Baudhayana Dharmasutra

by Georg Bühler | 1882 | 56,962 words

The prashnas of the Dharmasutra of Baudhayana consist of the Srautasutra and other ritual treatises, the Sulvasutra which deals with vedic geometry, and the Grihyasutra which deals with domestic rituals. The Dharmasutra of Baudhayana like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasutra. Likewise, it is composed of prashnas which liter...

Praśna I, Adhyāya 2, Kaṇḍikā 3

1. The (term of the) studentship for (learning the) Veda, as kept by the ancients, (is) forty-eight years,[1]

2. (Or) twenty-four (years), or twelve for each Veda,[2]

3. Or at the least one year for each Kāṇḍa,[3]

4. Or until (the Veda has been) learned; for life is uncertain.[4]

5. A passage of the revealed texts declares, 'Let him kindle the sacred fires while his hair is (still) black.'[5]

6. They do not put any (religious) restrictions on the acts of a (child) before the investiture with the girdle (is performed). For he is on a level with a Śūdra before (his second) birth through the Veda.[6]

7. The number of years (must be calculated) from the conception. Let him initiate a Brāhmaṇa in the eighth (year) after that,[7]

8. A Kṣatriya three (years) later (than a Brāhmaṇa),

9. A Vaiśya one year later than a (Kṣatriya).

10. Spring, summer, and autumn are the seasons (for the initiation) according to the order of the castes.[8]

11. (Let him perform the initiation reciting), according to the order (of the castes), a Gāyatrī, a Tṛṣṭubh, (or) a Jagatī (verse).

12. Up to the sixteenth, the twenty-second, and the twenty-fourth (years) respectively (the time for the initiation) has not passed.[9]

13. The girdles (shall consist of a rope) made of Muñja grass, a bow-string, (or a rope) made of hemp.[10]

14. The skins (shall be) those of a black antelope, of a spotted deer, (or) of a he-goat.[11]

15. The staff shall reach the crown of the head, the forehead, (or) the tip of the nose, (and be made) of a tree fit for a sacrifice. The details have been stated above.[12]

16. Let him beg, (employing a formula) consisting of seven syllables, with the word bhavat in the beginning, with the word bhikṣā in the middle, and with the (verb expressing) the request at the end; and let him not pronounce loudly (the syllables) kṣā and hi.[13]

17. A Brāhmaṇa (student) shall ask for alms, placing (the word) 'Lady' first, a Kṣatriya placing[14] it in the middle, (and) a Vaiśya placing it at the end (of the formula), from (men of) all castes.

18. The (persons fit to be asked) are Brāhmaṇas and so forth, who follow (their lawful) occupations.

19. Let him daily fetch fuel out of the forest and offer (it in the sacred fire).[15]

20. (A student shall be) truthful, modest, and devoid of pride.[16]

21. He shall rise before (his teacher in the morning) and go to rest after (him in the evening).[17]

22. He shall never disobey the words of his teacher except (when he is ordered to commit) a crime causing loss of caste.[18]

23. Let him converse with women so much (only) as his purpose requires.[19]

24. Let him avoid dancing, singing, playing musical instruments, the use of perfumes, garlands, shoes, (or) a parasol, applying collyrium (to his eyes), and anointing (his body).[20]

25. Let him take hold (of his teacher's) right (foot) with the right (hand), and of the left (foot) with the left hand.[21]

26. If he desires long life and (bliss in) heaven,[22] (he may act) at his pleasure (in the same manner) towards other holy (men), after having received permission from his teacher.

27. (Let him say), 'I N. N., ho! (salute thee),' touching his ears, in order to compose the internal organ.[23]

28. (Let him embrace his teacher's leg) below the knee down to the feet.[24]

29. (A student shall not embrace his teacher) when he (himself) is seated, or lying down, or impure, nor when (his teacher) is seated, lying down, or impure.[25]

30. If he can (find water to sip), he shall not remain impure even during a muhūrta.[26]

31. If he carries a load of fuel or holds a pot, flowers, or food in his hands, he shall not salute; nor (shall he do it) on similar occasions.[27]

32. Let him not salute (the teacher) standing too close,

33. Nor, if he has reached the age of puberty, the young wives of brothers and the young wives of the teacher.[28]

34. To sit together with (these persons) in a boat, on a rock, on a plank, on an elephant, on the roof of a house, on a mat, or in wheeled vehicles is permissible.[29]

35. (The pupil) must assist his teacher in making his toilet, shampoo him, attend him while bathing, eat his leavings, and so forth.[30]

36. (But he) should avoid the remnants of food left by his (teacher's) son, though he may know the Veda together with the Aṅgas,[31]

37. And to assist at the toilet of, to shampoo, to attend in the bath, and to eat the remnants of food left by a young wife of his (teacher).

38. Let him run after (his teacher) when he runs, walk after him when he walks, attend him standing when he stands.[32]

39. Let him not sport in the water while bathing.[33]

40. Let him swim (motionless) like a stick.

41. To study under a non-Brāhmanical teacher (is permitted) in times of distress.[34]

42. (The pupil shall) obey and walk after him as long as the instruction (lasts).[35]

43. (According to some this is improper, because) just that (mutual relation) sanctifies both of them.[36]

44. And (the behaviour) towards brothers, sons, and (other) pupils (of the teacher shall be regulated) in the same manner.[37]

45. But officiating priests, a father-in-law, paternal and maternal uncles who are younger than (oneself must be honoured by) rising and (by being) addressed.[38]

46. Kātya (declares that) the salutation shall be returned.[39]

47. For (the propriety of that rule) is apparent (from the story) about Śiśu Āṅgirasa.[40]

Footnotes and references:


3. Āpastamba I, 1, 2, 12. Govindasvāmin gives four explanations of the adjective paurāṇam, 'kept by the ancients,' viz. 1. old, i.e. kept by the men of the Kṛta or Golden age; 2. revealed to and kept by the ancients, such as Manu; 3. found in the ancient, i.e. eternal Veda; 4. found in the known Itihāsas and Purāṇas.


Āpastamba I, 1, 2, 14-16.


Each Kāṇḍa, i.e. each of the seven books of the Taittirīya-saṃhitā.


Manu III, 1.


The object of the Sūtra is to prove that the period of studentship must not be protracted too long, lest the duty of offering the Śrauta Agnihotra be neglected.


Vasiṣṭha II, 6; Gautama II, 1.


-9. Vasiṣṭha XI, 49-51.


Āpastamba I, 1, 1, 18.


Vasiṣṭha XI, 71-73.


Vasiṣṭha XI, 58-60. With this and the next two Sūtras the words 'according to the order of the castes' must be understood.


Vasiṣṭha XI, 61-63.


Vasiṣṭha XI, 55-57. The details referred to are to be p. 151 found in the Baudhāyana Gṛhya-sūtra II, 7, where the various kinds of trees from which the staff may be taken are specified. The Sūtra shows that the Gṛhya-sūtra preceded the Dharma-sūtra in the collection.


The text of this Sūtra is corrupt. I read, 'bhavatpurvāṃ bhikṣāmadhyāṃ yācñāntāṃ caret saptākṣarāṃ bhikṣāṃ kṣāṃ ca hiṃ ca na vardhayet' The various readings of the MSS. are, bhikṣāṃ madhyāṃ yacchāṃtāṃ caret saptākṣarāṃ bhim ca na vardhayet, C. T.;--yācñāṃtāṃ caret saptākṣaraṃṇi kṣāṃ ca bhim ca narvyayet, D.;-- yācñāṃtāṃ caret saptākṣarāṃstiṃ rkṣā ba hiṃ na vardhayet, K.; yācñāṃtāṃ tikṣāṃ caret saptākṣarān kṣāṃ ca hiṃ ca na vardhayan, M.; yācanāścāṃtāṃ caret saptākṣarān bhikṣāṃ ka him ka na vardhayet, C. I. The most serious corruption lies in the syllables following saptākṣarāṃ, and I am not certain that my emendation bhikṣāṃ is correct. The commentary on the first half of the Sūtra runs as follows: bhikṣāmantraṃ vyaktam evoccaret bhavacchabdapūrvām bhikṣāśabdamadhyāṃ yācñāpratipa[pā]dakaśabdāṃtāṃ śabdākṣarāṃ [saptākṣarāṃ] ca evaṃ hi bhavati bhikṣāṃ dehi saṃpanno bhavati, 'let him pronounce distinctly the formula employed in begging, beginning with the word bhavat, having the word bhikṣā in the middle, and ending with the word conveying the sense of giving, and containing seven syllables. For thus (the formula), "Lady, give alms," becomes complete.' It is curious that Govinda says nothing about the form saptākṣarām and the feminine terminations of the other adjectives, which do not agree with mantram, a masculine.


Vasiṣṭha XI, 68-70; Gautama II, 35. Govinda thinks that a student should, if possible, beg from people of his own caste. Three castes only are intended by the term 'from all castes.' But see Āpastamba I, 1, 3, 25; Gautama VII, 1 seqq.


Viṣṇu XXVIII, 4.


Gautama II, 8; Āpastamba I, 1, 3, 20.


Viṣṇu XXVIII, 13.


Āpastamba I, 1, 2, 19; Vasiṣṭha VII, 10.


Āpastamba I, 1, 3, 16.


Viṣṇu XXVIII, 11; Vasiṣṭha VII, 15.


Viṣṇu XXVIII, 15. The details regarding the times when this kind of salutation is to be performed are found Āpastamba I, 2, 5, 21 seqq.


The two copies of the commentary connect the clause, 'if he is desirous of long life and (bliss in) heaven,' with the preceding Sūtra. But see Āpastamba I, 2, 5, 15, where the identical words p. 153 occur. The commentary omits the remainder of the Sūtra, which all my MSS. give here, and inserts it below, after Sūtra 29.


Āpastamba I, 2, 5, 12; Vasiṣṭha XIII. 44. Regarding the phrase,' in order to compose his internal organ,' see Manu II, 120.


Āpastamba I, 2, 5, 22. The meaning seems to be that the pupil is first to stroke his teacher's legs from the knee downwards, and then to take hold of it at the ankle.


Āpastamba I, 4, 14, 14-20.


Āpastamba I, 5, 15, 8.


Āpastamba I, 4, 14, 22. 'On similar occasions,' i.e. when he himself is engaged in the worship of the manes, of the gods, or of the fire, or when his teacher is occupied in that way.


The salutation which is meant, is probably the embrace of the feet; see also Gautama II, 32. Govinda thinks that the words samavāye 'tyantyaśaḥ, 'standing too close,' must be understood.


Govinda adds that to sit with young wives of his teachers on other occasions is sinful.


I read utsādana, 'to shampoo,' while the MSS. have either a lacuna or read ucchādana, and the commentary ācchādana, which is explained by chattradhāraṇa, 'to hold a parasol,' or malāpakarshaṇa, 'to clean.' The ccha is, however, merely owing to a very common faulty pronunciation of tsa. Govinda remarks correctly that the word 'iti,' which follows the enumeration of the services to be performed by the pupil, has the force of 'and so forth.'


-37. The meaning of the two Sūtras is that the pupil shall serve the son of his teacher, especially if he is learned, and aged wives of his teacher, but not eat their leavings. The explanation of anūcāna, 'who knows the Aṅgas,' is given by Baudhāyana, Gṛhya-sūtra I, 11, 4.


Āpastamba I, 2, 6, 7-9; Vasiṣṭha VII, 12.


-40. Āpastamba I, 1, 2, 30; Viṣṇu XXVIII, 5.


Āpastamba II, 2, 4, 25. Govinda combines this Sūtra with the next two and makes one of the three.


Āpastamba II, 2, 4, 26; Gautama VII, 2-3.


The words between brackets belong to Govinda.


I.e. if they are younger than oneself.


Instead of pratyutthāyābhibhāṣaṇam, '(shall be honoured by) rising and being addressed,' which is the reading of the two copies of the commentary and of M., the MSS. from the Dekhan and Gujarāt read, pratyutthāyābhivādanam. The latter reading might be translated by 'shall be saluted by rising;' see Gautama VI, 9. Govinda says, in explanation of this rule: 'This restrictive rule also (refers) to teachers only, officiating priests, and the rest; to address (means) to use words such as "we come."


'Kātya, i.e. a descendant of the Ṛṣi Kata. He was of opinion that officiating priests and the rest must return the salute. As the return of a salute is prescribed for them, it is understood that the other (party) must salute.'--Govinda.


The story of Śiśu Āṅgirasa is told, Manu II, 151-153.

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