Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna I, Adhyāya 7, Kaṇḍikā 15

1. The sacred fires (shall be) approached from the north,[1]

2. (And be) left in the same manner.

3. The contrary (proceeding should be adopted at sacrifices offered) to the manes.[2]

4. Let him wash that which has been touched with (his) foot.

5. Let him touch water, in case he touches his body or the hem (of his garment).[3]

6: Likewise (let him touch water) after cutting, splitting, digging or removing (anything, or offering oblations) to the manes, to the Rākṣasas, to Nirṛti, to Rudra, (and after performing sacrifices) intended as spells (against enemies).

7. Let him not turn round himself a sacrificial implement (the use of) which is accompanied by the recitation of mantras.[4]

8. (For) the sacrificial implements (are) more nearly (connected with the sacrifice),[5]

9. The priests, more remotely.

10. The sacrificer and his wife are even nearer than the priests.[6]

11. After the sacrificial implements (follows) the clarified butter, after the clarified butter the sacrificial viands, after the sacrificial viands the animal to be slain, after the animal the Soma, after the Soma the sacred fires.[7]

12. If there is work for them, the priests shall not turn away from the sacred fires.[8]

13. If he faces the east, let him turn towards his right shoulder,[9]

14. If he faces the west, towards the left.[10]

15. The entrance to the sacrificial (enclosure lies) between the Cātvāla and the Utkara,[11]

16. (When one comes) from the Cātvāla, (it lies between) the Āhavanīya fire and the Utkara.[12]

17. The officiating (priests), the sacrificer, and his wife shall enter by that (road),

18. As long as the sacrificial rite is not completed.

19. When it has been finished (they shall) pass to and fro on the side where there is no Utkara (i.e. on the western side of the enclosure).

20. Let him not put on the fire logs or Samidhs which have not been sprinkled (with water),

21. The Brahman (priest) and the sacrificer shall enter in front of the Āhavanīya fire.

22. Some (declare that they shall enter) behind the Āhavanīya fire.

23. The seat of the Brahman (priest is situated) to the south of the Āhavanīya fire, (that) of the sacrificer to the west of him.[13]

24. (The seat) of the Hotṛ (priest is situated) to the north of the northern Sroṇi (of the Vedi),[14]

25. (That) of the Āgnīdhra priest near the Utkara,

26. (That) of the (sacrificer's) wife behind the Gārhapatya fire.

27. He scatters Darbha grass on these (seats) as often as (they are used).

28. A vessel filled with water, for the purpose of sipping, shall be appropriated to (the use of) each (person).

29. He who has been initiated (to the performance of a sacrifice shall) keep the (following) vows:

30. Let him not proclaim the guilt of other men; let him not become angry; let him not weep; let him not look at urine and ordure.

31. If he has looked at any unclean (substance), he mutters (the verse), 'Unrestrained is the internal[15] organ, wretched (my) eye-sight; the sun is the chief of the (heavenly) lights; O Dīkṣā, do not forsake me!'

Footnotes and references:


15. Mānava Śrauta Sūtra I, 1, 1, and Kumārila thereon in Professor Goldstücker's lithographed copy and Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra I, 8, 24. See also Professor Haug's map of 'the sacrificial compound,' Aitareya-brāhmaṇa, vol. i.


I.e. the entrance and exit are to be made to the south of the fires.


Govinda explains sic, 'the hem of the garment,' by the garment wrapped round the loins (parihitaṃ vāsaḥ).


The meaning is that the priest must hold the sacrificial implements, such as the sruc and sruva ladles, between himself and the fires, and not place himself between them and the fires (ātmano bahir na kūryāt agner antaraḥ svayaṃ na bhaved iti yāvat).


'He gives the reason for that (rule), "For the sacrificial implements (are) nearer" than the priests, that must be understood.'--Govinda.


'For they obtain the reward of the sacrifice. The instances (referring) to those two are the Vaisarjanas and the Dākṣiṇas:--Govinda.


Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra I, 8, 31. 'If the space on the p. 184 Uttaravedi and the rest is confined, the Soma is made ready immediately after the fire, after that the meat and so forth, after that the grain for the sacrificial cakes, then the clarified butter, and after that the spoons called sruva, sruc, and so forth.'--Govinda.


'It is indicated hereby that, if there is work (to be done) there, they shall not turn away from the sacred fires except ir cases of absolute necessity.'--Govinda.


'This rule (refers to the case) when he walks with the sacred fires. It must be understood that he shall not turn his back on the fires.'--Govinda.


'This rule (is to be interpreted) in the same manner (as the preceding one). Or it is prescribed by these two Sūtras that the men engaged (in the sacrifice) shall go out, turning their right hand towards (the fires).'--Govinda.


Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra V, 1, 11.


I read with the MSS. of the text 'cātvālād āhavanīyotkarau.' The two copies of the commentary give cātvālah āhavanīyotkarau. Govinda says that the words antareṇa tīrtham must be understood. For the position of the Cātvāla and the Utkara, see Professor Haug's map, where the road of the priests is also marked, though somewhat differently.


For the seats of the priests and the other persons named in this and the following rules, see Professor Haug's plan, and Dr. Hillebrandt's Altindische Neu and Vollmondopfer, p. 190.


'The northern Sroṇi of the Vedi, i.e. the north-western corner of the Vedi.'--Govinda.


Taittirīya Saṃhitā III, I, 1, 2, where the rule also is given. M. alone adds another Sūtra, the text of which is corrupt. But it ended with the mantra undatīr balaṃ dhatta, &c. Taitt. S. ibid. 3.

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