Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna III, Adhyāya 8

1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of the Cāndrāyaṇa (lunar penance).[1]

2. Let him fast on the fourteenth day of the bright half of the month.

3. Having had the hair on his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails, or his beard alone, cut, let him enter, dressed, in new clothes and speaking the truth, the place where the sacrificial fire is preserved.

4. There a (common) fire, (which may be) fetched once (only, shall serve) him; or (the fire) must be produced by friction with the Araṇis.[2]

5. Let a student, who is a friend (of the performer), be ready at hand to (carry out his) directions;

6. And sacrificial viands (shall be his) food during the performance of the vow.

7. Having heaped fuel on the fire, scattered (Kuśa grass) around it, and performed (the ceremonies) up to the end of the Agnimukha, he offers burnt oblations, (cutting off portions) from the cooked food,

8. (The first) to Agni, (the second) to the lunar day whichever it may be, (the third and the fourth)[3] to the lunar mansion together with its guardian deity, the fifth to the moon (with the verse), 'Atrāha gor amanvata,' the sixth to the sky and the earth, the seventh to day and night, the eighth to Rudra, the ninth to the sun, the tenth to Varuṇa, the eleventh to Indra, and the twelfth to all the gods.

9. Now they mention (the following) other (oblations which are to be offered) to the points of the horizon and to their (guardian) deities, to the wide middle sphere and to its (guardian) deity.

10. Having offered (the oblation) to Agni Sviṣṭakṛt (with the verse), 'Ever new,' &c., he then places the remainder of the sacrificial viands into a goblet (kaṃsa) or a cup (camasa), pours seasoning, that is fit for sacrifices, over them, and eats fifteen morsels of ordinary size,[4]

11. The first (saying, 'I offer) thee to Prāṇa,' the second (saying,' I offer) thee to Apāna,' the third (saying, 'I offer) thee to Vyāna,' the fourth (saying, 'I offer) thee to Udāna,' the fifth (saying, 'I offer) thee to Samāna.' If there are only four (mouthfuls, he eats) the first reciting two (texts); if there are three, (he eats) the first two reciting two (texts) with each; if there are two, (he eats) the first reciting two (texts and) the second reciting three texts; (if, there is only) one, (he recites) all (the five texts) together.[5]

12. Having drunk water (with the text), 'Thou[6] art water used for moistening Soma,' &c., he then offers the (following) additional oblations of clarified butter, with the seven Anuvākas (beginning), 'May my Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna, and Samāna be purified;' 'May my voice, mind, eye, ear,' &c.; 'May my head, hands, feet;' 'May my skin;' 'May the sense of hearing, touch;' 'May earth, water;' 'May that which consists of food.'

13. (The ceremonies) beginning with the muttering (of sacred texts) and ending with the gift of a cow as a fee are known.[7]

14. He worships the sun with (three verses) ad--dressed to Sūrya and the moon with (three verses) addressed to Candramas.[8]

15. When he goes to rest, he mutters (the verse), 'O fire, keep thou good watch,'[9]

16. When he awakes (in the morning, the verse), 'O fire, thou art the protector of vows.'[10]

17. Let him not talk with women and Śūdras addressing them first; let him not look at urine and ordure.

18. If he has seen any impure substance, he mutters (the text), 'Unrestrained (was) the internal organ, wretched my eye; the sun is the most[11] excellent among the lights of heaven; O initiation, mayest thou not forsake me.'

19. On the first day of the latter half (of the month he eats) fourteen mouthfuls.

20. Thus (he takes every day) one (mouthful) less up to the day of the new moon.

21. On the day of the new moon there is not (even) one mouthful (left to take).

22. On the first day of the first half (of the month) one (mouthful may be eaten), on the second two.

23. Thus he daily increases (his meal) by one (mouthful) up to the day of the full moon.

24. On the day of the full moon he offers a Sthālīpāka  to Agni, to the lunar day whichever it may be, and to the lunar mansions as well as to their (guardian) deities.

25. Having offered a burnt oblation to (the lunar mansion) Abhijit (which stands) before Śroṇā, and to its (guardian) deity, he must give a cow to the Brāhmaṇas.

26. That is the ant-shaped lunar penance; (that which is performed in the) inverted (order is called) the barleycorn-shaped (lunar penance).[12]

27. A sinner who has performed either of these two (penances) becomes free from all mortal sins (pātaka).

28. They declare that the (Cāndrāyaṇa) shall be performed for the sake of the fulfilment of wishes of all kinds.

29. 'Thereby man obtains every wish which he may conceive.'

30. 'Thereby the sages formerly purified themselves and accomplished their objects. That (rite) procures wealth, spiritual merit, sons, cattle, long life, heavenly bliss, and fame; it secures the fulfilment of all desires.'

31. 'He who studies this, becomes the companion of the lunar constellations, of sun and moon, and dwells in their world.'

Footnotes and references:


8. For this chapter compare Gautama XXVII.


The meaning of the Sūtra is that the fire which has been carried into the āvasatha must be kept burning during the whole month which the Cāndrāyaṇa lasts. For a burnt oblation has to be performed at the end of the penance. Should it be extinguished, it must be rekindled by friction.


The text quoted occurs Taitt. Brāhmaṇa I, 5, 8, 1.


Taitt. Saṃhitā II, 3, 5, 3.


This is an imitation of the Prāṇāgnihotra described above, II, 7, 12.


Taitt. Saṃhitā III, 1, 8, 1. The seven Anuvākas are Taitt. Āraṇyaka X, 51-57. One oblation is to be offered with each Anuvāka.


Govinda here mentions that the whole of the ceremonies alluded to are the uttaraṃ dārvihomikaṃ tantram.


As Govinda states, the former verses are 'ud vayaṃ tamasas pari,' Taitt. Saṃhitā IV, I, 7, 4; 'ud u tyaṃ jātavedasaṃ,' ibid. I, 1, 8, 4; 'citram devānām,' ibid. I, 4, 43, 1; while the verses addressed to the moon are 'nano navo,' Ibid. II, 4, 14, 1; 'sa citracitram,' Rig-veda VI, 6, 7; and 'atrāha gor,' Taitt. Brāhmaṇa 1, 5, 8, 1.


Taitt. Saṃhitā I, 2, 3, I.


Taitt. Saṃhitā, loc. cit.


Taitt. Saṃhitā III, I, 1, 2.


Viṣṇu XLVII, 3-5.

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