Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna II, Adhyāya 7, Kaṇḍikā 12

1. Now we will explain the oblations (offered) to the vital air (prāṇa) by Śālīnas (householders) and Yāyāvaras (vagrants), who sacrifice to the soul.[1]

2. At the end of all the necessary (daily rites), let him sit down, facing the east, in a place that has been well cleaned and smeared with cowdung; next let him worship that prepared (food) which is being brought. (saying), 'Bhūḥ, Bhuvaḥ, Svaḥ, Om,' (and then) remain silent.

3. (Next) he pours water round the food which has been placed (before him), turning his right hand towards it, and reciting the Mahāvyāhṛtis; (afterwards), continuing to hold (the dish) with his left hand, he first drinks water, (saying), 'Thou art a substratum for ambrosia,' and (finally) offers five oblations of food to the vital airs, (reciting the[2] texts), 'Full of reverence, I offer ambrosia to Prāṇa; mayest thou propitiously enter me, not in order to burn me. To Prāṇa, Svāhā!' &c.

4. After offering the five oblations of food to the vital airs, let him finish his meal silently. Meditating in his heart on the lord of created beings, let him not emit speech while (eating),

5. If he emits speech, he shall mutter 'Bhūḥ, Bhuvaḥ, Svaḥ, Om,' and afterwards continue to eat.

6. Now they quote also (the following rule): 'If he sees (bits of) skin, hair, nail-(parings), insects, or the dung of rats (in his food), 'he shall take out a lump, sprinkle that spot with water, scatter ashes on it, again sprinkle it with water, and use (the remainder of the food), after it has been declared fit (for use).'[3]

7. Now they quote also (the following verse): 'He shall eat, seated with his face towards the east, silent, not despising his food, not scattering (fragments on the ground), and solely attend (to his dinner); and, after he has eaten, he shall touch fire.'[4]

8. He shall not cut off with his teeth (pieces from) eatables (that must be swallowed) entire, (such as) cakes, bulbs, roots, fruit, and flesh.

9. (Let him) not (eat) to repletion.[5]

10. After (dinner) he shall drink water, (reciting the text), 'Thou art 'a covering for ambrosia,' and stroke (the region of) the heart, (saying), 'Thou art the bond that connects the vital airs; (thou art)[6] Rudra and Death; enter me; mayest thou grow through this food.'

11. After sipping water a second time, he allows (the drops from) the hand to flow on the big toe of his right foot (and recites the following text): 'May the male be pleased, he who is of the size of a thumb, who occupies (a space of the size of) a thumb, who is the lord of the whole world, masterful, and the enjoyer of the universe.'[7]

12. Let him perform the subsequent consecration (anumantraṇa) of the (food which has been) offered, with raised arms, (and let him recite) the five (texts beginning), 'With faith, worshipping Prāṇa, (I have) offered ambrosia; mayest thou increase Prāṇa through this food,'[8]

13. (And let him address the soul with the last text of the Anuvāka), '(May) my soul (gain) immortality in the universal soul.'

14. And let him (meditate on his) soul (as) united with the imperishable (syllable Om).[9]

15. He who sacrifices to the soul, surpasses him who offers all sacrifices.

Footnotes and references:


12. The Prāṇāgnihotra is alluded to by Āpastamba II, 7, 17, 16, Regarding the terms Śālīna and Yāyāvara, see below, III, 1, 3-4.


The Mahāvyāhṛtis are the Mantras given Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X. 2. The second Mantra is found Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X, 32, and p. 263 the third ibid. X, 34. The translation of the Mantras follows Govinda, who somewhat differs from Sāyaṇa.


Vasiṣṭha XIV, 23.


Viṣṇu LXVIII, 40-43.


Viṣṇu LXVIII, 47.


The first text is found Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X, 35, and the second ibid. X, 37. I translate the first according to Govinda.


Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X, 38. The individual soul which re-sides, in the heart is here identified with the universal soul; see also Kāṭhaka Upaniṣad IV, 12.


-13. Taittirīya Āraṇyaka X, 36.


The syllable Om is Brahman, the universal soul.

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