by Hermann Oldenberg | 1892 | 12,023 words
These Sutras give some general information about the performance of sacrifices, and may prove useful to the students both of the Shrauta and the Grihya sacrifices. Paribhasha is defined as a general rule or definition applicable throughout a whole system, and more binding than any particular rule. Alternative titles: Āpastamba-yajña-paribhāṣā-sūtr...
In the case of one who sacrifices with Soma, the second principal act is the Sāṃnāyya (both at the full-moon and new-moon sacrifices).
The Sāṃnāyya is a mixture of dadhi and payas, sour and sweet milk, and is intended for Indra or Mahendra. It takes the place of the second Puroḍāśa at the new-moon sacrifice.
In the case of a Brāhmaṇa, who does not sacrifice with Soma, the Agnīṣomīya cake is omitted.
This rule does not seem to be accepted by all schools. It is not found in Kātyāyana, and Hiraṇyakeśin observes: Nāsomayājino brāhmaṇasyāgnīṣomīyaḥ puroḍāśo vidyata ity ekeṣām. See Hillebrandt, l.c. p. iii.
Without distinction of caste, the Aindrāgna offering is omitted for one who offers the Sāṃnāyya.
Even though he be not a Somayājin, says the commentary.
This whole matter is summed up in Kapardin's commentary: Amāvāsyāyām asomayājina aindrāgna-sāṃnāyyayor vikalpaḥ. Paurṇamāsyāṃ tv asomayājino brāhmaṇasyāgnīṣomīyayāgābhāvaḥ. Tadrahitāpi paurṇamāsī puruṣārthaṃ sādhayati. Tatra dvayor eva hi yāgayoḥ paurṇamāsīśabdavācyatvam asti, pratyekaṃ nāmayogāt. Tasmād agnīṣomīyayāgarahitāv evetarau puruṣārthaṃ sādhayataḥ.
The Pitṛ-yajña, the sacrifice to the fathers, is not Aṅga (auxiliary) because its own time is prescribed.
The text should be pitṛyajñaḥ svakālavidhānād anaṅgaḥ syāt. This sacrifice for the Manes, called also the Piṇḍa-pitṛyajña, falls under the new-moon sacrifice, but is to be considered as a pradhāna, a primary sacrifice, not as an aṅga, a member of the Darśa.
Also, because it is enumerated like the Darśapūrṇamāsa sacrifice.
This refers to such passages from the Brāhmaṇas as: There are four great sacrifices, the Agnihotram, the Darśapūrṇamāsau, the Cāturmāsyāni, and the Piṇḍa-pitṛyajñaḥ.
Also, because, when the Amāvāsyā sacrifice is barred, the Pitṛyajña is seen to take place.
A principal act (pradhāna) is accompanied by auxiliary acts (aṅga).
A principal act is what has its own name, and is prescribed with special reference to place, time, and performer.
This Sūtra is sometimes divided into two; the first, dese kāle kartarīti nirdiśyate, the second, asvaśabdaṃ yat. The following are given as illustrations. If it is said that 'he should sacrifice with the Vaiśvadeva on a slope inclined to the East,' we have the locality. If it is said that 'he should sacrifice with the Vājapeya in autumn,' we have the time. If it is said that 'the sacrificer himself should offer the Agnihotra on a parvan (change of the moon),' we have the performer. In each of these cases, therefore, the prescribed sacrificial act is a pradhāna sāṅgam, a principal act with auxiliary members.
The Darvi-homa (libation from a ladle) stands by itself.
Apūrva is explained by the commentator, not in its usual sense of miraculous, but as not being subject to the former regulations.
They are ordered by the word juhoti, he pours out.
They are offered with the word Svāhā.
According to Kātyāyana I, 2, 6-7, the juhotis are offered sitting, the yajatis standing. See Sūtra XCII. The juhoti acts consist in pouring melted butter into the fire of the Āhavanīya altar, which is so called because 'āhūyanteऽsminn āhutayaḥ kṣipyanta iti.'
Taking (the butter) once.
Or, if there are several Āhutis, taking (the butter) for each Āhuti.
Or, doing as he likes in dividing (the butter).
These three Sūtras belong together. They teach that one slice (avadāna) of butter should be taken, melted, and poured on the Āhavanīya fire; or, if there are more than one āhuti, then one slice should be taken for each. This, however, is made optional again by the last Sūtra.
There is no fuel (in the Darvi-homa), except at the Agnihotra.
In the case of the Agnihotra it is distinctly stated, dve samidhāv ādadhyāt, let him lay down two sticks.
One pours out (juhoti) the Darvi-homas, sitting west of the Āhavanīya fire, and bending the right knee, or not bending it.
If it is distinctly stated, it is done in a different way.
One pours out (juhoti) all āhutis, west of the Āhavanīya fire, passing (the altar) southward, and then turning to the north.
The Āśruta and Pratyāśruta, the Yājyā and Anuvākyā, the Upastaraṇa and Abhighāraṇa, with the slicings, the Caturgṛhīta also, and the Vaṣaṭkāra constitute the Darvi-homas.
The Āśruta is ā śrāvaya; the Pratyāśruta, astu śrauṣaṭ; Anuvākyā and Yājyā are verses, the first inviting the deity, the second accompanying the sacrifice. Whenever vegetable, animal, or sāṃnāyya offerings have to be. sliced, upastaraṇa, spreading, and abhighāraṇa, sprinkling with fat, take place. With ājya offerings there is Caturgṛhīta (taking four times), and the Vaṣaṭkāra.
With āhutis one should let the act (the pouring out) take place after the Vaṣaṭkāra has been made, or while it is being made.
The Vaṣaṭkāra consists in the word Vaṣaṭ, to be uttered by the Hotṛ-priest. The five sacrificial interjections are, svāhā, srauṣaṭ, vauṣaṭ, vaṣaṭ, and svadhā.
With the Grahas the act should be made to coincide with the Upayāma.
Grahas are offerings of Soma, and likewise the vessels (kamasa) in which the Soma is offered. The Soma is offered with the words upayāma-gṛhītoऽsi, and while these words are being uttered, the fluid should be poured out (dhārāṃ srāvayet).
With the Iṣṭakās, the act should be made to coincide with the words tayā deva tena.
When the different iṣṭakās or bricks are placed together for building an altar, &c., the act itself begins with the first and ends with the last words of the accompanying verse.
When there is a number of Puroḍāśas, one should slice off one after another, saying for each portion vyāvartadhvam (separate)!
Puroḍāśa is a cake made of meal (pakvaḥ piṣṭapiṇḍaḥ), different from karu, which is more of a pulse consisting of grains of rice or barley, and clarified butter (ghṛtataṇḍulobhayātmakam). This puroḍāśa cake has to be divided for presentation to different deities. If there are more than two deities, the plural vyāvartadhvam, separate, has to be used.
When the two last are sliced off, he should say for each portion, vyāvartethām, separate ye two!
Footnotes and references:
Vaidya in his Dictionary explains it, however, as any substance mixed with clarified butter and offered as a burnt offering, which can hardly be right.