by Roma Bose | 1940 | 290,526 words
English translation of the Brahma-sutra 4.4.20, including the commentary of Nimbarka and sub-commentary of Srinivasa known as Vedanta-parijata-saurabha and Vedanta-kaustubha resepctively. Also included are the comparative views of important philosophies, viz., from Shankara, Ramanuja, Shrikantha, Bhaskara and Baladeva.
English of translation of Brahmasutra 4.4.20 by Roma Bose:
“And thus perception and inference show.”
Nimbārka’s commentary (Vedānta-pārijāta-saurabha):
Brahman alone is capable of the activities in connection with the creation and the rest of the entire universe. The following scriptural Srnṛti passages “show” the lordship of the freed soul to be exclusive of the activities in connection with the universe: “He is the cause, the lord of the lord of causes” (Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad 6.9), “The controller of all, the ruler of all” (Bṛhadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad 4.4.22), ‘“With me as the ruler, prakṛti brings forth the movable and the immovable”’ (Gītā 9.10).
Śrīnivāsa’s commentary (Vedānta-kaustubha)
“Perception” means Scripture, “inference” Smṛti. These two, Scripture and Smṛti, “show” that Brahman alone, not subject to any change, is capable of the activities in connection with the universe. The scriptural texts are to the effect: “The lord of matter and souls, the controller of attributes” (Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad 6.16), “Supreme is His power, declared to be manifold” (Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad 6.8), ‘“The existent alone, my dear, was this in the beginning, one only, without a second”’ (Chāndogya-upaniṣad 6.2.1), “He is the Lord of all, he is the ruler of beings, he is the protector of beings, he is the bridge for keeping these worlds apart” (Bṛhadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad 4.4.22), ‘“Verily, at the command of the Imperishable, (Gārgī), the sun and the moon stand held apart”’ (Bṛhadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad 3.8.9), “Through fear the wind blows, through fear the sun arises, through fear fire, the moon and death as the fifth speed on” (Taittirīya-upaniṣad 2.8), “He is the cause, the Lord of the lord of causes” (Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad 6.9), “In whom all the worlds rest. None, surpasses him” (Kaṭha 5.8; 6.1), “Kṛṣṇa, the one, the controller, moving everywhere, is to be worshipped” (Gopāla-pūrva-tāpanī-upaniṣad). The Smṛti passages are to the effect: ‘“With me as the ruler, prakṛti brings forth the movable and the immovable”’ (Gītā 9.10), ‘“Pervading the entire universe with a part of mine, I abide”’ (Gītā 10.42), ‘“I am the source of all, everything originates from me”’ (Gītā 10.8), ‘“On me all this is strung, like gems on a piece of thread”’ (Gītā 7.7), ‘“There is nothing else higher than me, O Dhanañjaya”’ (Gītā 7.17).
The freed soul, however, though similar to the Highest Brahman, yet cannot possibly be the lord of all the sentient and the non-sentient, their controller, their supporter, all-pervasive and so on; and hence its lordship is exclusive of the activities in connection with the universe.
Footnotes and references:
Correct reading: “Karṇādhipādhipa”—the lord of the lord of sense-organs (or the individual soul). Vide Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad 6.9, p. 70.
Not quoted by others.
Quoted by Rāmānuja.