Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna II, Adhyāya 3, Kaṇḍikā 5

1. Bathing is suitable for (the practice of) austerity.

2. The libation to the manes (is offered) after the gods have been satisfied (with water),

3. They pour out water which gives strength, from one Tīrtha after the other.[1]

4. Now they quote also (the following verses): 'With flowing, unconfined water twice-born men of the three castes shall satisfy the gods, Ṛṣis, and manes, when they have risen in the morning.'

5. 'They shall not offer (libations of water) con-fined (in tanks and wells), (If they do it), he who made the embankment; will obtain a share (of the merit of their devotion).'[2]

6. 'Therefore let him avoid embankments (around tanks) and wells made by others.'[3]

7. Nov they quote also (the following verse): 'Or, in times of distress--not as a rule--he may bathe in (water) confined (in tanks), after taking out three lumps (of earth); from a well (let him take three) lumps of clay and three jars of water.'[4]

8. If he has accepted presents from one who is able to give presents to many, or from one whose presents ought not to be accepted, or if he has sacrificed for one for whom he ought not to have sacrificed, or if he has eaten food (given by a person) whose food must not be eaten, he shall mutter the Taratsamandīya.[5]

9. Now they quote also (the following verse): Those who improperly associate with (an outcast) teacher, those who improperly associate with (outcast) pupils, and those who improperly associate (with outcasts) by (accepting their) food or by (reciting) Mantras (for them), enter into deep darkness.'

10. Now (follow) the duties of a Snātaka.[6]

11. After offering at the morning and at the evening (meals) with (a portion of) the food which he may have, the Vaiśvadeva and the Bali-offerings, he shall honour, according to his ability, Brāhmaṇas, Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas, and Śūdras (who may come to his house as) guests.[7]

12. If he cannot (afford to give food) to many, let him give (something) to one who possesses good qualities,

13. Or to him who has come first.

14, If a Śūdra (has come as) a guest, he shall order him (to do some) work, (and feed him afterwards);[8]

15. Or (if he cannot spare much), he may give a first portion (agrya) to a Śrotriya.[9]

16. It is prescribed that the division (of the food) shall be made without detriment to (the interests of) those who daily receive a portion.[10]

17. But he shall never eat without having given away (some small portion of the food).

18. Now they quote also two verses which have been proclaimed by (the goddess of) food: 'Him who, without giving me to the gods, the manes, his servants, his guests and friends, consumes what has been prepared and (thus), in his exceeding folly, swallows poison, I consume, and I am his death. But for him who, offering the Agnihotra, performing the Vaiśvadeva, and honouring guests, eats, full of contentment, purity, and faith, what remains after feeding those whom he must support, I become ambrosia, and he (really) enjoys me.'

19. Presents of money must be given, according to one's ability, to good Brāhmaṇas, Śrotriyas, and Vedapāragas, when they beg outside the Vedi, for the sake of Gurus, in order to defray (the expenses of) their marriages, or of medicine, or when they are distressed for a livelihood, or desirous to offer a sacrifice, or engaged in studying, or on a journey, or have performed a Viśvajit sacrifice.[11]

20. Cooked food (must be given) to other (beggars).[12]

21. Let him eat (seated) in a pure, enclosed place, after having well washed his hands and feet and after having sipped water, respectfully receiving the food which is brought to him, keeping himself free from lust, anger, hatred, greed, and perplexity, (conveying the food into his mouth) with all his fingers and making no noise (during mastication).[13]

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

5. As to the Tīrthas, see above, I, 5, 8, 15-16.

[2]:

Manu IV, 201.

[3]:

Viṣṇu LXIV, 1.

[4]:

Viṣṇu LXIV, 2. I read the verse as follows: uddhṛtya vāpi trīn piṇḍān kuiyād āpatsu no sadā | niruddhāsu ca mṛtpiṇḍān kūpāt trīn abghaṭāṃstatheti || The Dekhan MSS. read at the end of the second half verse, kūpāṃstrīnavaṭāṃstathā; M. has kupātṝnabapaṭānstathā while C. I. gives kūpāt trīn ghaṭāṃstathā. Nandapaṇḍita on Viṣṇu, loc. cit., seems to have had the latter p. 239 reading, and to have changed it to 'kūpāt to trin ghaṭāṃstathā,' in order to save the metre. The sense remains the same.

[5]:

Manu XI, 254. The text is found Rig-veda IX, 58. Govinda explains bahupratigrāhya, 'one who is able to give presents to many,' by bahubhṛtyabharaṇakṣama, 'one who is able to support many servants.'

[6]:

Vasiṣṭha XII, 1.

[7]:

Vasiṣṭha XI, 3-9.

[8]:

Āpastamba II, 2, 4, 19.

[9]:

Vasiṣṭha XI, 5. Govinda quotes a verse, according to which an agrya, 'first portion,' is equal to sixteen mouthfuls, each of the size of a peahen's egg.

[10]:

Āpastamba II, 4, 9,10-11. 'Those who daily receive a portion' (nityabhāktika), i.e. sons, wives, and so forth.--Govinda. But see also Āpastamba, loc. cit.

[11]:

Gautama V, 20-21, and notes. 'A good Brāhmaṇa, i.e. one who follows the rule of conduct.'--Govinda.

[12]:

Gautama V, 22.

[13]:

Vasiṣṭha XII, 19-20; Viṣṇu LXVIII, 46. 'This is the rule for him who makes an offering to Ātman (i.e. performs the Prāṇāgnihotra at his meal).'--Govinda. See also below, II, 7, 12.

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