the morning offering, the next forty-four years would be the midday offering, and the last forty-eight years would be the evening offering.

Just as the morning libation is connected with the Vasus, so the first twenty-four years of one’s life are also connected with the Vasus. The gāyatrī is sung during the morning offering, and it has twenty-four syllables. The offering made at midday is connected with the Rudras, and it is accompanied by a hymn in the triṣṭubh metre, having forty-four syllables. Then the evening offering is connected with the Ādityas, and it is sung in the jagatī metre, having forty-eight syllables. The concept of a human life as a sacrifice arises from the similarity to the components of a ritualistic sacrifice.