Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna I, Adhyāya 3, Kaṇḍikā 5

1. Now (follow the duties) of a Snātaka.[1]

2. He shall wear a lower garment and upper garment.[2]

3. Let him carry a staff made of bamboo,

4. And a pot filled with water.

5. Let him wear two sacrificial threads.

6. (He shall possess) a turban, an upper garment (consisting of) a skin, shoes, and a parasol. (He shall keep) a sacred fire and (offer) the new and full moon (Sthālīpākas).[3]

7. He shall cause the hair of his head, of his beard, and of his body, and his nails to be cut on the Parva days.[4]

8. His livelihood (he shall obtain in the following manner):[5]

9. Let him beg uncooked (food) from Brāhmaṇas, Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas, or carpenters,[6]

10. Or (cooked) food (even from many).[7]

11. Let him remain silent (when he goes to beg).

12. Let him perform with that all Pākayajñas, offered to the gods and manes, and the rites, securing welfare.[8]

13. Baudhāyana declares that by (following) this rule the most excellent sages reach the highest abode of Prajāpati Parameṣṭhin.[9]

Footnotes and references:


5. Regarding the term Snātaka, see Āpastamba I, 11, 30, 1-4. Govinda thinks that the following rules are intended to apply In the first instance to a student who has performed the Samāvartana on completion of his studentship and lives unmarried at home. For though the Smṛti declares it necessary for a student to enter, on completing his term, at once into one of the remaining three p. 159 orders, it may happen; as the commentator observes, that the Snātaka's marriage cannot take place immediately. The correctness of this view is proved by Āpastamba I, 2, 8, and by the fact that below, II, 3, 5, the rules for a married Snātaka are given separately.


-5. Vasiṣṭha XII, 14.


Āpastamba I, 2, 8, 2.


Regarding the Parva days, see Vasiṣṭha XII, 21 note.


Vasiṣṭha XII, 2-4. 'Though the Snātaka is the subject of the discussion, the word "his" is used (in this Sūtra) in order to introduce the remaining duties of a householder also.'--Govinda.


The carpenter (rathakāra) is a Śūdra, but connected with the Vedic sacrifices.


'"Food" (bhaikṣam), i.e. a quantity of begged food. The meaning is that in times of distress he may beg from many.'--Govinda.


With that, i.e. with the food obtained by begging. Regarding p. 160 the Pākayajñas, see Gautama VIII, 18. Govinda gives as an instance of the rites securing welfare (bhūtikarmāṇi) the āyuṣyacaru, a rice-offering intended to procure long life.


Govinda explains Baudhāyana by Kāṇvāyana, and adds that either the author speaks of himself in the third person or a pupil must have compiled the book.

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