Brahma Sutras (Nimbarka commentary)

by Roma Bose | 1940 | 290,526 words

English translation of the Brahma-sutra 4.3.15 (correct conclusion, end), including the commentary of Nimbarka and sub-commentary of Srinivasa known as Vedanta-parijata-saurabha and Vedanta-kaustubha resepctively. Also included are the comparative views of important philosophies, viz., from Shankara, Ramanuja, Shrikantha, Bhaskara and Baladeva.

Brahma-Sūtra 4.3.15 (correct conclusion, end)

English of translation of Brahmasutra 4.3.15 by Roma Bose:

“And (scripture) shows a difference.”

Nimbārka’s commentary (Vedānta-pārijāta-saurabha):

The scriptural text: “As far as name goes, so far he comes to have freedom of movement” (Chāndogya-upaniṣad 7.1.5[1]) and so on “shows” that symbolic meditation has a different result, independent of going (through the path of gods).

Here ends the third quarter of the fourth chapter in the Vedānta-pārijāta-saurabha, an interpretation of the Śārīraka-mīmāṃsā texts by the reverend Nimbārka.

Śrīnivāsa’s commentary (Vedānta-kaustubha)

In the meditations on symbols, beginning with name up to the vital-breath[2], since the Highest Brahman stands in an attributive relation to the symbol, the symbol itself is the primary thing, and as such those who meditate on symbols do not meditate on the Highest Brahman. Hence they do not proceed by the path of gods and attain the Highest Brahman. For them, the holy Scripture, viz.: “As far as name goes so far he comes to have freedom of movement” (Chāndogya-upaniṣad 7.1.5) and so on, “shows” a different limited result, independent of going. Hence it is established that the troupe of conducting divinities leads those—who meditate on the Highest Brahman—as well as those—who meditate on their own real nature, unconnected with matter and having Brahman for its essence,—to the Highest Brahman.

Here ends the section entitled “The effected” (5).

Here ends the third quarter of the fourth chapter of the holy Vedānta-kaustubha, a commentary on the Śārīraka-mīmāṃsā by the reverend teacher Śrīnivāsa, dwelling under the lotus-feet of the venerable Nimbārka, the teacher and founder of the sect of the holy Sanatkumāra.

Comparative views of Śrīkaṇṭha:

Interpretation different, viz. “And (Scripture) shows the difference between Hiraṇyagarbha, Nārāyaṇa and Śiva).”

Comparative views of Baladeva:

He takes this sūtra (sūtra 16 in his commentary) as forming an adhikaraṇa by itself, concerned with showing the special favour shown by the Lord for the nirapekṣa devotees. “And (Scripture) shows the special (rule with regard to the nirapekṣa devotees).” That is, the general rule is that the conducting divinities lead the devotees to the Lord. But in the case of the nirapekṣa, the Lord Himself comes down to fetch them to Him.

Thus we have five different views with regard to those who approach or the gantṛ and the goal approached or the gantavya:

Gantṛ: Gantavya:
1. (a) Those who meditate on the Highest Brahman,
(b) as well as those who meditate on the real nature of the individual soul.
(This is the view of Nimbārka and Ramanuja.)
(a) and (b) The Highest Brahman.
2. (a) Those who meditate on the qualified Brahman.
(This is the view of Śaṅkara.)
(a) The qualified or effected Brahman.
3. (a) Those who meditate on the Highest Brahman.
(b) Also those who meditate on the effected Brahman.
(This is the view of Bhāskara.)
(a) The Highest Brahman.
(b) The effected Brahman.
4. (a) Those who meditate on the Highest Brahman.
(This is the view of Śrīkaṇṭha.)
(a) The Highest Brahman.
5. (a) Those who do not meditate on any symbols, whether they meditate on the Highest Brahman or not.
(This is the view of Baladeva.)
(a) The Highest Brahman.

Résumé:

The third quarter of the fourth chapter contains:—

(1) 15 sūtras and 5 adhikaraṇas, according to Nimbārka;
(2) 16 sūtras and 6 adhikaraṇas, according to Śaṅkara;
(3) 15 sūtras and 5 adhikaraṇas, according to Rāmānuja;
(4) 15 sūtras and 5 adhikaraṇas, according to Bhāskara;
(5) 15 sūtras and 5 adhikaraṇas, according to Śrīkaṇṭha;
(6) 16 sūtras and 9 adhikaraṇas, according to Baladeva.

Sūtra 5 in the commentaries of Śaṅkara and Baladeva is found in the commentary of Nimbārka.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Quoted by Śaṅkara, Rāmānuja and Bhāskara.

[2]:

Vide Chāndogya-upaniṣad 7.1-7.15.

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