Bhagavad-gita with four Commentaries [sanskrit]

140,673 words | ISBN-10: 8189564072 | ISBN-13: 9788189564070

The Sanskrit edition of the Bhagavad Gita with four commentaries: (1) The Subodhini by Shridhara (Sridhara Swami), (2) The Gudharthadipika by Madhusudana (Saraswati), (3) The Sararthavarshini by Vishvanatha (Vishwanath Chakravarti) and (4) The Gitabhushana by Baladeva (Vidyabhushan). Original titles: Bhagavadgītā (भगवद्गीता), Śrīdhara (श्रीधर), Madhusūdana (मधुसूदन), Viśvanātha (विश्वनाथ), Baladeva (बलदेव)

ye hi saṃsparśajā bhogā duḥkhayonaya eva te |
ādyantavantaḥ kaunteya na teṣu ramate budhaḥ ||22||

The Subodhinī commentary by Śrīdhara

nanu priyaviṣayabhogānāmapi nivṛtteḥ kathaṃ mokṣaḥ puruṣārthaḥ syāt | tatrāha ye hīti | saṃsparśā viṣayāstebhyo jātā ye bhogāḥ sukhāni | te hi vartamānakāle'pi spardhāsūyādivyāptatvādduḥkhasyaiva yonayaḥ kāraṇabhūtāḥ | tathādimanto'ntavantaśca | ato vivekī teṣu na ramate ||22||

The Gūḍhārthadīpikā commentary by Madhusūdana

nanu bāhyaviṣayaprītinivṛttāvātmanyakṣayasukhānubhavastasmiṃśca sati tatprasādādeva bāhyaviṣayaprītinivṛttiritītaretarāśrayavaśānnaikamapi sidhyedityāśaṅkya viṣayadoṣadarśanābhyāsenaiva tatprītinivṛttirbhavatīti parihāramāha ye hīti | hi yasmādye saṃsparśajā viṣayendriyasambandhajā bhogāḥ kṣudrasukhalavānubhavā iha paratra rāgadveṣādivyāptatvena duḥkhayonaya eva te | te sarve'pi brahmalokaparyantaṃ duḥkhahetava eva | taduktaṃ viṣṇupurāṇe

yāvataḥ kurute jantuḥ saṃbandhānmanasaḥ priyān |
tāvanto'sya nisvanyante hṛdaye śokaśaṅkavaḥ || iti |

etādṛśā aî na sthirāḥ kintu ādyantavantaḥ | ādirviṣayendriyasaṃyogo'ntaśca tadviyoga evaṃ tau vidyete yeṣāṃ te pūrvāparayorasattvānmadhye svapnavadāvirbhūtāḥ kṣaṇikā mithyābhūtāḥ | taduktaṃ gauḍapādācāryaiḥ ādāvante ca yattvasti vartamāne'pi tattathā iti |

yasmādevaṃ tasmātteṣu budho vivekī na ramate pratikūlavedanīyatvācca prītimanubhavati | taduktaṃ bhagavatā patañjalinā pariṇāmatāpasaṃskāraduḥkhairguṇavṛttivirodhācca duḥkhameva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ [YogS 2.15] iti | sarvamapi viṣayasukhaṃ dṛṣṭamānuśravikaṃ ca duḥkhameva pratikūlavedanīyatvāt | vivekinaḥ parijñātakleśādisvarūpasya na tvavivekinaḥ | akṣipātrakalpo hi vidvānatyalpaduḥkhaleśenāpyudvijate yathorṇatanturatisukumāro'pyakṣipātre nyastaḥ sparśena duḥkhayati netareṣvaṅgeṣu tadvadvivekina eva madhuviṣasaṃpṛktānnabhojanavat
sarvamapi bhogasādhanaṃ kālatraye'pi kleśānubiddhatvādduḥkhaṃ na mūḍhasya bahuvidhaduḥkhasahiṣṇorityarthaḥ | tatra pariṇāmatāpasaṃskāraduḥkhairiti bhūtavartamānabhaviṣytkāle'pi duḥkhānubiddhatvādaupādhikaṃ duḥkhatvaṃ viṣayasukhasyoktaṃ, guṇavṛttivirodhāccetyanena svarūpato'pi duḥkhatvam | tatra pariṇāmaśca tāpaśca saṃskāraśca ta eva duḥkhāni tairityarthaḥ | itthaṃbhūtalakṣaṇe tṛtīyā | tathā hi rāgānubiddha eva sarvo'pi sukhānubhavaḥ | na hi tatra na rajyati tena sukhī ceti sambhavati | rāga eva ca pūrvamudbhūtaḥ san viṣayaprāptyā
sukharūpeṇa pariṇamate | tasya ca pratikṣaṇaṃ vardhamānatvena svaviṣayāprāptinibandhanaduḥkhasyāparihāryatvādduḥkharūpataiva | hi bhogeṣvindriyāṇāmupaśāntiḥ paritṛptatvāttatsukham | laulyādanupaśāntistadduḥkham | na cendriyāṇāṃ bhogābhyāsena vaitṛṣṇyaṃ kartuṃ śakyam | yato bhogābhyāsamanu vivardhante rāgāḥ kauśalāni cendriyāṇām | smṛtiśca

na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānāmupabhogena śāmyati |
haviṣā kṛṣṇavartmaiva bhūya evābhivardhate || iti |

tasmādduḥkhātmakarāgapariṇāmatvādviṣayasukhamapi duḥkhameva kāryakāraṇayorabhedāditi pariṇāmaduḥkhatvam |

tathā sukhānubhavakāle tatpratikūlāni duḥkhasādhanāni dveṣṭi | nānupahatya bhūtānyupabhogaḥ sambhavatīti bhūtāni ca hinasti | dveṣaśca sarvāṇi duḥkhasādhanāni me bhūvanniti saṅkalpaviśeṣaḥ | na ca tāni sarvāṇi kaścidapi parihartuṃ śaknoti | ataḥ sukhānubhavakāle'pi tatparipanthinaṃ prati dveṣasya sarvadaivāvasthitatvāttāpaduḥkhaṃ duṣparihārameva | tāpo hi dveṣaḥ | evaṃ duḥkhasādhanāni parihartumaśakto muhyati ceti mohaduḥkhatāpi vyākhyeyā | tathā coktaṃ yogabhāṣyakāraiḥ sarvasya dveṣānubiddhaścetanācetanasādhanādhīnastāpānubhava iti
| tatrāsti dveṣajaḥ karmāśayaḥ | sukhasādhanāni ca prārthayamānaḥ kāyena vācā manasā ca parispandate | tataḥ paramanugṛṇātyupahanti ceti parānurahapīḍābhyāṃ dharmādharmāvupacinoti | na karmāśayo lobhānmohācca bhavati ityeṣā tāpaduḥkhatocyate | tathā vartamānaḥ sukhānubhavaḥ svavināśakāle saṃskāramādhatte | sa ca sukhasmaraṇaṃ, tacca rāgaṃ, sa ca manaḥkāyavacanaceṣṭāṃ, ca puṇyāpuṇyakarmāśayau, tau ca janmādīti saṃskāraduḥkhatā | evaṃ tāpamohayorapi saṃskārau vyākhyeyau |

evaṃ kālatraye'pi duḥkhānuvedhādviṣayasukhaṃ duḥkhamevetyuktvā svarūpato'pi duḥkhatāmāha guṇavṛttivirodhācca | guṇāḥ sattvarajastamāṃsi sukhaduḥkhamohātmakāḥ parasparaviruddhasvabhāvā api tailavartyagnaya iva dīpaṃ puruṣabhogopayuktatvena tryātmakamekaṃ kāryamārabhante tatraikasya prādhānye dvayorguṇabhāvātpradhānamātravyapadeśena sāttvikaṃ rājasaṃ tāmasamiti triguṇamapi kāryamekena guṇena vyapadiśyate | tatra sukhopabhogarūpo'pi pratyaya udbhūtasattvakāryatve'pyanudbhūtarajastamaḥkāryatvāttriguṇātmaka eva | tathā ca sukhātmakatvavadduḥkhātmakatvaṃ viṣādātmakatvaṃ
ca tasya dhruvamiti duḥkhameva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ | na caitādṛśo'pi pratyayaḥ sthiraḥ | yasmāccalaṃ ca guṇavṛttamiti kṣiprapariṇāmi cittamuktam |

nanvekaḥ pratyayaḥ kathaṃ parasparaviruddhasukhaduḥkhamohatvānyekadā pratipadyata iti cet, na | udbhūtānudbhūtayorvirodhābhāvāt | samavṛttikānāmeva hi guṇānāṃ yugapadvirodho na viṣamavṛttikānām | yathā dharmajñānavairāgyaiśvaryāṇi labdhavṛttikāni labdhavṛttikairevādharmājñānāvairāgyānaiśvaryaiḥ saha virudhyante na tu svarūpasadbhiḥ | pradhānasya pradhānena saha virodho na tu durbaleneti hi nyāyaḥ | evaṃ sattvarajastamāṃsyapi parasparaṃ prādhānyamātraṃ yugapanna sahante na tu sadbhāvamapi |

etena pariṇāmatāpasaṃskāraduḥkheṣvapi rāgadveṣamohānāṃ yugapatsadbhāvo vyākhyātaḥ prasuptatanuvicchinnodārarūpeṇa kleśānāṃ caturavasthatvāt | tathā hi avidyāsmitārāgadveṣābhiniveśāḥ pañcakleśāḥ | avidyā kṣetramuttareṣāṃ prasuptatanuvicchinnodārāṇām | anityāśuciduḥkhānātmasu nityaśucisukhātmakhyātiravidyā | dṛgdarśanaśaktyorekātmataivāsmitā | sukhanuśayī rāgaḥ | duḥkhānuśayī dveṣaḥ | svarasavāhī viduṣo'pi tathārūḍho'bhiniveśaḥ | te pratiprasavaheyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ | dhyānaheyāstadvṛttayaḥ | kleśamūlaḥ
karmāśayo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭajanmavedanīyaḥ | sati mūle tadvipāko jātyāyurbhogāḥ [YogS 2.3-13] iti pātañjalāni sūtrāṇi | tatrātasmiṃstadbuddhirviparyayo mithyājñānamavidyeti paryāyāḥ | tasyā viśeṣaḥ saṃsāranidānam | tatrānitye nityabuddhiryathā dhruvā pṛthivī dhruvā sacandratārakā dyauramṛtā divaukasa iti | aśucau paramabībhatse kāye śucibuddhiryathā naveva śaśāṅkalekhā kamanīyeyaṃ kanyā madhvamṛtāvayavanirmiteva candraṃ bhittvā niḥsṛteva jñāyate nīlotpalapatrāyatākṣī hāvagarbhābhyāṃ locanābhyāṃ jīvalokamāśvāsayatīveti kasya kena sambandhaḥ |

sthānādbījādupaṣṭambhān
niṣyandānnidhanādapi |
kāyamādheyaśaucatvāt
paṇḍitā hyaśuciṃ viduḥ || iti ca vaiyāsakiślokaḥ |

etenāpuṇye puṇyapratyayo'narthe cārthapratyayo vyākhyātaḥ | duḥkhe sukhakhyātirudāhṛtā pariṇāmatāpasaṃskāraduḥkhairguṇavṛttivirodhācca duḥkhameva sarvaṃ vivekina iti | anātmanyātmakhyātiryathā śarīre manuṣyo'hamityādiḥ | iyaṃ cāvidyā sarvakleśamūlabhūtā tama ityucyate | buddhipuruṣayorabhedābhimāno'smitā mohaḥ | sādhanarahitasyāpi sarvaṃ sukhajātīyaṃ me bhūyāditi viparyayaviśeṣo rāgaḥ | sa eva mahāmohaḥ | duḥkhasādhane vidyamāne'pi kimapi duḥkhaṃ me bhūditi viparyayaviśeṣo dveṣaḥ | sa tāmisraḥ | āyurabhāve'pyetaiḥ śarīrendriyādibhir
anityairapi viyogo me bhūdityāvidvadaṅganābālaṃ svābhāvikaḥ sarvaprāṇisādhāraṇo maraṇatrāsarūpo viparyayaviśeṣo'bhiniveśaḥ | so'ndhatāmisraḥ | taduktaṃ purāṇe

tamo moho mahāmohastāmisro hyandhasaṃjñitaḥ |
avidyā pañcaparvaiṣā prādurbhūtā mahātmanaḥ || iti |

ete ca kleśāścaturavasthā bhavanti | tatrāsato'nutpatteranabhivyaktarūpeṇāvasthānaṃ suptāvasthā | abhivyaktasyāpi sahakāryalābhātkāryājanakatvaṃ tanvavasthā | abhivyaktasya janitakāryasyāpi kenacidbalavatābhibhavo vicchedāvasthā | abhivyaktasya prāptasahakārisampatterapratibandhena svakāryakaratvamudārāvasthā | etādṛgavasthācatuṣṭayaviśiṣṭānāmasmitādīnāṃ caturṇāṃ viparyayarūpāṇāṃ kleśānāmavidyaiva sāmānyarūpā kṣetraṃ prasavabhūmiḥ | sarveṣāmapi viparyayarūpatvasya darśitatvāt | tenāvidyānivṛttyaiva kleśānāṃ nivṛttirityarthaḥ | te ca kleśāḥ prasuptā yathā prakṛtilīnānāṃ, tanavaḥ pratipakṣabhāvanayā tanūkṛtā yathā yoginām
| ta ubhaye'pi sūkṣmāḥ pratiprasavena manonirodhenaiva nirbījasamādhinā heyāḥ | ye tu sūkṣmavṛttayastatkāryabhūtāḥ sthūlā vicchinnā udāhārāśca vicchidya vicchidya tena tenātmanā punaḥ prādurbhavantīti vicchinnāḥ | yathā rāgakāle krodho vidyamāno'pi na prādurbhūta iti vicchinna ucyate | evamekasyāṃ striyāṃ caitro rakta iti nānyāsu viraktaḥ kintvekasyāṃ rāgo labdhavṛttiranyāsu ca bhaviṣyadvṛttiriti sa tadā vicchinna ucyate, ye yadā viṣayeṣu labdhavṛttayaste tadā sarvātmanā prādurbhūtā udārā ucyante, ta ubhaye'pyatisthūlatvācchuddhasattvabhavena bhagavaddhyānena heyā na manoniodhamapekṣante | nirodhaheyāstu sūkṣmā eva | tathā ca
pariṇāmatāpasaṃskāraduḥkheṣu prasuptatanuvicchinnarūpeṇa sarve kleśāḥ sarvadā santi | udāratā tu kadācitkasyaciditi viśeṣaḥ | ete ca bādhanālakṣaṇaṃ duḥkhamupajanayantaḥ kleśaśabdavācyā bhavanti | yataḥ karmāśayo dharmādharmākhyaḥ kleśamūlaka eva | sati ca mūlabhūte kleśe tasya karmāśayasya vipākaḥ phalaṃ janmāyurbhogaśceti | sa ca karmāśaya iha paratra ca svavipākārambhakatvena dṛṣṭādṛṣṭajanmavedanīyaḥ | evaṃ kleśasantatirghaṭīyantravadaniśamāvartate | ataḥ samīcīnamuktaṃ ye hi saṃsparśajā bhogā duḥkhayonaya eva te ādyantavanta iti | duḥkhayonitvaṃ
pariṇāmādibhirguṇavṛttivirodhācca ādyantavattvaṃ guṇavṛttasya calatvāditi yogamate vyākhyā |

aupaniṣadānāṃ tu anādi bhāvarūpamajñānamavidyā | ahaṃkāradharmyadhyāso'smitā | rāgadveṣābhiniveśāstadvṛttiviśeṣā ityavidyāmūlatvātsarve'pyavidyātmakatvena mithyābhūtā rajjubhujaṅgādhyāsavanmithyātve'pi duḥkhayonayaḥ svapnādivaddṛṣṭisṛṣṭimātratvenādyantavantaśceti budho'dhiṣṭhānasākṣātkāreṇa nivṛttabhramasteṣu na ramate, mṛgatṛṣṇikāsvarūpajñānavāniva tatrodakārthī na pravartate | na saṃsāre sukhasya gandhamātramapyastīti buddhvā tataḥ sarvāṇīndriyāṇi nivartayedityarthaḥ ||22||

The Sārārthavarṣiṇī commentary by Viśvanātha

vivekavāneva vastuto viṣayasukhenaiva sajjatītyāha ye hīti ||22||

The Gītābhūṣaṇa commentary by Baladeva

adṛṣṭākṛṣṭeṣu viṣayabhogeṣvanityatvaviniścayānna sajjatītyāha ye hīti | saṃsparśajā viṣayajanyā bhogāḥ sukhāni | sphuṭamanyat ||22||

__________________________________________________________

Let's grow together!

I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased sources, definitions and images. Your donation direclty influences the quality and quantity of knowledge, wisdom and spiritual insight the world is exposed to.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: