Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna IV, Adhyāya 2

1. We will separately explain the various penances for the several offences, both heavier and lighter ones.

2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting for each (case),--heavier penances for great (crimes), and lighter ones for trivial (faults).

3. Let him perform the penances according to the rule given in the Institutes of the Sacred Law.

4. He who is about to accept gifts, or he who has accepted gifts, must repeatedly recite the four Ṛk-verses (called) Taratsamandīs.[1]

5. But in case one has eaten any kind of forbidden food; or that given by a person whose food must not be eaten, the means of removing the guilt is to sprinkle water (over one's head) while one recites the Taratsamandī Ṛcas.[2]

6. But we will, hereafter, declare another rule for (the expiation of) the murder of a learned Brāhmaṇa, whereby (men) are freed also from mortal sins of all (kinds).

7. Let him (perform), during twelve nights, suppressions of the breath (and) mutter purificatory texts, the Vyāhṛtis, the syllable Om, (and) the Aghamarshaṇa hymn, (living) on milk;

8. Or (he becomes) pure if he bathes, and during three (days and) nights subsists on air and (remains dressed) in wet clothes.

9. But if he has repeatedly committed forbidden acts of all kinds, and has (afterwards) worshipped reciting the Vāruṇī (texts), he is freed from all sin.[3]

10. Now a student who has broken his vow (avakīrṇin) shall heap fuel on the fire on the night of the new moon, perform the preparatory ceremonies required for a Darvīhoma, and offer two oblations of clarified butter (reciting the following texts): 'O Lust, I have broken my vow, my vow I have broken, O Lust, to. Lust Svāhā;' 'O Lust, I have done evil, I have done evil, O Lust, to Lust Svāhā.'[4]

11. After he has made the offering, he shall address the fire, closely joining his hands and turning sideways, (with the following texts): 'May the Maruts grant me, may Indra, may Bṛhaspati,, may this fire grant me long life and strength, make me long-lived.' The Maruts, forsooth, give back to him the vital airs, Indra gives back to him strength, Bṛhaspati the lustre of Brahman, Fire all the remainder. (Thus) his body is made whole, and he attains the full length of life. Let him next address (the gods) with three (repetitions of the texts). For the gods are trebly true. (All that) has been declared in the Veda.

12. He who considers himself defiled by minor offences (upapātaka), will be freed from all guilt if he offers burnt oblations according to this same rule;[5]

13. Or if he has partaken of food unfit to be eaten or to be drunk or of forbidden food, and if he has committed sinful acts or performed sinful rites either unintentionally or intentionally, and if he has had connexion with a female of the Śūdra caste or committed an unnatural crime, he becomes pure by bathing (and reciting) the Abliṅga (verses) and (those called) Vāruṇīs.[6]

14. Now they quote also (the following verse): If he has partaken of food unfit to be eaten or to be drunk, or of forbidden food, and if he has committed forbidden acts or performed forbidden rites, he will, nevertheless, be freed from (crimes) committed intentionally which are similar to mortal sins, nay, even from mortal sins (pātaka).'[7]

15. Or let him fast during three (days and) nights, bathe thrice a day, and, suppressing his breath, thrice recite the Aghamarshaṇa. Manu has declared that that is equal (in efficacy) to the final bath at a horse-sacrifice.[8]

16. And it is declared in the Veda, '(That is) the ancient purificatory rite, which is widely known (in the Institutes of the Sacred Law); purified thereby man conquers sin. May we, sanctified by this holy means of purification, conquer our enemy, sin.'

Footnotes and references:


Gautama XXIV, 2. The gift is, of course, one which ought not to be accepted.


Rig-veda IX, 58. Mārjanam, literally 'rubbing,' means sprinkling the head with a handful of water.--Govinda.


'Upasthāna, "worshipping," i.e. sprinkling one's head with a handful of water.'--Govinda.


A repetition of the rule given above, II, 1, I, 34; see also III, 4.


Gautama XXV, 6.


Govinda gives, like Haradatta on Gautama XXV, 7, as an instance of a doṣavat karma, 'a sinful rite,' the abhicāra or 'magic rite in order to harm enemies.' The expression has, however, in our Sūtra, a wider sense.


I.e. if he performs the penance prescribed in the preceding Sūtra.


Vasiṣṭha XXVI, 8; Gautama XXIV, 10.

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