Brihat Samhita

by N. Chidambaram Iyer | 1884 | 135,584 words | ISBN-13: 9788171104215

This page describes house-building (vastu-vidya) which is the fifty-third Chapter of the English translation of the Brihat-samhita. This work, written by Varahamihira in the 6th century, is classified as jyotisha literature, also known as Indian astronomy. It contains however, also content regarding astrology, palmistry, agriculture, gardening, perfumes, medicines and various other encyclopedic topics.

Chapter 53 - On House-building (vāstu-vidyā)

1. We shall now proceed to treat of the science of house-building (vāstu-vidyā). which has come down to us from the Ṛṣis who obtained it from Brahmā, for the pleasure of learned Jyotiṣakas.

2. At one lime, a monster appeared with a body so vast as to conceal the Earth and the sky. The Devas then caught hold of parts of his body and forcibly laid him down with his face towards the ground.

3. The several Devas now preside over the several parts of the body held by them. The monster, therefore, known as Vāstupuruṣa, represents in his body all the Devas by order of Brahmā.

4. The king’s house shall be one of five sorts. The breadth of the superior house shall be 108 cubits, and that of each of the four inferior houses shall be 8 cubits less than the next preceding one. The length of each house shall be one-quarter as much more as its breadth.

5. The commander’s house shall be one of five sorts. The breadth of the superior house shall be 64 cubits, and that of each of the four inferior houses shall be 6 cubits less than the next preceding one. The length of each house shall be one-sixth as much more as its breadth.

6. The prime-minister’s house shall also be one of five sorts. The breadth of the superior house shall be 60 cubits, and that of each of the four inferior houses shall be four cubits less than the next preceding one. The length of each house shall be one-eighth as much more as its breadth. The dimensions of the houses of the queens shall be one-half of the dimensions of the houses of the prime-minister.

7. The first prince’s house shall also be one of five sorts. The breadth of the superior house shall be 80 cubits, and that of the each of the four inferior houses shall be six cubits less than the next preceding one. The length of each house shall be one-third as much more as its breadth. The dimensions of the houses of the younger princes shall be one-half of the dimensions of the houses of the first prince.

8. The houses of the tributary princes, of worthy persons and of the king’s officers, shall be of the difference of the dimensions of the houses of the king and prime minister. The houses of the chamberlain and of the king’s concubines and artists shall be of the difference of the dimensions of the houses of the king and the first prince.

9. The houses of the superintendent of the king’s household and of the controller of public accounts shall be of the dimensions of the king’s treasury and bed-rooms. The houses of the peons of the superintendents shall be of the difference of the dimensions of the houses of the first prince and the prime minister.

10. The houses of the court astrologers, priests and physicians, shall be one of five sorts—the superior one being 40 cubits broad and the breadth of the four inferior ones shall be severally 4 cubits less by turns; the length shall be one-sixth as much more as the breadth„

11. If the houses in all the cases can be made as high as they are broad, they will conduce to prosperity. In cases where a house has an inner hall, the length of the house shall be twice its breadth.

12. The houses of the four castes from the Brāhmaṇas downwards are also of five sorts-the breadths of the houses being 32, 28, 24, 20 and 16 cubits. A house less than 16 cubits broad shall be for the use of the men of low class.

13. The length of the houses of Brāhmaṇas shall be one-tenth as much more as the breadth, that of the houses of Kṣatriyas shall be one-eighth as much more; that of the houses of the Vaiśyas shall be one-sixth as much more; and that of the houses of the Śūdras shall be one-fourth as much more.

14. The dimensions of the treasury and bed rooms shall be the difference of the dimensions of the houses of the king and the commander. The dimensions of the houses of those honoured by the king shall be of the difference of the dimensions of the houses of the commander and the several castes from the Brāhmaṇas downwards.

15. The dimensions of the houses of the Pāraśavās and the like shall be one half of the sum of the dimensions of the houses prescribed to their class. If the houses described above for all classes be of greater or smaller dimensions than what we have stated, they will produce evil.

16. No dimensions are prescribed for the houses of the cows, the Vānaprasthins, for granaries, for the arsenals, for fire and for sexual enjoyment. However, men learned in house-building are opposed to the breadth of these exceeding 100 cubits.

17. Add 70 to the breadth (in cubits) of the house of the king or the commander and divide the sum by 14 and the same sum again by 35. The quotients will give the breadths of the inner verandah and of the outer verandah in front of the house door of the house of the king or the commander.

18. In the case of the five sorts of houses of the four castes from the Brāhmaṇas downwards, the breadth of the inner verandahs shall respectively be 4 cubits 7 digits, 4 cubits 10 digits, 3 cubits 3 digits, 3 cubits 15 digits and 3 cubits 13 digits.

19. The breadth of the outer verandah in front of the house door in the case of these five houses shall respectively be 3 cubits 19 digits, 3 cubits 8 digits, 2 cubits 20 digits, 2 cubits 18 digits, and 2 cubits 3 digits.

20. The breadth of the Vīthi around the house shall be one-third of the breadth of the inner verandah. If the Vīthikā be in front of the house, such house is known as Soṣṇīṣa.

21. If the Vīthi be found behind the house, it is known as Sāyāśravam, and if the Vīthi be found on a side of the house, such house is known as Sāvaṣṭambhaṃ. and if the Vīthi be found all round the house, the house is known as Susthitam, Men learned in house-building (vāstu-vidyā) speak favourably of every one of these Vīthis.

22. The height of the floor shall be one-sixteenth of the breadth of the house plus 4 cubits. Generally, the height of the floor of a house may be one-twelfth less according to the nature of the ground.

23. The thickness of the walls shall be one-sixteenth of the breadth of the house. The wall may be built of burnt bricks or of wood.

24. In the cases of the house of the king and commander, add to the breadth of the house (in cubits) its eleventh part and add 70 to the sum, the height of the entrance shall be so many digits. The breadth of the entrance shall be one-half of the height.

25. In the eases of the houses of the four castes from the Brāhmaṇas downwards, add one-fifth of the breadth of the house to 18 digits; nine-eighths of this sum is the breadth of the entrance. Double the breadth of the entrance is its height.

26. The breadth of the two vertical frames shall be as many digits as the number of cubits in the height of the entrance. The breadth of the bottom and top frames shall be half as much more as the breadth of the side frames.

27. Multiply the height by 7; one eightieth of the product shall be the thickness of each frame. Multiply the height of the house by 9; one eightieth of the product shall be the diameter of the pillar at the bottom. Nine-tenths of this shall be the diameter of the pillar at the top.

28. A four-sided pillar or column is known as Rucaka. An eight-sided pillar is known as Vajra. An eighteen-sided pillar is known as Dvivajra, and a thirty-two sided one is known as Pralīnaka. A pillar that is round in the middle is known as Vṛtta.

29. Divide the height of pillar into equal parts. The parts are known as—Vahana, Ghaṭa, Padma. Uttaroṣṭha, and so on, the names returning again.

30. The thickness of the heavy beams of the sloping roof shall be that of the pillars. The other beams higher up the roof shall be each three-fourths as thick as the beam next below it.

31. The house of the king or Deva which is surrounded by outer verandahs on all the four sides, and with an entrance on each side, is known as Sarvatobhadra.

32. The house which is surrounded by four distinct outer verandahs and with an entrance on each side except on the west, is known as Nandyāvarta.

33. The house which has two outer verandahs commencing at the entrance with an external verandah on the southern side and one on the western side and with an entrance on the southern side, is known as Vardhamāna.

34. The house which has an outer verandah on the eastern side, two parallel outer verandahs on the southern side, and ending in the east with a separate one on the northern side and with an entrance on the eastern side, is known as Svastika.

35. The house which has distinct outer varandahs on each side with an entrance on each side except the northern side, is known as Rucaka.

36. The Nandyāvarta and Vardhamāna houses are the best; the Svastika and Rucaka houses are of middle importance, and the remaining house known as Sarvatobhadra, is best fitted for kings to live in,

37. The house which has inner verandahs on all excepting the northern side, is known as Hiraṇyanābha. It brings on wealth. The house which has inner verandahs on all excepting the eastern side, is known as Sukṣetra. It brings on prosperity.

38. The house which has inner verandahs on all excepting the southern side, is known as Cullī. It destroys wealth. The house which has inner verandahs on all excepting the western side, is known as Pakṣaghma. It brings on the death of the sons and produces enmity.

39. The house which has inner verandahs on the western and southern sides is known as Siddhārtha. and the house which has inner verandahs on the western and northern sides is known as Yamasūrya; that which has inner verandahs on the eastern and northern sides is known as Daṇḍa, and that which has such verandahs on the eastern and southern sides, is known as Vāta.

40. The house which has inner verandahs on the eastern and western sides is known as Gṛhacullī, and that which has such verandahs on the northern and southern sides is known as Kāca. The Siddhārtha house will bring on wealth and the Yamasūrya house will bring on the death of the master.

41. The Daṇḍa house will bring on death by daṇḍa or a club; the Vāta house will bring on fears and disturbance; the Cullī house will destroy wealth, and the Kāca house will bring on the enmity of kinsmen.

42. Divide the house ground into 81 squares by 10 lines drawn from cast to west and 10 lines drawn from north to south. 32 Devas occupy the 32 exterior squares and 13 Devas occupy the inner squares (as follows):

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43. Squares marked 1, 9, 81 and 73 are respectively the northeastern, south-eastern, north-western and south-western comers. The eight eastern squares from 1 to 8 are respectively occupied by the Devas Agni, Parjanya, Jayanta, Indra, Sūrya. Satyā, Bhṛśa and Antariksa.

44-45. The eight southern squares 9, 18. 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, and 72 are respectively occupied by Vāyu, Pūṣa, Vitatha, Bṛhatkṣata, Yama, Gandharva, Bhṛṅgarāja and Mṛga. The eight western squares, 81, 80, 79, 78, 77, 76, 75 and 74 are respectively occupied by Pitṛ, Dauvārika, Sugrīva. Kusumadanta, Varuṇa, Asura, Śeṣa, and Pāpayakṣmā; and the 8 northern squares, 73, 64, 55, 46, 37, 28, 19 and 10 are respectively occupied by the Devas—Roga, Ahi, Mukhya, Bhallāṭa, Soma, Bhujaga, Aditi, and Diti respectively.

46-47. The nine central squares 31, 32, 33, 40, 41, 42, 49, 50 and 51 arc occupied by Brahmā. The square 23, due east of Brahmā is occupied by Aryaman. From Aryaman, the alternate squares all round Brahmā from left to right, viz., 25, 43, 61, 59, 57, 39 and 21 are respectively occupied by Savitā, Vivasvān, Indra, Mitra, Rājayakṣmā, Pṛthvīdhara and Apavatsa.

48. The inner north-eastern square, 11, is occupied by Āpa; the inner south-eastern square, 17, is occupied by Sāvitra; the inner south-western square, 71, is occupied by Java, and the inner north-western square, 65, is occupied by Rudra.

49. The group of five Devas occupying the north-eastern portion of the house-ground, (squares l, 2, 10, 11 and 21), viz., Agni, Parjanya, Diti, Āpa and Āpavatsa and similar groups, each of five Devas, occupying the south-eastern, south-western and northwestern portions of the house-ground, are known as Padikas.

50. The remaining 20 Devas occupying the other squares are known as Dvipadas. The Devas occupying the due eastern, southern, western and northern squares—23. 43, 59, 33. viz., Aryaman, Vivasvān, Mitra and Pṛthvīdhara arc known as Tripadas,

51. The Vāstupuruṣa (house-demon) lies with his face turned towards the ground and head in the north-east. Agni holds his head, Āpa his face, Aryaman his right nipple and Āpavatsa his breast.

52. The Devas from Parjanya to Sūrya occupying the outer squares hold respectively the right eye, ear, breast and shoulder; the five Devas from Satyā hold the right arm; Savitā and Sāvitra hold the right hand; Vitatha and Bṛhatkṣata hold the right side.

53. Vivasvān holds the belly; the four Devas from Yama hold the right thigh, knee, shank and buttock.

54. These Devas hold the right limbs of the Vāstupuruṣa. Similarly, the other Devas hold the left limbs. Indra and Jaya hold his penis; Brahmā his heart and the Pitṛ Devas his feet.

55-56. Or, divide the house ground into sixty-four equal squares; draw the main diagonal lines. The four central squares marked 23, 29, 36. 37, are occupied by Brahmā. The four squares occupying the inner corners, viz.. 19, 22, 46, and 43, as well as the four squares occupying the outer corners, viz., 1, 8, 64 and 57, are divided each into two halves. The other squares all round Brahmā, viz., 20, 21, 30, 38, 45, 44, 35 and 27, and the other outer squares, viz., 2 to 7, 16 to 56, 63 to 58 and 49 to 9, are twenty-four. The number of all the squares thus mentioned is 44, and the remaining 20 squares, viz., those forming the four outermost lines but one, are known as Dvipadas.

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57. As the exact centres of the several squares, are known as Marmasthalas—vital parts, these parts shall not be molested by the erection of pillars over them or in any other way.

58. If these vital parts are defiled or molested by impure substances, nails, pegs or pillars and by Śalyas (substance lying underground), the master of the house will suffer in those parts of his body which correspond to the parts thus tormented.

59. That portion of the house ground contains Śalya which corresponds to the part of body scratched by the master of the house (at the time of his first entry) or where bad omens or portents connected with fire occur at the time of the Homa ceremony.

60. If the Śalya be wood, there will be destruction of wealth; if bones, animals will suffer, and there will be much suffering from diseases; if metals, there will be injury from weapons; and if skulls or hair, there will be death.

61. If the Śalya be charcoal, there will be fear of robbery; if ashes, there will always be fear from destructive fires; if it be any substance other than gold or silver lying buried at the Marmasthala, there will be great fears.

62. If the Śalya be the husk of paddy lying either at the Marmasthala or at other places, there will be acquisition of wealth; if it be the teeth of snake lying at the Marmasthala, there will be misery.

63. The diagonal line, from the Roga Deva (73) to Vāyu Deva (9) is known as a Vaṃśa. The diagonal line from Pitṛ Deva (81) to Agni Deva (1) is another Vaṃśa. A line drawn from Vitatha Deva (27) to Śoṣa Deva (75) is also a Vaṃśa. and that drawn from Mukhya Deva (55) to Bhṛśa Deva (7) is another Vaṃśa. A line drawn from Jayanta Deva (3) to Bhṛṅgarāja (63) is also a Vaṃśa, and a line drawn from Aditi (19) to Sugrīva (79) is another Vaṃśa.

64. The six lines cut one another in nine points. These points are known as Atimarma places. The area of a Marmasthala is equal to one-eighth of the area of a square.

65. The breadth of a Vaṃśa line is as many digits as the length of a side of a square is in yards, and the length of a Sira is one and a half times the breadth of the Vaṃśa line.

66. If the master of the house desire prosperity, he shall take particular care of the portion of the house which is the seat of Brahmā. If this portion be defiled by impurities, the master of the house will suffer miseries.

67. If the right arm of the Vāstupuruṣa be wanting, there will be loss of wealth and women will lose their character; if the left arm be wanting, there will be loss of wealth and grain; if the head be wanting, every virtue will quit the household.

68. If any of the senses of the Vāstupuruṣa should suffer injuries, women will lose their character, sons will perish, and the master of the house will become a slave under another. If the Vāstupuruṣa does not suffer in any way, the dwellers of the house will get honour, wealth and comfort.

69. The Devas occupy their several places as above enumerated not only in houses but in towns and villages. The Brāhmaṇas and other castes shall live in places appropriate to them.

70. The Brāhmaṇas and other castes shall dwell respectively on the northern, eastern, southern and western sides.

71. Either in the division of the house ground into 81 squares or in that into 64 squares, the effects of having the main-entrance in spots occupied by Agni and the other Devas are as follow:

72. If the entrance is opened in any of the 8 eastern squares beginning from the north-eastern comer, the effects will respectively be injury from fire, birth of daughters, gain of immense wealth, the friendship of the king, increase of anger, the vice of lie, that of cruelty and that of theft.

73. If the entrance is opened in any of the 8 southern squares beginning from the south-eastern corner, the effects will respectively be few sons, servitude, becoming a Cāṇḍāla, excessive eating and drinking with an increase of sons, anger, ingratitude, poverty and the loss of sons and of valour.

74. If the gate is opened in any of the 8 western squares beginning from the south-western corner, the effects will respectively be suffering of sons, the increase of the enemy, the want of wealth and sons, the increase of sons, of wealth and of strength, opulence, fear from kings, loss of wealth and disease.

75. If the gate is opened in any of the 8 northern squares beginning from the north-western corner, the effects will respectively be increase of cruelty and kinsmen, increase of the enemy, gain of wealth and sons, the possession of all virtues, the acquisition of sons and wealth, hatred of sons, the loss of character of women and the loss of wealth.

76. There will be misery if, opposite to the gate, there be roads, trees, street corners, wells, pillars or gutters. If these should be beyond a distance of double the height of the house, they will produce no harm.

77. If the obstruction be a car running street, the master of the house will die; if it be a tree, the son will suffer: if it be a permanent mire, there will be grief; if it be any gutter or passage for water, there will be waste,

78. If the obstruction be a well, there will be an attack of epilepsy; if it be the image of some Deva, there will be death; if it be a pillar, women will lose their chastity; if the gate be opposite to the squares of Brahma, the family will perish.

79. If the door should open of itself, there would be an attack of madness; if it should close of itself, the family would perish; if the gate should exceed its stated dimensions, there would be fear from kings and robbers; and if the gate be in a low ground, there will be grief.

80. Gate over a gate and a gate which is difficult to enter will not conduce to prosperity; an entrance which is not closed will produce suffering from hunger; an entrance which is either very short or bent will bring about the ruin of the family.

81. A troublesome entrance will bring on troubles. One that is bent inside will bring on destruction; one that is bent outside, will bring on travels to foreign land; and one that is not in the proper spot, will bring on theft by robbers.

82. The front entrance shall not be of the size of the inner entrance; such front entrance shall be constructed after due ceremonies with water-pots, fruits, flowers and with curdled milk.

83. The four corners of the house beginning from the northeastern point, are occupied respectively by four Deva women known as—Carakī, Vidāri, Pūtanā and Rākṣasī.

84. Those that live in the corners of houses, villages and towns will suffer miseries. Persons subsisting on the flesh of dogs and the Cāṇḍālas, will become prosperous by living in such corners.

85. The Lakṣa,[1] the Banyan, the Udumbara[2] and the Aśvattha will bring on miseries if situated on the south, west, north and east sides of the house, and they will bring on prosperity if they be respectively situated in the north, east, south, and west side of the house.

86. If thorny trees grow near houses, there will be fear from enemies; if milky trees, there will be waste of wealth: if fruit trees, the children will die. The wood of these trees shall also be rejected.

87. If it be felt inconvenient to remove the several trees mentioned above, a number of superior trees shall be grown between them. These are—Punnāga,[3] Aśoka,[4] Ariṣṭa,[5] Bakula,[6] Panasa,[7] Śamī[8] and Śāla[9].

88. Any spot where the ground is smooth and without holes, where the earth is sweet, fragrant and of bright appearance and where there grow superior crops, trees and creepers is calculated to afford comfort to the weary traveller, and if a house is permanently built in such a spot how happy should the dwellers feel?

89. If the house of the minister be near, there would be loss of wealth. If the house of a cheat be near, sons will die; if a temple be near, there will be various fears, and if four roads meet in the neighbourhood, the house will bear an evil reputation.

90. If a Baudha temple should be near, there would be fear from evil spirits; if ant-hills with numerous holes be near, there will be danger; if any low ground or ditch be near, there will be suffering from thirst; and if a tortoise dwell near there will be loss of wealth.

91. If the northern, eastern, southern or western side be low, the Brāhmaṇas, the Kṣatriyas, the Vaiśyas or the Śūdras will suffer respectively. The Brāhmaṇas may live in all places; but the other castes shall live in their appropriate places.

92. In the centre of the house-site, dig a pit which is a cubit deep, (broad and long) and fill it with the earth taken from it; if the earth is found too little, there will be misery; if it be found just enough, the site is one of middle importance, and if it be found too much, there will be increase of wealth.

93. Or till the pit with water and walk 100 feet from it. If, on returning, the water be found not to have fallen, there will be an increase of wealth; or if the quantity be an āḍhaka of 64 phalas, there will be an increase of wealth.

94. Or place an unborn earthen vessel in the pit; and in it burn a wick. The ground will be fit for the use of that class of men in whose direction the flame is seen to be inclined.

95. The ground will also be fít for the use of that class of men the flower of whose appropriate colour is found neither to fade nor lose its hue when thrown in a pit in the ground. Generally a ground is fit to live in, if a person has a special liking for it.

96. If the ground be white, red, yellow or black, or if it be found to smell like ghee, blood, cooked rice or liquor, the Brāhmaṇas, the Kṣatriyas, the Vaiśyas or the Śūdras will respectively prosper.

97. If the ground be over-grown with Kuśa grass, Sara or wild reeds, the Dūrvā grass, or reeds, or if its flavour be found to be sweet, astringent, sour or pungent, the Brāhmaṇas, the Kṣatriyas, the Vaiśyas or the Śūdras will respectively prosper.

98. The house ground shall first be either ploughed or grown with the sprouts of seed grains or dwelt by cows or by Brāhmaṇas. The person who desires to build a house in it shall in an auspicious hour, as ascertained by an astrologer, enter it and commence building work.

99. He shall then perform pūjā to the Devas with various cakes, curdled milk, coloured rice, sandal paste, flowers and perfumed smoke; and shall also show due honour to Brāhmaṇas and to the builders and shall satisfy them with presents.

100. The Brāhmaṇas, the Kṣatriyas, the Vaiśyas and the Śūdras shall respectively touch their foreheads, breasts, thighs and feet and draw lines marking the site of the house to be built.

101. The person (the master of the house) taking in his hand gold, gems, silver, pearls, curdled milk, fruits, flowers or coloured rice, shall draw the line with his thumb, the middle finger or the fore-finger.

102. If the line be drawn with a weapon, there will be death by weapons. If it be drawn with a piece of metal there will be imprisonment. If with ashes, there will be fear from destructive fires; if with a piece of straw, there will be fear from robbers; and if with a piece of wood, there will be fear from kings.

103. If the line be drawn with the foot or be indistinct and not straight, there will be fear from weapons and from grief. If it be drawn with a piece of leather, with charcoal, bone or tooth, the master of the house will suffer miseries.

104. If the line be drawn from right to left, there will be enmity; and if from left to right, there will be prosperity. If at the time of drawing the line, cruel words are heard, or if anybody be seen to spit or to sneeze, there will be misery.

105. The builder shall enter the house either half built or wholly built, and shall carefully observe where the master of the house stands and what parts of his body he touches.

106. If at the time birds be seen to sound disagreeably, facing the Sun, there will be bone corresponding to that of the part of body, touched, lying buried at the spot, where the master of the house stands.

107. Or if, at the time, an elephant, a horse, a dog or the like be heard to sound, then the bones of these animals corresponding to that of the part of body touched by the master of the house, will be found buried at the spot.

108. If when the rope is tied up, the ass is heard to cry, bone lies buried; and the same thing may be declared in case the rope is crossed over by a dog or a jackal.

109. If birds are seen to sing melodiously, facing the quarter opposite to the Sun, there is treasure under ground either at the spot where the master of the house stands or in that part of Vāstupuruṣa’s body, which corresponds to the part of body, touched by the master of the house.

110. If the rope should break there would be death; if the peg should come out or be found turned upside down, there would be severe disease; and if the master of the house or the builders should forget to take with them any necessary substance or article, there would also be death.

111. If the water pot should slip down the shoulder, there would be headache. If the water should run out, the family would suffer; if the pot should be broken, the servants would die; and if it slip down from the hand, the master of the house would die.

112. After finishing the pūjā, the first foundation stone shall be laid on the north-eastern corner, and then, all round from left to right, the other stones shall be laid. The pillars shall also be erected, in the same order.

113. The ceremony of erecting the tall pillars at the entrance shall be performed carefully with umbrellas, flower wreaths, cloth, perfumed smoke and sandal.

114. The same good effects shall be predicted from the entry of birds into holes, the shaking of their wings, their fall and flight as in the case of the Indra Dhvaja.

115. If the north-eastern corner be of a higher level than the rest; there will be loss of wealth and sons; if the ground emit bad smell, sons will die: if the ground be of irregular shape, kinsmen will die; if the sides are irregular, there will be no pregnancy.

116. He that desires prosperity shall raise the house-ground equally on all sides. If any portion of the ground be of a higher level than the rest, there will be misery. If unavoidable, the eastern or northern side may be of a slightly higher level.

117. If the eastern side be of a higher level, there will be hatred of friends; if the southern side, there will be deaths in the family; if the western side, there will be loss of wealth; and if the northern side, there will be grief.

118. The apartment for the Devas shall be built in the north-east; the kitchen in the south-east; the room for the household utensils shall be erected in the south-west; and the treasury and the granary rooms shall be erected in the north-west.

119. If there be any piece of water in the east, south-east, south, south-west, west, north-west, north and north-east, there will respectively be the death of sons, injury from fire, troubles from enemies, quarrels among women, unchastity among women, poverty, increase of wealth and increase of sons.

120. For the purpose of house-building (vāstu-vidyā) other trees shall be cut down than those in which birds reside, or that are broken or have dried or are burnt, or in which the Devas live or which grow on cremation grounds, as well as milky trees, the Dhava, the Vibhītaka, the margosa and the Araṇi.

121. Cooked rice shall be offered and pūjā performed to the tree at night, and it shall be cut down from left to right next day. If it falls on the north or east side, there will be increase of wealth, and if it falls on any other side, it shall be rejected.

122. If the cut be not irregular, the tree will bring on prosperity; if the portion cut be of yellow colour, there will be an alligator inside the tree.

123. If the colour be bright-red, there will be a frog within; if black, a cobra; if red, a blood-sucker; if of the colour of kidney-bean, there will be a stone within; if brown, there will be a rat,

124. He that desires prosperity shall not sleep on a higher level than that of grain, cows, preceptor, fíre, and the Devas; nor shall he sleep under a beam, nor with his head towards the north or west, nor naked nor with wet feet.

125. After due pūjā to the Devas with perfumed smoke, sandal paste and various articles of food, the house shall be entered with a large quantity of flowers, with festoons and water pots, the Brāhmaṇas chanting vedic hymns.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Lakṣa: Ficus virens.

2.

Udumbara: Indian Fig tree.

3.

It is explained in Part-1.

4.

Ibid.

5.

Ariṣṭa: The soap-berry tree.

6.

Bakula: The tree Mimusops elengi.

7.

Panasa: The Jack tree.

8.

Explained in Part-1.

9.

Ibid.

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