Chandogya Upanishad (english Translation)

by Swami Lokeswarananda | 165,421 words | ISBN-10: 8185843910 | ISBN-13: 9788185843919

This is the English translation of the Chandogya-upanishad, including a commentary based on Swami Lokeswarananda’s weekly discourses; incorporating extracts from Shankara’s bhasya. The Chandogya Upanishad is a major Hindu philosophical text incorporated in the Sama Veda, and dealing with meditation and Brahman. This edition includes the Sanskrit t...

Verse 2.3.1

वृष्टौ पञ्चविधं सामोपासीत पुरोवातो हिंकारो मेघो जायते स प्रस्तावो वर्षति स उद्गीथो विद्योतते स्तनयति स प्रतिहार उद्गृह्णाति तन्निधनम् ॥ २.३.१ ॥

vṛṣṭau pañcavidhaṃ sāmopāsīta purovāto hiṃkāro megho jāyate sa prastāvo varṣati sa udgītho vidyotate stanayati sa pratihāra udgṛhṇāti tannidhanam || 2.3.1 ||

1. One can perform the fivefold Sāma worship during the rain. Think of the wind that comes before the rain as hiṃkāra. The clouds that gather are the prastāva, and the rain that follows is the udgītha. Then, when the lightning flashes and the thunder roars, that is pratihāra.

Word-for-word explanation:

Vṛṣṭau, in the rain; pañcavidham sāma upāsīta, one can perform the fivefold Sāma worship; purovātaḥ, the wind that starts before the rainfall; hiṃkāraḥ, is hiṃkāra; meghaḥ jāyate, the clouds that gather; saḥ prastāvaḥ, that is the prastāva; varṣati saḥ udgīthaḥ, [when] the rain falls that is the udgītha; vidyotate, [when] the lightning flashes; stanayati, [and] roars; saḥ pratihāra, that is the pratihāra.


The syllable hiṃ indicates the beginning of something. When the wind starts blowing hard, we know that it will soon rain, so that is hiṃkāra. Then, when the clouds start gathering, that is the prastāva, for it means that rain is just about to start. Soon the rain follows. That is the udgītha, for the udgītha is always welcome. It is a blessing. The clouds produce lightning, and lightning is accompanied by thunder. That is the pratihāra, for the pratihāra is that which ‘scatters,’ or ‘spreads out,’ or is ‘extensive.’