Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna III, Adhyāya 10

1. The law of castes and of orders has been declared.[1]

2. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world is polluted) by a vile action or acts wrongly, (e.g.) sacrifices for men. unworthy to offer a sacrifice, accepts presents from those whose gifts ought not to be accepted, eats the food of those whose food ought not to be eaten, (and) practises what is forbidden.[2]

3. They are in doubt if he shall perform a penance for such (a deed) or if he shall not do it.

4. (They declare that he shall not do it) because the deed does not peṛṣ.

5. (The correct opinion is) that he shall perform (a penance).[3]

6. It is declared in the Veda, 'Let him offer a Punastoma; (those who offer it, may) again come to (partake of) the libations of Soma.'[4]

7. He who offers a horse-sacrifice conquers all sin, he effaces the guilt of the murder of a Brāhmaṇa.'[5]

8. Moreover, 'He who is being accused (of a heinous crime) shall perform an Agniṣṭut sacrifice.'

9. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fasting, giving gifts are the means for expiating such (a blamable act).

10. The purificatory (texts are), the Upaniṣads, the initial (verses) of the Vedas, the ends of the Vedas (vedāntas), the Saṃhitās of all the Vedas, (the Anuvākas called) Madhu, (the hymn of) Aghamarshaṇa, the Atharvaśiras, (the Anuvākas called the) Rudras, the Puruṣa hymn, the two Sāmans (called) Rājina and Rauhiṇeya, the Bṛhat (Sāman) and the Rathantara, the Puruṣagati (Sāman), the Mahānāmnīs, the Mahāvairāja (Sāman), the Mahādivākīrtya (Sāman), any of the Jyeṣṭha Sāmans, the Bahiṣpavamāna Sāman, the Kūṣmāṇḍīs, the Pāvamānīs, and the Sāvitrī.[6]

11. To live on milk alone, as if one were fasting, to eat vegetables only, to eat fruit only, (to live on) gruel prepared of a handful of barley-grains, to eat gold, to eat clarified butter (are the modes of subsistence) which purify.

12. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, bathing-places, the dwellings of Ṛṣis, cowpens, (holy) plains and temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy sin)[7]

13. Abstention from injuring living beings, truthfulness, abstention from theft (or unrighteously appropriating anything), bathing in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, obedience towards Gurus, continence, sleeping on the ground, dressing in one garment only, and abstaining from food (are the various kinds of) austerity.

14. Gold, a cow, a dress, a horse, land, sesamum, clarified butter, and food (are) the gifts.

15. A year, six months, four (months), three (months), two (months), one (month), twenty-four days, twelve days, six days, three days, a day and a night, (and) one day are the periods (for penances).

16. These (acts) may be optionally performed if no (particular penance) has been prescribed,

17. (Viz.) for great crimes difficult (penances) and for trivial faults easy ones.

18. The Kṛcchra and the Atikṛcchra, as well as the Cāndrāyaṇa, are penances for all (offences).

Footnotes and references:


10. As stated formerly, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. li this chapter is borrowed from Gautama XIX. I have therefore adopted the same division of the Sūtras as in the translation of the latter work.


I read, with the MSS. of the commentary, atha khalvayaṃ puruṣo yāpyena karmaṇā mithyā vācaraty ayāgyaṃ vā yāgayaty apratigrāhyasya vā pratigṛhṇāty anāśyānnasya vānnam aśnāty acaraṇīyena vācarati. M. reads yājayitvā, and the Dekhan MSS. yājayitvā and pratigṛhya.


The Dekhan MSS. read kūryād ity eva, M. kūryād eva, and Govinda kuryāt tv eva.


All the MSS. of the text omit the word vijñāyate, 'it is declared in the Veda,' which is given by Govinda.


All the MSS. of the text give at the beginning of this Sūtra p. 311 athāpy udāharanti, 'now they quote also,' which Govinda omits, and which is inappropriate, because the following passages are taken from the Veda.


The word vedādayaḥ, which occurs also in some MSS. of Vasiṣṭha (XXII, 9), must be explained, according to the analogy of karmādi, the beginning of the sacrifices' (Sāyaṇa on Taitt. Ār. II, 7, 5), by 'the initial verses of the Vedas.' The Pāvamānīs are added on the authority of Govinda alone.


'Kṣetra, (holy) plains, e.g. the Kurukṣetra.'--Govinda.

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