Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna III, Adhyāya 7

1. 'Let him who considers himself impure offer (burnt oblations), reciting the Kūṣmāṇḍas.'[1]

2, 'He who has had forbidden intercourse, or has committed a crime against nature, becomes even like a thief, even like the slayer of a learned Brāhmaṇa.'

3. 'He is freed from any sin which is less than the crime of slaying a learned Brāhmaṇa.'

4. If, after wasting his strength except in his sleep, he desires to become free from the stain and holy,

5. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails to be cut on the day of the new moon or of the full moon, and takes upon himself a vow according to the rule prescribed for students,

6. (To be kept) during a year, or a month, or twenty-four days, or twelve nights, or six or three nights.[2]

7. Let him not eat meat, nor approach a woman, not sit on (a couch or seat, and) beware of (speaking an) untruth.[3]

8. To subsist on milk (alone is) the most excellent mode of living; or, using barley-gruel (as his food), he may perform a Kṛcchra (penance) of twelve days, or he may (maintain himself by) begging.[4]

9. On such (occasions) a Kṣatriya (shall subsist on) barley-gruel, a Vaiśya on curds of two-milk whey.

10. Having kindled the sacred fire in the morning according to the rule for Pākayajñas, having scattered (Kuśa grass) around it, and having performed (the preliminary ceremonies) up to the end of the Agnimukha, he next offers in addition burnt oblations, reciting the three Anuvākas (beginning), 'What cause of anger to the gods, ye gods,' 'The debts which I contracted,' (and) 'May worshipful Agni give thee by every means long life.'[5]

11. Let him offer with each Ṛk-verse a portion of clarified butter.

12. After having offered four oblations with (the spoon called) Sruva, reciting (the texts), 'That strength which lies in the lion, in the tiger, and in the panther,' &c., and the four Abhyāvartinīs (i.e. the texts), 'Thou, O fire, who turnest back,' &c., 'O Aṅgiras,' &c., 'Again with strength,' &c., (and) 'With wealth,' &c., after having taken his position, with sacred fuel in his hands, in the place allotted to the sacrificer, he worships (the fire) with the hymn which contains twelve verses (and begins), 'To Vaiśvānara we announce.'[6]

13. Having placed the piece of sacred fuel (on the fire with the text), 'Whatever sin I ever committed[7] by thoughts or words, from all that free me (O fire, being duly) praised, for thou knowest the truth, Svāhā,' he gives a fee.

14. (The ceremonies) which begin with the muttering (of the texts) and end with the gift of a cow as a fee are known.

15. One (person) only (shall) perform the service of the fire.

16. Now (let him offer) at the Agnyādheya full oblations (pūrṇāhuti, with the texts), 'Whatever cause of anger to the gods, ye gods;' 'The debts which I contracted;" May worshipful Agni give thee by every means long life.'[8]

17. Having offered (it), he who is about to perform the Agnihotra, (worships) with the Daśahotṛ (texts); having offered (it), he who is about to perform the new and full moon sacrifices (worships) with the Caturhotṛ (texts); having offered (it), he who is about to offer the Cāturmāsya sacrifices (worships) with the Pañcahotṛ (texts); having offered it, (he worships) at an animal sacrifice with the Ṣaḍḍhotṛ (texts), at a Soma-sacrifice with the Saptahotṛ (texts).[9]

18. And it is declared in the Veda, 'Let him sacrifice (with the Kūṣmāṇḍa texts) at the beginning of the rites; purified (thereby) he gains the world of the gods.' Thus (speaks) the Brāhmaṇa.[10]

p. 303

Footnotes and references:


-3. 7. Taittirīya Āraṇyaka II, 8, 1-3.


Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 8, 5-6.


Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 8, 7.


Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 8, 8. As the next Sūtra shows, these rules refer to Brāhmaṇas. Regarding the Kṛcchra, see below, IV, 57.


For the rule, see Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 7, 4. The three Anuvākas mentioned are Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 5.


Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 7, 4. The first four texts occur Taitt. Brāhmaṇa II, 7, 7, 1-2, the next four Taitt. Saṃhitā IV, 2, 1, 2-3, and the hymn Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 6. The place of the sacrificer to the south of the fire.


Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 6, 2 (13).


From this and the next Sūtras it must be understood that the Kūṣmāṇḍahoma is not only to be used as a penance, but may be offered at the beginning of the great Śrauta sacrifices, in order to sanctify the performer and to secure special benefits.


The Saptahotṛ' and the other texts mentioned occur Taitt, Āraṇyaka III, 1-5. I understand the verb 'worship' on account of Lāṭyāyana X, 12, 50.


Taitt. Āraṇyaka II, 7, 5.

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