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First Wave: Ecstatic Excitants

Vibhāva

prabalam ananya-śrayiṇā niṣevitaḥ sahaja-rūpeṇa |
agha-damano mathurāyāṃ sadā sanātana-tanur jayati
||2.1.1||

“May the eternal form of Kṛṣṇa, killer of Aghāsura, served strongly by His natural beauty, which is attractive even without ornaments, and which is nondifferent from His very self, remain with all attractive features eternally in the district of Mathurā.”

Alternate translation:

“May Sanātana Gosvāmī, who conquers all sins and is served with devotion by his younger brother Rūpa, who has taken shelter of him alone, remain eternally in Mathurā district.”

rasāmṛtābdher bhāge’smin dvitīye dakṣiṇābhidhe |
sāmānya-bhagavad-bhakti-rasas tāvad udīryate
||2.1.2||

“The second part of the sweet ocean of rasa is called the Southern Ocean. It describes the general rasas within devotion to the Lord.”

asya pañca laharyaḥ syur vibhāvākhyāgrimā matā |
dvitīyā tv anubhāvākhyā tṛtīyā sāttvikābhidhā |
vyabhicāry-abhidhā turyā sthāyi-saṃjñā ca pañcamī
||2.1.3||

“There are five Waves or chapters in this Southern Ocean. The first deals with vibhāva; the second with anubhāva; the third with sāttvika-bhāva; the fourth with vyabhicārī-bhāva, and the fifth with sthāyī-bhāva.”

athāsyāḥ keśava-rater lakṣitāyā nigadyate |
sāmagrī-paripoṣena paramā rasa-rūpatā
||2.1.4||

“The Southern Ocean describes how rati (bhāva) for the Lord (sthāyī-bhāva), which has been described above, takes on the form of the highest rasa
through nourishment by the ingredients of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva
and vyabhicārī-bhāva.

vibhāvair anubhāvaiś ca sāttvikair vyabhicāribhiḥ |
svādyatvaṃ hṛdi bhaktānām ānītā śravaṇādibhiḥ |
eṣā kṛṣṇa-ratiḥ sthāyī bhāvo bhakti-raso bhavet
||2.1.5||

“This rati for Kṛṣṇa, called the sthāyī-bhāva, takes on a pleasurable nature in the hearts of the devotees by the vibhāvas, anubhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas and vyabhicārī-bhāvas, through activities such as hearing, and then becomes bhakti-rasa.”

prāktany ādhunikī cāsti yasya sad-bhakti-vāsanā |
eṣa bhakti-rasāsvādas tasyaiva hṛdi jāyate
||2.1.6||

“The taste for bhakti-rasa arises in the heart of a person who has had experiences of pure bhakti in the previous and present life.”

bhakti-nirdhūta-doṣāṇāṃ prasannojjvala-cetasām |
śrī-bhāgavata-raktānāṃ rasikāsaṅga-raṅgiṇām
||2.1.7||
jīvanī-bhūta-govinda-pāda-bhakti-sukha-śriyām |
premāntaraṅga-bhūtāni kṛtyāny evānutiṣṭhatām
||2.1.8||
bhaktānāṃ hṛdi rājantī saṃskāra-yugalojjvalā |
ratir ānanda-rūpaiva nīyamānā tu rasyatām
||2.1.9||
kṛṣṇādibhir vibhāvādyair gatair anubhavādhvani |
prauḍhānanda-camatkāra-kāṣṭhām āpadyate parām
||2.1.10||

Rati, which is the very form of ānanda, appears in the hearts of devotees who have been purified of all faults by bhakti, whose hearts have become joyful (hlādinī), and bright (samvit), who have developed great relish for the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and for the association of others who have taste for

Kṛṣṇa, whose life and soul become the profound happiness of devotion at the feet of Govinda, and who have become absorbed in actions such as kīrtana, imbued with the Lord’s mercy. This rati, strengthened by past- and present- life impressions of bhakti, then attains a state of relish by realizing vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva and vyabhicārī-bhāva in relation to Kṛṣṇa, and finally attains the highest, astonishing peak of profound bliss.”

kintu premā vibhāvādyaiḥ svalpair nīto’py aṇīyasīm |
vibhāvanādy-avasthāṃ tu sadya āsvādyatāṃ vrajet
||2.1.11||

“However, even attaining a slight taste for prema by a slight mixture of

vibhāva and the other ingredients, quickly becomes fully tasteful.”
atra vibhāvādi-sāmānya-lakṣaṇam —
ye kṛṣṇa-bhakta-muralī-nādādyā hetavo rateḥ |
kārya-bhūtāḥ smitādyāś ca tathāṣṭau stabdhatādayaḥ
||2.1.12||
nirvedādyāḥ sahāyāś ca te jñeyā rasa-bhāvane |
vibhāvā anubhāvāś ca sāttvikā vyabhicāriṇaḥ
||2.1.13||

“The general characteristics of the ingredients are as follows: In tasting rasa, the causes of rati such as Kṛṣṇa, His devotee, and the sound of the flute are called vibhāvas. The effects of rati, such as smiling are called anubhāvas and the eight symptoms, such as being stunned are called sāttvika-bhavas. The assistants such as self-criticism are called vyabhicārī-bhāvas.”

tatra vibhāvāḥ —
tatra jñeyā vibhāvās tu raty-āsvādana-hetavaḥ |
te dvidhālambanā eke tathaivoddīpanāḥ pare
||2.1.14||

“In rasa, the vibhāvas should be known as the cause of relishing rati. They take the form of support (ālambana) of two types, and stimuli (uddīpana).”

tad uktam agni-purāṇe —
vibhāvyate hi raty-ādir yatra yena vibhāvyate |
vibhāvo nāma sa dvedhālambanoddīpanātmakaḥ
||2.1.15||

This is mentioned in the Agni Purāṇa [Alaṅkāra section, 3.35]:

Vibhāva refers to the two kinds of ālambana—the person in relation to whom the rati and other elements are experienced (viṣaya), the person in whom the rati and other elements are experienced (āśraya)—and to uddīpana, the stimuli by which rati is experienced.”

tatra ālambanāḥ —
kṛṣṇaś ca kṛṣṇa-bhaktāś ca budhair ālambanā matāḥ |
raty-āder viṣayatvena tathādhāratayāpi ca
||2.1.16||

Ālambanas are described as follows: The wise consider the ālambanas to be Kṛṣṇa, as the object of love experienced in rati, and His devotees, as the experiencers (subjects) of rati (the five major and seven secondary sathāyī-bhāvas).”

tatra śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ —
nāyakānāṃ śiro-ratnaṃ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam |
yatra nityatayā sarve virājante mahā-guṇāḥ |
so’nyarūpa-svarūpābhyām asminn ālambano mataḥ
||2.1.17||

“Now Kṛṣṇa as the object of rati is discussed: Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead (bhagavān svayam), is the crest jewel of heroes, in whom all
great qualities shine eternally. He is considered the ālambana or support for rati (viṣaya) through His svarūpa and through other forms that He may assume.”

tatra anya-rūpeṇa, yathā —
hanta me katham udeti sa-vatse, vatsa-pāla-paṭale ratir atra |
ity aniścita-matir baladevo, vismaya-stimita-mūrtir ivāsīt
||2.1.18||

The ‘other forms’ are now explained as follows:
“How is it that I have developed rati for the calves and cowherd boys similar to my rati for Kṛṣṇa?” In this way Balarāma remained struck with wonder and indecision.

atha svarūpam —
āvṛtaṃ prakaṭaṃ ceti svarūpaṃ kathitaṃ dvidhā
||2.1.19||

The svarūpa as the ālambana is now discussed: The svarūpa takes two forms:
covered and manifested.”

tatra āvṛtam —
anya-veśādinācchannaṃ svarūpaṃ proktam āvṛtam
||2.1.20||

“The covered svarūpa is explained as when it is covered or disguised by others’ clothing.”

tena, yathā —
māṃ snehayati kim uccair, mahileyaṃ dvārakāvarodhe’tra |
āṃ viditaṃ kutukārthī, vanitā-veśo hariś carati
||2.1.21||

An example of a disguised svarūpa is given:
“Why does this queen in the inner chambers of Dvārakā attract me so much? Ah! I can understand that Kṛṣṇa has assumed the dress of a queen out of curiosity and is wandering about the palace.”

prakaṭa-svarūpeṇa, yathā —
ayaṃ kambu-grīvaḥ kamala-kamanīyākṣi-paṭimā tamāla-śyāmāṅga-dyutir atitarāṃ chatrita-śirāḥ |

dara-śrī-vatsāṅkaḥ sphurad-ari-darādy-aṅkita-karaḥ
karoty uccair modaṃ mama madhura-mūrtir madhuripuḥ
||2.1.22||

An example of the manifested svarūpa is given:
“This sweet form of the enemy of the demon Madhu gives me great bliss. He has a neck like a conch shell, beautiful eyes envied by the lotuses, and the bodily glow of the dark tamāla tree. His head is sheltered by an umbrella, His chest is marked with the śrīvatsa whorl, and His hands are marked with

cakra, conch and other symbols.”
atha tad-guṇāḥ —
ayaṃ netā suramyāṅgaḥ sarva-sal-lakṣaṇānvitaḥ |
ruciras tejasā yukto balīyān vayasānvitaḥ
||2.1.23||

“Now the qualities of Kṛṣṇa will be described. The hero Kṛṣṇa has beautiful limbs, has all auspicious bodily features, is pleasing to behold, possesses vitality, is strong and is endowed with ideal age.”

vividhādbhuta-bhāṣā-vit satya-vākyaḥ priyaṃ vadaḥ |
vāvadūkaḥ supāṇḍityo buddhimān pratibhānvitaḥ
||2.1.24||

“He knows an astonishing variety of languages, is truthful, speaks in a pleasing manner, is eloquent, learned, intelligent and filled with new ideas.”

vidagdhaś caturo dakṣaḥ kṛtajñaḥ sudṛḍha-vrataḥ |
deśa-kāla-supātrajñaḥ śāstra-cakṣuḥ śucir vaśī
||2.1.25||

“He is aesthetic, clever, skillful and grateful. He keeps His vows, is knowledgeable in time, place and person, sees through the eyes of scripture, is pure and controls His senses.”

sthiro dāntaḥ kṣamā-śīlo gambhīro dhṛtimān samaḥ |
vadānyo dhārmikaḥ śūraḥ karuṇo mānya-mānakṛt
||2.1.26||

“He is persevering, patient, tolerant, inscrutable, steadfast, uniform, generous, virtuous, heroic, compassionate, and respectful to persons worthy of respect.”

dakṣiṇo vinayī hrīmān śaraṇāgata-pālakaḥ |
sukhī bhakta-suhṛt prema-vaśyaḥ sarva-śubhaṅkaraḥ
||2.1.27||

“He is compliant, modest, bashful, the protector of those who take shelter of Him, happy, friend of the devotees, controlled by love and the benefactor of all.”

pratāpī kīrtimān rakta-lokaḥ sādhu-samāśrayaḥ |
nārī-gaṇa-manohārī sarvārādhyaḥ samṛddhimān
||2.1.28||

“He is glorious, renowned, the object of attraction for all, the shelter of the devotees, attractive to women, worshipable by all and endowed with the greatest wealth.”

varīyān īśvaraś ceti guṇās tasyānukīrtitāḥ |
samudrā iva pañcāśad durvigāhā harer amī
||2.1.29||

“He is the most important and the controller. These fifty qualities of Kṛṣṇa which have been listed are difficult to fathom, like the ocean.”

jīveṣu ete vasanto’pi bindu-bindutayā kvacit |
paripūrṇatayā bhānti tatraiva puruṣottame
||2.1.30||

“These qualities are present even in the jīvas, to a very small degree now and then. However, they are present in full in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”

tathā hi pādme pārvatyai śiti-kaṇṭhena tad-guṇāḥ |
kandarpa-koṭi-lāvaṇya ity ādyāḥ parikīrtitāḥ
||2.1.31||

“In this way in the Padma Purāṇa, Lord Śiva tells Pārvatī about the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, starting with His beauty, which is greater than ten million Cupids.”

eta eva guṇāḥ prāyo dharmāya vana-mālinaḥ |
pṛthivyā prathama-skandhe prathayāñcakrire sphuṭam
||2.1.32||

“In the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.16.26-29], the earth also describes the qualities of Kṛṣṇa clearly and extensively to the deity of dharma.”

yathā prathame (1.16.26-29) —
satyaṃ śaucaṃ dayā kṣāntis tyāgaḥ santoṣa ārjavam |
śamo damas tapaḥ sāmyaṃ titikṣoparatiḥ śrutam
||2.1.33||
jñānaṃ viraktir aiśvaryaṃ śauryaṃ tejo balaṃ smṛtiḥ |
svātantryaṃ kauśalaṃ kāntir dhairyaṃ mārdavam eva ca
||2.1.34||
prāgalbhyaṃ praśrayaḥ śīlaṃ saha ojo balaṃ bhagaḥ |
gāmbhīryaṃ sthairyam āstikyaṃ kīrtir māno’nahaṅkṛtiḥ
||2.1.35||
ime cānye ca bhagavan nityā yatra mahā-guṇāḥ |
prārthyā mahattvam icchadbhir na viyanti sma karhicit
||2.1.36||

“In Him reside (1) truthfulness, (2) cleanliness, (3) intolerance of another's unhappiness, (4) the power to control anger, (5) self-satisfaction, (6) straightforwardness, (7) steadiness of mind, (8) control of the sense organs, (9) responsibility, (10) equality, (11) tolerance, (12) equanimity, (13) faithfulness, (14) knowledge, (15) absence of sense enjoyment, (16) leadership, (17) chivalry, (18) influence, (19) the power to make everything possible, (20) the discharge of proper duty, (21) complete independence, (22) dexterity, (23) fullness of all beauty, (24) serenity, (25) kindheartedness, (26) ingenuity, (27) gentility, (28) magnanimity, (29) determination, (30) perfection in all knowledge, (31) proper execution, (32) possession of all objects of enjoyment, (33) joyfulness, (34) immovability, (35) fidelity, (36) fame, (37) worship, (38) pridelessness, (39) being (as the Personality of Godhead), (40) eternity, and many other transcendental qualities which are eternally present and never to be separated from Him. ”

atha pañca-guṇā ye syur aṃśena giriśādiṣu ||2.1.37||

“Now five qualities of Kṛṣṇa, which will also be present in Śiva and others when they are the Lord’s expansions, will be listed.”

sadā svarūpa-samprāptaḥ sarva-jño nitya-nūtanaḥ |
sac-cid-ānanda-sāndrāṅgaḥ sarva-siddhi-niṣevitaḥ
||2.1.38||

“He is always situated in His eternal form, He is omniscient, He is forever young, He has a body made from condensed eternity, and He possesses all siddhis.”

athocyante guṇāḥ pañca ye lakṣmīśādi-vartinaḥ |
avicintya-mahā-śaktiḥ koṭi-brahmāṇḍa-vigrahaḥ
||2.1.39||
avatārāvalī-bījaṃ hatāri-gati-dāyakaḥ |
ātmārāma-gaṇākarṣīty amī kṛṣṇe kilādbhutāḥ
||2.1.40||

“Now will be listed the amazing qualities present in Kṛṣṇa and also in Nārāyaṇa and in the puruṣāvatāras: He has inconceivable, great energies; He is the form that expands over tens of millions of universes; He is the source of the numerous avatāras; He rewards even the enemies He kills; and He attracts the ātmārāmas. These qualities become even more astonishing in Kṛṣṇa.”

sarvādbhuta-camatkāra-līlā-kallola-vāridhiḥ |
atulya-madhura-prema-maṇḍita-priya-maṇḍalaḥ
||2.1.41||
trijagan-mānasākarṣi-muralī-kala-kūjitaḥ |
asamānordhva-rūpa-śrī-vismāpita-carācaraḥ
||2.1.42||
līlā-premṇā priyādhikyaṃ mādhuryaṃ veṇu-rūpayoḥ |
ity asādhāraṇaṃ proktaṃ govindasya catuṣṭayam
||2.1.43||

“The four astonishing qualities possessed by Govinda alone are as follows: He is a wave-filled ocean of the most astonishing display of pastimes. He is surrounded by loving associates decorated with incomparably sweet prema.
He plays sweet notes on His flute that attract all the minds in the three worlds. He astonishes all moving and non-moving living entities with the beauty of His form, to which there is no equal or superior. His extraordinary qualities
are thus His special pastimes, His devotees endowed with abundant prema, the sweetness of His flute and the sweetness of His form.”

evaṃ guṇāś catur-bhedāś catuḥ-ṣaṣṭir udāhṛtāḥ |
sodāharaṇam eteṣāṃ lakṣaṇaṃ kriyate kramāt
||2.1.44||

“The 64 qualities in four divisions will be described with examples.”

tatra (1) suramyāṅgaḥ —
ślāghyāṅga-sanniveśo yaḥ suramyāṅgaḥ sa kathyate
||2.1.45||

(1) suramyāṅgaḥ: beautifully-limbed —
“A person who is endowed with praiseworthy bodily parts is called beautifully-limbed.”

yathā —
mukhaṃ candrākāraṃ karabha-nibham uru-dvayam idaṃ
bhujau stambhārambhau sarasija-vareṇyaṃ kara-yugam |
kavāṭābhaṃ vakṣaḥ-sthalam aviralaṃ śroṇi-phalakaṃ
parikṣāmo madhyaḥ sphurati murahantur madhurimā
||2.1.46||

“What sweetness the form of Murāri reveals! His face is like the moon. His thighs are like elephant trunks. His arms are as sturdy as the bases of pillars.

His hands are the object of praise for lotuses. His chest is as broad as a door. His hips are massive and His waist is thin.”
(2) sarva-sal-lakṣaṇānvitaḥ

tanau guṇottham aṅkottham iti sal-lakṣaṇaṃ dvidhā ||2.1.47||

(2) sarva-sal-lakṣaṇānvitaḥ: Kṛṣṇa’s body is endowed with all auspicious features —
“Good indications or auspicious characteristics are of two types: bodily features (guṇottham) and markings on the hands and feet (aṅkottham).”

tatra guṇottham —
guṇotthaṃ syād guṇair yogo raktatā-tuṅgatādibhiḥ
||2.1.48||

Guṇottham refers to qualities such as redness or elevation of a limb.”

yathā —
rāgaḥ saptasu hanta ṣaṭsv api śiśor aṅgeṣv alaṃ tuṅgatā
visāras triṣu kharvatā triṣu tathā gambhīratā ca triṣu |
dairghyaṃ pañcasu kiṃ ca pañcasu sakhe samprekṣyate sūkṣmatā
dvātriṃśad-vara-lakṣaṇaḥ katham asau gopeṣu sambhāvyate
||2.1.49||

“O friend! I see that your child has twenty-three auspicious marks on His body. How is it possible that such a child could be born in a cowherd’s house? Seven places on His body are red; six parts are elevated; three parts are broad; three parts are short; three parts are deep; five parts are long; five parts are fine.”

aṅkottham —
rekhāmayaṃ rathāṅgādi syād aṅkotthaṃ karādiṣu
||2.1.50||

Aṅkottham refers to lines such as a cakra on the hands or feet.”

yathā —
karayoḥ kamalaṃ tathā rathāṅgaṃ
sphuṭa-rekhāmayam ātmajasya paśya |
pada-pallavayoś ca vallavendra
dhvaja-vajrāṅkuśa-mīna-paṅkajāni
||2.1.51||

“O king of the cowherd men! See on the hands of your child, there are clear lines of the lotus and cakra, and on His feet there are marks of a flag, thunderbolt, goad, fish and a lotus.”

(3) ruciraḥ —
saundaryeṇa dṛg-ānanda-kārī rucira ucyate ||2.1.52||

(3) ruciraḥ means “He gives bliss to the eye by His beauty.”

yathā tṛtīye (3.2.13) —
yad dharma-sūnor bata rājasūye
nirīkṣya dṛk-svastyayanaṃ tri-lokaḥ |
kārtsnyena cādyeha gataṃ vidhātur
arvāk-sṛtau kauśalam ity amanyata
||2.1.53||

Kṛṣṇa’s beauty is described in the Third Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam
[3.2.13]:
“All the demigods from the upper, lower and middle universal planetary systems assembled at the altar of the rājasūya sacrifice performed by Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira. After seeing the beautiful bodily features of Lord Kṛṣṇa, they all contemplated that He was the ultimate dexterous creation of Brahmā, the creator of human beings.”

yathā vā —
aṣṭānāṃ danujabhid-aṅga-paṅkajānām
ekasmin katham api yatra ballavīnām |
lolākṣi-bhramara-tatiḥ papāta tasmān
notthātuṃ dyuti-madhu-paṅkilāt kṣamāsīt
||2.1.54||

Or another example:
“If the bee-like eyes of the gopīs alight upon one of the eight lotus-like bodily parts of Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the Dānavas, they will not be able to rise from the thick honey of His beauty.”

(4) tejasā yuktaḥ tejo dhāma prabhāvaś cety ucyate dvividhaṃ budhaiḥ ||2.1.55||

“The wise say there are two meanings of tejas: dhāma (effulgence) and prabhāva (conquering the enemy).”

tatra dhāma —
dīpti-rāśir bhaved dhāma
||2.1.56||

Dhāma refers to effulgence.”

yathā —
ambara-maṇi-nikurambaṃ viḍambayann api marīci-kulaiḥ |
hari-vakṣasi ruci-niviḍe maṇirāḍ ayam uḍur iva sphurati
||2.1.57||

“Though the Kaustubha jewel, the king of jewels, discredits the sun by its shining rays, it appears like only a star on the Lord’s chest, which shines much brighter.”

prabhāvaḥ —
prabhāvaḥ sarvajit-sthitiḥ
||2.1.58||

Prabhāva refers to His capacity to conquer all others.”

yathā —
dūratas tam avalokya mādhavaṃ komalāṅgam api raṅga-maṇḍale |
parvatodbhaṭa-bhujāntaro’py asau
kaṃsa-malla-nivahaḥ sa vivyathe
||2.1.59||

“Seeing Mādhava with His tender body from a distance, the group of wrestlers in the arena though endowed with chests greater than mountains, became agitated with fear.”

(5) balīyān —
prāṇena mahatā pūrṇo balīyān iti kathyate ||2.1.60||

(5) Balīyān means “filled with great strength.”

yathā —
paśya vindhya-girito’pi gariṣṭhaṃ daitya-puṅgavam udagram ariṣṭam |
tula-khaṇḍam iva piṇḍitam ārāt puṇḍarīka-nayano vinunoda
||2.1.61||

“Just see! Lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa has thrown the greatest demon Ariṣṭāsura, who is heavier and higher than the Vindhya mountain range, to a far distance.”

yathā vā —
vāmas tāmarasākṣasya bhuja-daṇḍaḥ sa pātu vaḥ |
krīḍā-kandukatāṃ yena nīto govardhano giriḥ
||2.1.62||

Another example:
“May the left hand of lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa, which has lifted Govardhana Hill like a ball, protect you!”

(6) vayasānvitaḥ —
vayaso vividhatve’pi sarva-bhakti-rasāśrayaḥ |
dharmī kiśora evātra nitya-nānā-vilāsavān
||2.1.63||

(6) vayasānvitaḥ: endowed with ideal age —
“Though Kṛṣṇa is endowed with all ages which become most excellent, the age of kaiśora, ever-fresh, endowed with all pastimes, manifesting all good qualities, and the shelter of all rasas, is considered the best.”

yathā —
tadātvābhivyaktīkṛta-taruṇimārambha-rabhasaṃ
smita-śrī-nirdhūta-sphurad-amala-rākā-pati-madam |
darodañcat-pañcāśuga-nava-kalā-meduram idaṃ
murārer mādhuryaṃ manasi madirākṣīr madayati
||2.1.64||

“Filled with the joy of recently manifested youth, the sweetness of Murāri, defeating the spotless full moon with the effulgence of His smile, and made

soft with a hint of the fresh sports of Cupid, gives great joy to the minds of the sweet-eyed gopīs.”

(7) vividhādbhuta-bhāṣāvit —
vividhādbhuta-bhāṣāvit sa prokto yas tu kovidaḥ |
nānā-deśyāsu bhāṣāsu saṃskṛte prākṛteṣu ca
||2.1.65||

(7) vividhādbhuta-bhāṣāvit: astonishing linguist —
“A person who knows the languages of various countries, Sanskrit, the vernacular and the languages of animals is called an astonishing linguist.”

yathā —
vraja-yuvatiṣu śauriḥ śaurasenīṃ surendre
praṇata-śirasi saurīṃ bhāratīm ātanoti |
ahaha paśuṣu kīreṣv apy apabhraṃsa-rūpāṃ
katham ajani vidagdhaḥ sarva-bhāṣāvalīṣu
||2.1.66||

“Kṛṣṇa, śaurī, expresses Himself in the vernacular to the young gopīs of Vraja, in Sanskrit to the respectful Indra, and in the colloquial dialect to the animals, to the people of Kaśmīra and to the parrots. How amazing! How has He become expert in all these languages?”

(8) satya-vākyaḥ —
syān nānṛtaṃ vaco yasya satya-vākyaḥ sa kathyate ||2.1.67||

(8) satya-vākyaḥ: truthful speaker
“A person whose words are never false is called a speaker of the truth.”

yathā —
pṛthe tanaya-pañcakaṃ prakaṭam arpayiṣyāmi te
raṇorvaritam ity abhūt tava yathārtham evoditam |
ravir bhavati śītalaḥ kumuda-bandhur apy uṣṇalas
tathāpi na murāntaka vyabhicariṣṇur uktis tava
||2.1.68||

“You said, ‘O Kunti! I will bring back your five sons to you from the battlefield alive and with great honor.’ Your statement has come true. O

Murari! Even though the sun may become cold and the moon may become hot, Your words will never be untrue.”

yathā vā —
gūḍho’pi veṣeṇa mahī-surasya harir
yathārthaṃ magadhendram ūce |
saṃsṛṣṭam ābhyāṃ saha pāṇḍavābhyāṃ
māṃ viddhi kṛṣṇaṃ bhavataḥ sapatnam
||2.1.69||

“Though disguising Himself as a brāhmaṇa, Kṛṣṇa told the truth to Jarāsandha: ‘O king of Magadha! Understand that it is I, Kṛṣṇa, your enemy, accompanying the two sons of Paṇḍu.’ ”

(9) priyaṃvadaḥ —
jane kṛtāparādhe’pi sāntva-vādī priyaṃvadaḥ ||2.1.70||

(9) priyaṃvadaḥ: speaking in a pleasing manner —
“Speaking in a pleasing manner means speaking pleasantly even to those who have offended.”

yathā —
kṛta-vyalīke’pi na kuṇḍalīndra
tvayā vidheyā mayi doṣa-dṛṣṭiḥ |
pravāsyamāno’si surārcitānāṃ
paraṃ hitāyādya gavāṃ kulasya
||2.1.71||

“O king of the snakes! Though I have afflicted you, do not find fault with Me. For the good of the cows, worthy of respect even by the devatās, you should live far from here.”

(10) vāvadūkaḥ —
śruti-preṣṭhoktir akhila-vāg-guṇānvita-vāg api |
iti dvidhā nigadito vāvadūko manīṣibhiḥ
||2.1.72||

(10) vāvadūkaḥ: eloquent —
“The wise say that there are two types of eloquence: speaking that is pleasing to the ear, and speaking with clever meaning.”

tatra ādyo, yathā —
aśliṣṭa-komala-padāvali-mañjulena
pratyakṣa-rakṣa-rada-manda-sudhā-rasena |
sakhyaḥ samasta-jana-karṇa-rasāyanena
nāhāri kasya hṛdayaṃ hari-bhāṣitena
||2.1.73||

An example of peaking in a pleasing manner:
“O friends! Whose heart will not be stolen by the words of Kṛṣṇa, sweet with clear, soft pronunciation, an elixir of intense nectar in the placement of each syllable, a life-giving medicine to the ears of all people by its sweet intonation?”

dvitīyo, yathā —
prativādi-citta-parivṛtti-paṭur
jagad-eka-saṃśaya-vimarda-karī |
pramitākṣarādya-vividhārthamayī
hari-vāg iyaṃ mama dhinoti dhiyaḥ
||2.1.74||

An example of the skillful meaning of words:
“The words of Kṛṣṇa, skillful at changing the hearts of His adversaries, superior to all in extinguishing all doubts in the universe, authoritative and economical, endowed with many meanings, have today made all my mental functions blissful.”

(11) supaṇḍityaḥ —
vidvān nītijña ity eṣa supaṇḍityo dvidhā mataḥ |
vidvān akhila-vidyā-vin nītijñas tu yathārha-kṛt
||2.1.75||

(11) supaṇḍityaḥ: knowledgeable —
“Being knowledgeable has two aspects: knowledge of all branches of all subjects, and knowledge of proper conduct.”

tatra ādyo, yathā —
yaṃ suṣṭhu pūrvaṃ paricarya gauravāt
pitāmahādy-ambudharaiḥ pravartitāḥ |
kṛṣṇārṇavaṃ kāśya-guru-kṣamābhūtas
tam eva vidyā-saritaḥ prapedire
||2.1.76||

An example of knowing all branches of knowledge:
“Previously the clouds, in the form of Brahmā and others, by expertly serving with reverence the ocean in the form of Kṛṣṇa, produced rivers of knowledge. Now those rivers of knowledge are flowing from the mountain of Sāndipani back into the ocean of Kṛṣṇa.”

yathā vā —
āmnāya-prathitānvayā smṛtimatī bāḍhaṃ ṣaḍ-aṅgojjvalā
nyāyenānugatā purāṇa-suhṛdā mīmāṃsayā maṇḍitā |
tvāṃ labdhāvasarā cirād gurukule prekṣya svasaṅgārthinaṃ
vidyā nāma vadhūś caturdaśa-guṇā govinda śuśrūyate
||2.1.77||

Another example:
“O Govinda! The bride of knowledge with fourteen branches whose lineage is distributed by the four Vedas, and which includes the smṛtis, is made brilliant by the six aṅgas, is followed by the saḍ-darśaṇas, is assisted by the Purāṇas, and decorated with the karma- and jñāna-kāṇḍas. This bride of knowledge, seeing You eager to gain her association at the house of Your guru, desires to serve You, finding this opportunity after a long time.”

dvitīyo, yathā —
mṛtyus taskara-maṇḍale sukṛtināṃ vṛnde vasantānilaḥ
kandarpo ramaṇīṣu durgata-kule kalyāṇa-kalpa-drumaḥ |
indur bandhu-gaṇe vipakṣa-paṭale kālāgni-rudrākṛtiḥ śāsti
svasti-dhurandharo madhupurīṃ nītyā madhūnāṃ patiḥ
||2.1.78||

The second type of learning, knowledge of proper conduct, is illustrated: “The Lord of the Madhus, Kṛṣṇa, is death for the thieves; the spring breeze for the pious; Cupid for the young women; a desire tree for the poverty-stricken; a cooling moon for His friends; the fire of final destruction in the form of Rudra for the enemies. He protects Mathurā and Dvārakā by His judicious conduct in relation to all people.”

(12) buddhimān —
medhāvī sūkṣmadhīś ceti procyate buddhimān dvidhā ||2.1.79||

(12) buddhimān: intelligent —
Buddhimān means the capacity to absorb knowledge and possessing fine intelligence.”

tatra medhāvī, yathā —
avanti-pura-vāsinaḥ sadanam etya sāndīpaner
guror jagati darśayan samayam atra vidyārthinām |
sakṛn nigada-mātrataḥ sakalam eva vidyā-kulaṃ
dadhau hṛdaya-mandire kim api citravan mādhavaḥ
||2.1.80||

An example of the ability to absorb knowledge:
“Mādhava, going to the house of Sāndīpani, His guru living in Avantipura, to teach the proper method to those who desire knowledge, received all the knowledge in the temple of His heart after just one recitation by His guru. How astonishing it is!”

sūkṣma-dhīḥ, yathā —
yadubhir ayam avadhyo mleccha-rājas tad
enaṃ tarala-tamasi tasmin vidravann eva neṣye |
sukhamaya-nija-nidrā-bhañjana-dhvaṃsi-dṛṣṭir
jhara-muci mucukundaḥ kandare yatra śete
||2.1.81||

An example of having fine intelligence:
“This Kālayavana cannot be killed by the Yadus. By running away from him into the dimly lit cave, I will bring him there. In that cave decorated with waterfalls, Mucukunda is sleeping. When Mucukunda opens his eyes, being rudely awakened from comfortable sleep by Kālayavana, he will destroy this enemy with his glance.”

(13) pratibhānvitaḥ —
sadyo navanavollekhi-jñānaṃ syāt pratibhānvitaḥ ||2.1.82||

(13) pratibhānvitaḥ: creative—
Pratibhāvita means immediate, novel manifestation of ideas.”

yathā padyāvalyāṃ (283) —
vāsaḥ samprati keśava kva bhavato mugdhekṣaṇe nanv idaṃ
vāsaṃ brūhi śaṭha prakāma-subhage tvad-gātra-saṃsargataḥ |
yāminyām uṣitaḥ kva dhūrta vitanur muṣṇāti kiṃ yāminī
śaurir gopa-vadhūṃ chalaiḥ parihasann evaṃvidhaiḥ pātu vaḥ
||2.1.83||

An example from Padyāvalī [283]:
Rādhā said, “O Kṛṣṇa, where do You stay (vāsa) now?”
Kṛṣṇa said, “O Rādhā, with bewitching eyes! Can You not see that I am wearing My cloth (vāsam)?
Rādha said, “How crafty You are! I am talking about Your residence, not Your cloth!”
Kṛṣṇa said, “O Rādhā with natural sweet aroma! I am fragrant (vāsa) by touching Your limbs.
Rādhā said, “O cheater! Where did You stay during the night? (yāminyām uṣitaḥ)
Kṛṣṇa said, “How could I be stolen by the night (yāminyā muṣitaḥ) which does not even have a body?”
In this way may Kṛṣṇa, who joked with Rādhā using tricky words, protect you!

(14) vidagdhaḥ —
kalā-vilāsa-digdhātmā vidagdha iti kīrtyate ||2.1.84||

(14) vidagdhaḥ: aesthetic —
“One whose mind is absorbed in the 64 arts such as dancing and singing, and in various amusements, is called aesthetic.”

yathā —
gītaṃ gumphati tāṇḍavaṃ ghaṭayati brūte prahelī-kramaṃ
veṇuṃ vādayate srajaṃ viracayaty ālekhyam abhyasyati |
nirmāti svayam indrajāla-paṭalīṃ dyūte jayaty unmadān
paśyoddāma-kalā-vilāsa-vasatiś citraṃ hariḥ krīḍati
||2.1.85||

“Look! Kṛṣṇa is composing songs and dancing. He is making riddles, playing the flute, stringing garlands and drawing pictures. He is making magical objects and winning at dice against persons showing pride. Kṛṣṇa, the residence of pastimes of unlimited arts, is now enjoying His leisure.”

(15) caturaḥ —
caturo yugapad-bhūri-samādhāna-kṛd ucyate
||2.1.86||

(15) caturaḥ: clever —
“A clever person is one who brings about a solution to many problems simultaneously.”

yathā —
pārāvatī-viracanena gavāṃ kalāpaṃ
gopāṅganā-gaṇam apāṅga-taraṅgitena |
mitrāṇi citratara-saṅgara-vikrameṇa
dhinvann ariṣṭa-bhayadena harir vireje
||2.1.87||

“Kṛṣṇa gives bliss to all the cows by composing cowherd songs. He pleases the gopīs by the movement of His brow. He brings joy to His friend by heroic action. All of these simultaneously give fear to Ariṣṭāsura (seeing how fearless Kṛṣṇa remains).”

(16) dakṣaḥ —
duṣkare kṣipra-kārī yas taṃ dakṣaṃ paricakṣate ||2.1.88||

(16) dakṣaḥ: expert —
“An expert person does very quickly what is difficult to do.”

yathā śrī-daśame (10.59.17) —
yāni yodhaiḥ prayuktāni
śastrāstrāṇi kurūdvaha |
haris tāny acchinat tīkṣṇaiḥ
śarair ekaika-śastribhiḥ
||2.1.89||

An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.59.17]:
“Lord Hari then struck down all the missiles and weapons the enemy soldiers threw at Him, O hero of the Kurus, destroying each and every one with three sharp arrows.”

yathā vā —
aghahara kuru yugmībhūya nṛtyaṃ mayaiva
tvam iti nikhila-gopī-prārthanā-pūrti-kāmaḥ |
atanuta gati-līlā-lāghavormiṃ tathāsau
dadṛśur adhikam etās taṃ yathā sva-sva-pārśve
||2.1.90||

Another example:
“O killer of the Agha demon! Please dance only with me!” Desiring to fulfill this request by all of the gopīs, Kṛṣṇa quickly produced a multitude of gopīs and Himself going to a suitable place and performing the dance—but in such a manner that each of the gopīs without doubt saw Him at her side alone.”

(17) kṛtajñaḥ —
kṛtajñaḥ syād abhijño yaḥ kṛta-sevādi-karmaṇām ||2.1.91||

(17) kṛtajñaḥ: grateful —
“A grateful person is one who acknowledges others who have done service.”

yathā mahābhārate —
ṛṇam etat pravṛddhaṃ me hṛdayān nāpasarpati |
yad govindeti cukrośa kṛṣṇā māṃ dūra-vāsinam
||2.1.92||

An example from Mahābhārata [5.58.21]:
“Draupadi cried out ‘O Govinda!’ though I was situated far away. That crying out has created an ever-increasing debt that does not leave My heart.”

yathā vā —
anugatim ati-pūrvaṃ cintayann ṛkṣa-mauler
akuruta bahumānaṃ śaurir ādāya kanyām |
katham api kṛtam alpaṃ vismaren naiva sādhuḥ
kim uta sa khalu sādhu-śreṇi-cūḍāgra-ratnam
||2.1.93||

Another example:
“Though Jāmbavān had offended Kṛṣṇa, the Lord, remembering his service in the past during the time of Lord Rāma, married his daughter and gave him great respect. Since the well-bred never forget what little service is rendered
to them, then what can be said of Kṛṣṇa, who is the crest jewel among all well-behaved persons?”

(18) sudṛḍha-vrataḥ —
pratijñā-niyamau yasya satyau sa sudṛḍha-vrataḥ ||2.1.94||

(18) sudṛḍha-vrataḥ: fixed in vow —
“A person who is true to his promises and to his perpetual vows is called fixed in vow.”

tatra satya-pratijño, yathā hari-vaṃśe (2.68.38) —
na deva-gandharva-gaṇā na rākṣasā
na cāsurā naiva ca yakṣa-pannagāḥ |
mama pratijñām apahantum udyatā
mune samarthāḥ khalu satyam astu te
||2.1.95||

Being true to His promises is illustrated in Hari-vaṃśa [2.68.38]:
“O Nārada! All of the devas, Gandharvas, Rākṣasas, asuras, Yakṣas and Pannagas are trying to make Me break My promise, but they cannot do so. May My promise to you be fruitful!”

yathā vā —
sa-helam ākhaṇḍala-pāṇḍu-putrau vidhāya kaṃsārir apārijātau |
nija-pratijñāṃ saphalāṃ dadhānaḥ
satyāṃ ca kṛṣṇāṃ ca sukhām akārṣīt
||2.1.96||

Another example:
“Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṃsa, very easily made Indra bereft of the Pārijāta tree and pleased Satyabhāmā. He also made Yudhiṣṭhīra devoid of enemies and pleased Draupadi. In this way He fulfilled His promises.”

satya-niyamo, yathā —
girer uddharaṇaṃ kṛṣṇa duṣkaraṃ karma kurvatā |
mad-bhaktaḥ syān na duḥkhīti sva-vrataṃ vivṛtaṃ tvayā
||2.1.97||

An example of being true to perpetual vows:
“O Kṛṣṇa! You vowed that Your devotee will never suffer. You have illustrated that by performing the difficult task of lifting Govardhana Hill.”

(19) deśa-kāla-supātrajñaḥ —
deśa-kāla-supātrajñas tat-tad-yogya-kriyā-kṛtiḥ ||2.1.98||

(19) deśa-kāla-supātrajñaḥ: knower of place, time and person —
“The knower of place, time and person is one who performs actions suitable to the time, place and person.”

yathā —
śaraj-jyotsnā-tulyaḥ katham api paro nāsti samayas
trilokyām ākṛīḍaḥ kvacid api na vṛndāvana-samaḥ |
na kāpy ambhojākṣī vraja-yuvati-kalpeti vimṛśan
mano me sotkaṇṭhaṃ muhur ajani rāsotsava-rase
||2.1.99||

An example:
“There is no time comparable to the autumn season in the moonlight. There is no place of amusement in the three worlds equal to Vṛndāvana. There are no lotus-eyed women like the young women of Vraja. Considering this, My heart longs for the taste of the rāsa dance.”

(20) śāstra-cakṣuḥ —
śāstrānusāri-karmā yaḥ śāstra-cakṣuḥ sa kathyate ||2.1.100||

(20) śāstra-cakṣuḥ: sees with the eyes of the scriptures —
“A person who sees with the eyes of the scriptures is a person who performs his actions according to the rules of the scripture.”

yathā —
abhūt kaṃsa-ripor netraṃ śāstram evārtha-dṛṣṭaye |
netrāmbujaṃ tu yuvatī
-vṛndān mādāya kevalam ||2.1.101||

“The eyes of scripture which belong to Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṃsa, exist only to see the practical action in a given situation, and His lotus eyes exist only to bewilder the young women.”

(21) śuciḥ —
pāvanaś ca viśuddheś cety ucyate dvividhaḥ śuciḥ |
pāvanaḥ pāpa-nāśī syād viśuddhas tyakta-dūsaṇaḥ
||2.1.102||

(21) śuciḥ: pure —
“There are two types of purity: pāvana and viśuddha. Pāvana means he who destroys sin, and viśuddha means he who is without faults.”

tatra pāvano, yathā pādme —
taṃ nirvyājaṃ bhaja guṇa-nidhe pāvanaṃ pāvanānāṃ
śraddhā-rajyan-matir atitarām uttamaḥ-śloka-maulim |
prodyann antaḥ-karaṇa-kuhare hanta yan-nāma-bhānor
ābhāso’pi kṣapayati mahā-pātaka-dhvānta-rāśim
||2.1.103||

Purification of sin is illustrated in Padma Purāṇa:
“With intellect purified by faith and all sincerity, please worship Kṛṣṇa, an ocean of good qualities, whose glory destroys all darkness, who purifies those who purify others. When just the semblance of His Holy Name appears in the heart, it destroys the greatest accumulation of sins, just as the light prior to the rising of the sun destroys all darkness.”

viśuddho, yathā —
kapaṭaṃ ca haṭhaś ca nācyute
bata satrājiti nāpy adīnatā |
katham adya vṛthā syamantaka
prasabhaṃ kaustubha-sakhyam icchasi
||2.1.104||

Faultlessness is illustrated as follows:
“O Śyamantaka jewel! There is no deception in Kṛṣṇa’s trying to take you from Satrājit, and there is plenty of miserliness in Satrājit to keep you. Then why do you desire so forcibly to make a friendship with the Kaustubha jewel today?”

(22) vaśī —
vaśī jitendriyaḥ proktaḥ ||2.1.105||

(22) vaśī: subjugator—
“A subjugator is one who controls his senses.”

yathā prathame (1.11.37) —
uddāma-bhāva-piśunāmala-valgu-hāsa
-
vrīḍāvaloka-nihato madano’pi yāsām |
saṃmuhya cāpam ajahāt pramadottamās tā
yasyendriyaṃ vimathituṃ kuhakair na śekuḥ
||2.1.106||

This is illustrated in the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.37]:
“The common materialistic conditioned souls speculate that the Lord is one of them. Out of their ignorance they think that the Lord is affected by matter, although He is unattached.”

(23) sthiraḥ —
āphalodayakṛt sthiraḥ ||2.1.107||

(23) sthiraḥ: persevering —
“He who works steadily until achieving his goals is called persevering.”

yathā —
nirvedam āpa na vana-bhramaṇe murārir
nācintayad vyasanam ṛkṣa-vilapraveśe |
āhṛtya hanta maṇim eva puraṃ prapede
syād udyamaḥ kṛta-dhiyāṃ hi phalodayāntaḥ
||2.1.108||

“Kṛṣṇa did not loathe wandering in the forest looking for the Śyamantaka jewel, and did not consider fear on entering the cave of Jāmbavān. Taking the jewel, He returned to Dvārakā. Those of steady intelligence persevere in their work until attaining the result.”

(24) dāntaḥ —
sa dānto duḥsaham api yogyaṃ kleśaḥ saheta yaḥ
||2.1.109||

(24) dāntaḥ: patient —
“A person who endures difficult but necessary suffering is called patient.”

yathā —
gurum api guru-vāsa-kleśam avyāja-bhaktyā
harir aja-gaṇa-dantaḥ komalāṅgo’pi nāyam |
prakṛtir ati-durūhā hanta lokottarāṇāṃ
kim api manasi citraṃ cintyamānā tanoti
||2.1.110||

“Although Kṛṣṇa’s body was very soft, He did not consider in His heart the ontolerable difficulties of living at the house of His guru, because of His sincere devotion. One becomes amazed upon contemplating the inscrutable character of extraordinary people.”

(25) kṣamāśīlaḥ —
kṣamāśīlo’parādhānāṃ sahanaḥ parikīrtyate ||2.1.111||

(25) kṣamāśīlaḥ: tolerant —
“A person who endures the offenses of others is called tolerant.”

yathā māgha-kāvye (16.25) —
prativācam adatta keśavaḥ śapamānāya na cedi-bhūbhṛte |
anahuṅkurute ghana-dhvaniḥ na hi gomāyu-rutāni keśarī
||2.1.112||

An example from the Śiṣupāla-vadha, Māgha-kāvya [16.25]:
“Though Śiṣupāla criticized Kṛṣṇa hundreds of times, Kṛṣṇa did not give any response. Though the lion replies to the thunder, it does not pay attention to the howl of the jackal.”

yathā vā yāmunācārya-stotre (60) —
raghuvara yad abhūs tvaṃ tādṛśo vāyasasya
praṇata iti dayālur yac ca caidyasya kṛṣṇa |
pratibhavam aparāddhur mugdha sāyujyado’bhūr
vada kim apadam āgatas tasya te’sti kṣamāyāḥ
||2.1.113||

Another example from Stitra-ratna of Yāmunācārya [60]:
“O Rāmacandra, best of the Raghu dynasty! You were so merciful to the crow who pecked Mother Sītā’s breast, but who then offered obeisances to You. O Kṛṣṇa, so forgetful of others’ sins! You gave attractive impersonal liberation
to Śiṣupala, who offended You for many lifetimes. Tell me what offense exists in him that You would not tolerate?”

(26) gambhīraḥ —
durvibodhāśayo yas tu sa gambhīraḥ itīryate ||2.1.114||

(26) gambhīraḥ: inscrutable —
“A person whose intentions are difficult to comprehend is called inscrutable.”

yathā —
vṛndāvane varātiḥ stutibhir nitarām upāsyamāno’pi |
śakto na harir vidhinā ruṣṭas tuṣṭo’thavā jñātum
||2.1.115||

“When Brahmā worshipped Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana by offering the best praises, Kṛṣṇa remained silent. Brahmā could not understand whether Kṛṣṇa was satisfied or angry with him.”

yathā vā —
unmado’pi harir navya-rādhā-praṇaya-sīdhunā |
abhijñenāpi rāmeṇa lakṣito’yam avikriyaḥ
||2.1.116||

Another example:
“Though Kṛṣṇa was intoxicated with the new liquor of Rādhā’s love while lifting Govardhana Hill, even omniscient Balarāma could not notice any indications of change.”

(27) dhṛtimān —
pūrṇa-spṛhaś ca dhṛtimān śāntaś ca kṣobha-kāraṇe ||2.1.117||

(27) dhṛtimān: steadfast —
“The person who is fully satisfied in his desires, or who is peaceful when there is cause for agitation by controlling his mind, is called steadfast.”

tatra ādyo —
svīkurvann api nitarāṃ yaśaḥ-priyatvaṃ
kaṃsārir magadha-pater vadha-prasiddhām |
bhīmāya svayam atulām adatta kīrtiṃ
kiṃ lokottara-guṇa-śālinām apekṣyam
||2.1.118||

The fully satisfied person is illustrated in the following:
“Though Kṛṣṇa is fond of fame, He gave that incomparable fame to Bhīma in the killing of Jarāsandha. What remains to be desired by those of superior character?”

dvitīyo, yathā —
ninditasya dama-ghoṣa-sūnunā sambhrameṇa munibhiḥ stutasya ca |
rājasūya-sadasi kṣitīśvaraiḥ kāpi nāsya vikṛtir vitarkitā
||2.1.119||

An example of being peaceful, in spite of cause for agitation:
“Despite being rebuked by Śiṣupala and being praised by the sages in the assembly of the rājasūya sacrifice, Kṛṣṇa showed such steadiness that the kings present could not detect any change in Kṛṣṇa appearance.”

(28) samaḥ —
rāga-dveṣa-vimukto yaḥ samaḥ sa kathito budhaiḥ ||2.1.120||

(28) samaḥ: impartial—
“The learned say that a person who is free from attraction and disgust is called impartial.”

yathā śrī-daśame (10.16.33) —
nyāyyo hi daṇḍaḥ kṛta-kilbiṣe’smiṃs
tavāvatāraḥ khala-nigrahāya |
ripoḥ sutānām api tulya-dṛṣṭer
dhatse damaṃ phalam evānuśaṃsan
||2.1.121||

An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.16.33]:
“The wives of the Kāliya serpent said: The punishment this offender has been subjected to is certainly just. After all, You have incarnated within this world to curb down envious and cruel persons. You are so impartial that You look equally upon Your enemies and Your own sons, for when You impose a punishment on a living being You know it to be for his ultimate benefit.”

yathā vā —
ripur api yadi śuddho maṇḍanīyas tavāsau
yaduvara yadi duṣṭo daṇḍanīyaḥ suto’pi |
na punar akhila-bhartuḥ pakṣapātojjhitasya
kvacid api viṣamaṃ te ceṣṭitaṃ jāghaṭīti ||2.1.122|| Another example:

“O best of the Yadus, if Your enemy does something correctly You reward him, and if Your son becomes spoiled You punish him. You are the protector of all people and without prejudice; thus partiality can never occur in Your actions.”

(29) vadānyaḥ —
dāna-vīro bhaved yas tu sa vadānyo nigadyate ||2.1.123||

(29) vadānyaḥ: generous —
“The person who is very charitable is called generous.”

yathā —
sarvārthināṃ bāḍham abhīṣṭa-pūrtyā
vyarthīkṛtāḥ kaṃsa-nisūdanena |
hriyeva cintāmaṇi-kāmadhenu-
kalpa-drumā dvāravatīṃ bhajanti
||2.1.124||

“The wishing jewel, the desire cow and the desire tree, being made useless, by
Kṛṣṇa, who fully satisfies all the supplicants’ desires, serve Dvārakā in shame.”

yathā vā —
yeṣāṃ ṣoḍaśa-pūritā daśa-śatī svāntaḥ-purāṇāṃ tathā
cāṣṭāśliṣṭa-śataṃ vibhāti paritas tat-saṅkhya-patnī-yujām |
ekaikaṃ prati teṣu tarṇaka-bhṛtāṃ bhūṣā-juṣām anvahaṃ
gṛṣṭīnāṃ yugapac ca baddham adadād yas tasya vā kaḥ samaḥ
||2.1.125||

Another example:
“In each of the 16,108 palaces with their queens, every day at one time Kṛṣṇa would give in charity 13,084 ornamented young cows with first-born calves. Who can be equal to Him in charity?”

(30) dhārmikaḥ —
kurvan kārayate dharmaṃ yaḥ sa dhārmika ucyate ||2.1.126||

(30) dhārmikaḥ: virtuous —
“The person who follows the principles of dharma, and engages others in doing so also, is called virtuous.”

yathā —
pādaiś caturbhir bhavatā vṛṣasya
guptasya gopendra tathābhyavardhi |
svairaṃ carann eva yathā trilokyām
adharma-sparśāṇi haṭhāj jaghāsa
||2.1.127||

An example:
“O King of the cowherd men! Under Your protection, the bull of dharma with four legs has flourished to such an extent that, going everywhere in the three worlds, he has forcefully gobbled up the grass of irreligion.”

yathā vā —
vitāyamānair bhavatā makhotkarair
ākṛṣyamāṇeṣu patiṣv anāratam |
mukunda khinnaḥ sura-subhruvāṃ gaṇas
tavāvatāraṃ navamaṃ namasyati
||2.1.128||

Another example:
“O Mukunda! You have performed so many sacrifices and continually attracted all the devatās that the wives of the devatās, feeling suffering in separation from their husbands, are praying to Buddha, Your ninth avatāra, to stop the sacrifices.”

(31) śūraḥ —
utsāhī yudhi śūro’stra-prayoge ca vicakṣaṇaḥ ||2.1.129||

(31) śūraḥ: hero —
“A hero is a person who is energetic in fighting and skillful in the use of weapons.”

tatra ādyo, yathā —
pṛthu-samara-saro vigāhya kurvan
dviṣad aravinda-vane vihāra-caryām |
sphurasi tarala-bāhu-daṇḍa-śuṇḍas
tvam agha-vidāraṇa-rāvaṇendra-līlaḥ
||2.1.130||

An example of enthusiasm in fighting is illustrated first:
“O destroyer of Agha! Destroyer of sin! With Your trembling trunk-like arms, submerging Yourself in the lake of the expansive battlefield, playing in the forest of lotuses composed of Your enemies, You appear to be playing like the King of the elephants.”

dvitīyo, yathā —
kṣaṇād akṣauhiṇī-vṛnde jarāsandhasya dāruṇe |
dṛṣṭaḥ ko’py atra nādaṣṭo hareḥ praharaṇāhibhiḥ
||2.1.131||

An example of being expert in handling weapons:
“Within a second, one could not see any soldier among the ferocious phalanx of Jarāsandha’s akṣauhiṇis, any person who was not bitten by the snake-arrows of the Lord.”

(32) karuṇaḥ
para-duḥkhāsaho yas tu karuṇaḥ sa nigadyate ||2.1.132||

(32) karuṇaḥ: compassionate —
“A person who cannot tolerate the suffering of others is called compassionate.”

yathā —
rājñām agādha-gatibhir magadhendra-kārā-
duḥkhāndhakāra-paṭalaiḥ svayam andhitānām |
akṣīṇi yaḥ sukhamayāni ghṛṇī vyatānīd vṛnde
tam adya yadunandana-padma-bandhum
||2.1.133||

An example of karuṇa:
“I offer my respects to the compassionate son of the Yadus, who like the sun made all the kings’ eyes blossom with joy. These kings had blinded themselves with tears, arising from the impenetrable darkness of suffering caused by being imprisoned by Jarāsandha.”

yathā vā —
skhalan-nayana-vāribhir viracitābhiṣeka-śriye
tvarābhara-taraṅgataḥ kavalitātma-visphūrtaye |
niśānta-śara-śāyinā sura-sarit-sutena smṛteḥ
sapadya-vaśa-vartmaṇo bhagavataḥ kṛpāyai namaḥ
||2.1.134||

Another example:
“I offer my respects to the compassion of the Lord, who immediately appeared beyond His control because of Bhīṣma’s remembrance of Him on the bed of arrows. He rushed toward Bhīṣma, forgetting His position as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, His body bathed in a shower of tears.”

(33) mānyamāna-kṛt —
guru-brāhmaṇa-vṛddhādi-pūjako mānyamāna-kṛt ||2.1.135||

(33) mānyamāna-kṛt: respectful —
“A person who worships guru, brāhmaṇas and the elderly is called respectful.”

yathā —
abhivādya guroḥ padāmbujaṃ
pitaraṃ pūrvajam apy athānataḥ |
harir añjalinā tathā girā
yadu-vṛddhānana-mat-kramādayam
||2.1.136||

“Kṛṣṇa first offered respects to the lotus feet of His guru. Then He offered respects to His father and elder brother. Then with folded hands and humble words, He offered respects to the elders of the Yadu dynasty in the proper order.”

(34) dakṣiṇaḥ —
sauśīlya-saumya-carito dakṣiṇaḥ kīrtyate budhaiḥ ||2.1.137||

(34) dakṣiṇaḥ: compliant —
“A person who is mild due to his excellent nature is called compliant by the intelligent.”

yathā —
bhṛtyasya paśyati gurūn api nāparādhān
sevāṃ manāg api kṛtāṃ bahudhābhyupaiti |
āviṣkaroti piśuneṣv api nābhyasūyāṃ
śīlena nirmala-matiḥ puruṣottamo’yam
||2.1.138||

“The Superme Lord, who is pure-hearted by His very nature, does not see the serious offenses of His servant, but He accepts even a little service as a great thing. He does not find fault, even in those of low character.”

(35) vinayī —
auddhatya-parihārī yaḥ kathyate vinayīty asau ||2.1.139||

(35) vinayī: modest —
“The person who is devoid of arrogance is called modest.”

yathā māgha-kāvye (13.7) —
avaloka eṣa nṛpateḥ sudūrato
rabhasād rathād avatarītum icchataḥ |
avatīrṇavān prathamam ātmanā harir
vinayaṃ viśeṣayati sambhrameṇa saḥ
||2.1.140||

An example from the Māgha-kāvya [13.7]:
“Seeing that Yudhiṣṭhīra wanted to alight from his chariot in haste on seeing Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Himself, by getting down from His chariot first out of great respect for Yudhiṣṭhīra, showed more modesty than anyone else.”

(36) hrīmān —
jñāte’smara-rahasye’nyaiḥ kriyamāṇe stave’thavā |
śālīnatvena saṅkocaṃ bhajan hrīmān udīryate
||2.1.141||

(36) hrīmān: bashful —
“A person is called bashful who is shy when praised by others, or when he thinks that others are aware of his secret love affairs, because of modesty or his unfathomable nature.”

yathā lalita-mādhave (9.40) —
darodañcad-gopī-stana-parisara-prekṣaṇa-bhayāt
karotkampādīṣac calati kila govardhana-girau |
bhayārtair ārabdha-stutir akhila-gopaiḥ smita-mukhaṃ
puro dṛṣṭvā rāmaṃ jayati namitāsyo madhuripuḥ
||2.1.142||

An example from Lalita-Mādhava [9.40]:
“All glories to the enemy of Madhu, who made Govardhan Hill shake slightly by the weight of glancing upon the expanse of the gopīs’ upraised breasts, and who hung His head in shame when He saw Balarāma smiling before Him, while He was being praised by the fearful cowherd men.”

(37) śaraṇāgata-pālakaḥ —
pālayan śaraṇāpannān śaraṇāgata-pālakaḥ ||2.1.143||

(37) śaraṇāgata-pālakaḥ: protector of the surrendered —
“He who protects those who surrender is called protector of the surrendered.”

yathā —
jvara parihara vitrāsaṃ tvam
atra samare kṛtāparādhe’pi |
sadyaḥ prapadyamāne yad
indavati yādavendro’yam
||2.1.144||

An example:
“O fever (weapon), though you are an offender in this battle, give up your fear, because the best of the Yadus, Kṛṣṇa acts as a moon towards those who completely surrender to Him.”

(38) sukhī —
bhoktā ca duḥkha-gandhair apy aspṛṣṭaś ca sukhī bhavet ||2.1.145||

(38) sukhī: happy —
“The person who is an enjoyer and is not touched by a trace of sorrow is called a happy person.”

tatra ādyo, yathā —
ratnālaṅkāra-bhāras tava dhana-damanor ājya-vṛttyāpy alabhyaḥ
svapne dambholi-pāṇer api duradhigamaṃ dvāri tauryatrikaṃ ca |
pārśve gaurī-gariṣṭhāḥ pracura-śaśi-kalāḥ kānta-sarvāṅga-bhājaḥ
sīmantinyaś ca nityaṃ yaduvara bhuvane kas tvad-anyo’sti bhogī
||2.1.146||

The enjoyer is illustrated first:
“O best of the Yadus, the quantity of Your jeweled ornaments cannot be imagined by Kuvera, the lord of wealth. The singing and dancing taking place at Your door cannot be imagined by Indra, even in his dreams. At Your side constantly are beautiful women who enjoy Your attractive limbs, who are decorated with the tips of Your moon-like fingernails, and who are thus superior to the wife of Śiva. In this world there is no enjoyer like You.”

dvitīyo, yathā —
na hāniṃ na mlāniṃ nija-gṛha-kṛtya-vyasanitāṃ
na ghoraṃ nodghūrṇāṃ na kila kadanaṃ vetti kim api |
varāṅgībhiḥ sāṅgīkṛta-suhṛd-anaṅgābhir abhito
harir vṛndāraṇye param aniśam uccair viharati
||2.1.147||

Being without a trace of sorrow is illustrated next:
“O wives of the brāhmaṇas! Not even a trace of sorrow can touch Kṛṣṇa, for in Him there is no destruction, no decrease, no suffering in household affairs, no cause of fear and no worry. He does not know any of the suffering of this world. He is eternally engaged in amusing Himself in Vṛndāvana with beautiful women who are perfect, the best of friends, and hold the highest love.”

(39) bhakta-suhṛt —
susevyo dāsa-bandhuś ca dvidhā bhakta-suhṛn mataḥ ||2.1.148||

(39) bhakta-suhṛt: friend of the devotees —
“There are two ways in which Kṛṣṇa is a friend to His devotees: being easily served and being a friend of His servant.”

tatra ādyo, yathā viṣṇu-dharme —
tulasī-dala-mātreṇa jalasya culukena ca |
vikrīṇīte svam ātmānaṃ bhaktebhyo bhakta-vatsalaḥ
||2.1.149||

An example of being easily served, from Viṣṇu Dharma:
“If the devotees offer only water and tulasī leaves to the Lord, the Lord, being affectionate to the devotees, puts Himself under the control of the devotees.”

dvitīyo, yathā prathame (1.9.37) —
sva-nigamam apahāya mat-pratijñām
ṛtam adhikartum avapluto rathasthaḥ |
dhṛta-ratha-caraṇo’bhyayāc caladgur
harir iva hantum ibhaṃ gatottarīyaḥ
||2.1.150||

An example of being the friend of His servant, from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.9.37]:
“Fulfilling my desire and sacrificing His own promise, He got down from the chariot, took up its wheel, and ran towards me hurriedly, just as a lion goes to kill an elephant. He even dropped His outer garment on the way.”

(40) prema-vaśyaḥ —
priyatva-mātra-vaśyo yaḥ prema-vaśyo bhaved asau ||2.1.151||

(40) prema-vaśyaḥ: controlled by love —
“He who is controlled only by affection is called controlled by love.”

yathā śrī-daśame (10.80.19) —
sakhyuḥ priyasya viprarṣer aṅga-saṅgāti-nirvṛtaḥ |
prīto vyamuñcad adhvindūn netrābhyāṃ puṣkarekṣaṇaḥ
||2.1.152||

An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.80.19]:
“The lotus-eyed Supreme Lord felt intense ecstasy upon touching the body of
His dear friend, the wise brāhmaṇa, and thus He shed tears of love.”

yathā vā tatraiva (10.9.18) —
sva-mātuḥ svinna-gātrāyā visrasta-kavara-srajaḥ |
dṛṣṭvā pariśramaṃ kṛṣṇaḥ kṛpayāsīt sva-bandhane
||2.1.153||

Another example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.9.18]: “Because of mother Yaśodā's hard labor, her whole body became covered
with perspiration, and the flowers and comb were falling from her hair. When

child Kṛṣṇa saw His mother thus fatigued, He became merciful to her and agreed to be bound.”

(41) sarva-śubhaṅkaraḥ —
sarveṣāṃ hita-kārī yaḥ sa syāt sarva-śubhaṅkaraḥ ||2.1.154||

(41) sarva-śubhaṅkaraḥ: benefactor of all —
“He who works for the benefit of everyone is called benefactor of all.”

yathā —
kṛtāḥ kṛtārthā munayo vinodaiḥ
khala-kṣayeṇākhila-dhārmikāś ca |
vapur-vimardena khalāś ca yuddhe
na kasya pathyaṃ hariṇā vyadhāyi
||2.1.155||

“”He gave benefit to the sages by the display of His qualities manifested in Dvārakā. He gave benefit to the followers of dharma by destroying the wicked. He gave success to the rascals by killing them in battle. To whom did Kṛṣṇa not give benefit?”

(42) pratāpī —
pratāpī pauruṣodbhūta-śatru-tāpi prasiddhi-bhāk ||2.1.156||

(42) pratāpī: glorious—
“He who is famous for inflicting pain on the enemy with astonishing valor is called glorious (an effulgent person).”

yathā —
bhavataḥ pratāpa-tapane bhuvanaṃ kṛṣṇa pratāpayati |
ghorāsura-ghukānāṃ śaraṇam abhūt kandarā-timiram
||2.1.157||

“When You illuminate the world with Your brilliance which is like the sun, the darkness of the mountain caves becomes the shelter for the terrible demons, who are just like owls.”

(43) kīrtimān —
sādguṇyair nirmalaiḥ khyātaḥ kīrtimān iti kīrtyate ||2.1.158||

(43) kīrtimān: renowned —
“A person who is famous for spotless good qualities is called renowned.”

yathā —
tvad-yaśaḥ-kumuda-bandhu-kaumudī
śubhra-bhāvam abhito nayanty api |
nandanandana kathaṃ nu nirmame
kṛṣṇa-bhāva-kalilaṃ jagat-trayam
||2.1.159||

“O son of Nanda! Since the light of the moon of Your good qualities has already turned everything radiant (white), how can it make the world thick with Kṛṣṇa-prema? (kṛṣṇa also means darkness)”

yathā vā lalita-mādhave (5.18) —
bhītā rudraṃ tyajati girijā śyāmam aprekṣya kaṇṭhaṃ
śubhraṃ dṛṣṭvā kṣipati vasanaṃ vismito nīla-vāsāḥ |
kṣīraṃ matvā śrapayati yamī-nīram ābhīrikotkā
gīte dāmodara-yaśasi te vīṇayā nāradena
||2.1.160||

Another example from Lalita-mādhava:
“O Dāmodara Kṛṣṇa! When Nārada, playing his vīṇā, began to sing Your glories, Pārvatī, not seeing the blue color on Śiva’s throat, left his abode; Balarāma seeing His blue cloth turn white, gave it up in astonishment; and the excited cowherd women, seeing the blue water of the Yamunā turn white and thinking of it as milk, began to churn it.”

(44) rakta-lokaḥ —
pātraṃ lokānurāgāṇāṃ rakta-lokaṃ vidur budhāḥ ||2.1.161||

(44) rakta-lokaḥ: attractive to all people —
“The intelligent say that the person who is the object of attraction for all people is called attractive to people.”

yathā prathame (1.11.9) —
yarhy ambujākṣāpasasāra bho bhavān
kurūn madhūn vātha suhṛd-didṛkṣayā |
tatrābda-koṭi-pratimaḥ kṣaṇo bhaved
raviṃ vinākṣṇor iva nas tavācyuta
||2.1.162||

An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.9]:
“O lotus-eyed Lord, whenever You go away to Mathurā, Vṛndāvana or Hastināpura to meet Your friends and relatives, every moment of Your absence seems like a million years. O infallible one, at that time our eyes become useless, as if bereft of sun.”

yathā vā —
āśīs-tathyā jaya jaya jayety āvirāste munīnāṃ
deva-śreṇī-stuti-kala-kalo meduraḥ prādurasti |
harṣād ghoṣaḥ sphurati parito nāgarīṇāṃ garīyān
ke vā raṅga-sthala-bhuvi harau bhejire nānurāgam
||2.1.163||

Another example:
“When Kṛṣṇa entered the arena of Kaṃsa the sages uttered blessings of
‘Victory! Victory! Victory!’ The devatās uttered sweet songs of praise. Out of joy, the women shouted loudly all around. Who did not develop attraction to Kṛṣṇa at the sports arena?”

(45) sādhu-samāśrayaḥ —
sad-eka-pakṣapātī yaḥ sa syāt sādhu-samāśrayaḥ ||2.1.164||

(45) sādhu-samāśrayaḥ: protects the devotees —
“He who has exclusive inclination towards the devotees is called the protector of the devotees.”

yathā —
puruṣottama ced avātariṣyad
bhuvane’smin na bhavān bhuvaḥ śivāya |
vikaṭāsura-maṇḍalān na jāne
sujanānāṃ bata kā daśābhaviṣyat
||2.1.165||

“O Supreme Person! If You did not appear on this earth to bestow auspiciousness, I do not know what condition would befall the devotees from persecution by all the fierce demons.”

(46) nārī-gaṇa-mano-hārī —
nārī-gaṇa-mano-hārī sundarī-vṛnda-mohanaḥ ||2.1.166||

(46) nārī-gaṇa-mano-hārī: attractive to women —
“The person who enchants a group of women by his very nature is called an attractor of women.”

yathā śrī-daśame (10.90.26) —
śruta-mātro’pi yaḥ strīṇāṃ prasahyākarṣate manaḥ |
urugāyorugīto vā paśyantīnāṃ ca kiṃ punaḥ
||2.1.167||

An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.90.26]:
“The Lord, being glorified in countless ways, forcibly attracts the minds of women who simply hear about Him. What to speak, then, if those women see Him directly?”

yathā vā —
tvaṃ cumbako’si mādhava loha-mayī nūnam aṅganā-jātiḥ |
dhāvati tatas tato’sau yato yataḥ krīḍayā bhramasi
||2.1.168||

Another example:
“O Mādhava! You are a magnet and certain women are like iron. Wherever
You wander in play, they run after You.”

(47) sarvārādhyaḥ —
sarveṣām agra-pūjyo yaḥ sa sarvārādhya ucyate ||2.1.169||

(47) sarvārādhyaḥ: all-worshipable —
“He who should be worshiped before all others is called all-worshipable.”

yathā prathame (1.9.41) —
muni-gaṇa-nṛpa-varya-saṅkule’ntaḥ
-sadasi yudhiṣṭhira-rājasūya eṣām |
arhaṇam upapeda īkṣaṇīyo mama dṛśi-gocara eṣa āvir ātmā
||2.1.170||

An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.9.41]:
“At the Rājasūya-yajña [sacrifice] performed by Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, there was the greatest assembly of all the elite men of the world, the royal and learned orders, and in that great assembly Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was worshiped by one and all as the most exalted Personality of Godhead. This happened during my presence, and I remembered the incident in order to keep my mind upon the Lord.”

(48) samṛddhimān —
mahā-sampatti-yukto yo bhaved eṣa samṛddhimān ||2.1.171||

(48) samṛddhimān: prosperous —
“He who possesses great treasure is called prosperous.”

yathā —
ṣaṭ-pañcāśad-yadu-kula-bhuvāṃ koṭayas tvāṃ bhajante
varṣanty aṣṭau kim api nidhayaś cārtha-jātaṃ tavāmī |
śuddhāntaś ca sphurati navabhir lakṣitaḥ saudha-lakṣmair
lakṣmīṃ paśyan mura-damana te nātra citrāyate kaḥ
||2.1.172||

“O subduer of Mura! 560,000,000 Yadus are serving You. Your eight treasures are raining all wealth. 900,000 pure palaces are shining in glory. Who would not be astonished at seeing Your wealth?”

yathā vā kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛte —
cintāmaṇiś caraṇa-bhūṣaṇam aṅganānāṃ
śṛṅgāra-puṣpa-taravas taravaḥ surāṇām |
vṛndāvane vraja-dhanaṃ nanu kāma-dhenu-
vṛndāni ceti sukha-sindhur aho vibhūtiḥ
||2.1.173||

Another example from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta:
“The anklets on the damsels of Vraja-bhūmi are made of cintāmaṇi stone. The trees are wish-fulfilling trees, and they produce flowers with which the gopīs decorate themselves. There are also wish-fulfilling cows [kāma dhenus],
which deliver unlimited quantities of milk. These cows constitute the wealth of Vṛndāvana. Thus Vṛndāvana's opulence is blissfully exhibited.”

(49) varīyān —
sarveṣām ati-mukhyo yaḥ sa varīyān itīryate ||2.1.174||

(49) varīyān: the best —
“He who is the chief of all people is called the best.”

yathā —
brahmann atra puru-dviṣā saha puraḥ pīṭhe niṣīda kṣaṇaṃ
tuṣṇīṃ tiṣṭha surendra cāṭubhir alaṃ vārīśa dūrībhava |
ete dvāri muhuḥ kathaṃ sura-gaṇāḥ kurvanti kolāhalaṃ
hanta dvāravatī-pater avasaro nādyāpi niṣpadyate
||2.1.175||

“Brahmā and others came to see Kṛṣṇa and arrived at the gate of Dvārakā.
The doorkeeper said: ‘O Brahmā! Just sit for a moment with Śiva on this seat. It is not necessary to make hymns of praise. Just remain silent. O Varuṇa! Go away. Why are the devatās making such a clamor at the gate. It is not time for the Lord of Dvārakā to come.’ ”

(50) īśvaraḥ —
dvidheśvaraḥ svatantraś ca durlaṅghyājñaś ca kīrtyate ||2.1.176||

(50) īśvaraḥ: controller —
“It is said that there are two types of controllers: he who is independent and he whose orders cannot be neglected.”

tatra svatantro, yathā—
kṛṣṇaḥ prasādam akarod aparādhyate’pi
pādāṅkam eva kila kāliya-pannagāya |
na brahmaṇe dṛśam api stuvate’py apūrvaṃ
sthāne svatantra-carito nigamair nuto’yam
||2.1.177||

An example of he who is independent:
“Though Kāliya offended the Lord, Kṛṣṇa gave him mercy by placing His foot mark on his head. Though Brahmā praised the Lord, Kṛṣṇa did not even glance at him. Such unprecedented behavior is suitable to the Lord because the Vedas praise Him as being independent.”

durlaṅghyājño, yathā tṛtīye (3.2.21) —
baliṃ haradbhiś cira-loka-pālaiḥ kirīṭa-koṭy-eḍita-pāda-pīṭhaḥ |
tat tasya kaiṅkaryam alaṃ bhṛtān no viglāpayaty aṅga yad ugrasenam
||2.1.178||

An example of he whose order cannot be ignored, from the Third Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [3.2.21]:

“Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Lord of all kinds of threes and is independently supreme by achievement of all kinds of fortune. He is worshiped by the eternal maintainers of the creation, who offer Him the paraphernalia of worship by touching their millions of helmets to His feet.”

yathā vā —
navye brahmāṇḍa-vṛnde sṛjati vidhigaṇaḥ sṛṣṭaye yaḥ kṛtājño
rudraughaḥ kāla-jīrṇe kṣayam avatanute yaḥ kṣayāyānuśiṣṭaḥ |
rakṣāṃ viṣṇu-svarūpā vidadhati taruṇe rakṣiṇo ye tvad-aṃśāḥ
kaṃsāre santi sarve diśi diśi bhavataḥ śāsane’jāṇḍanāthāḥ
||2.1.179||

Another example:
“O enemy of Kaṃsa! All the Brahmās, accepting Your order to create, create all the new universes. All the Śivas destroy all the old universes on Your order to destroy. All Your expansions in the form of Viṣṇus, protectors of the universe, carry out Your order to protect the newly created universes. All the masters of the universes in all directions are awaiting Your order.”

(51) atha sadā-svarūpa-samprāptaḥ —
sadā-svarūpa-samprāpto māyā-kārya-vaśīkṛtaḥ ||2.1.180||

(51) atha sadā-svarūpa-samprāptaḥ: eternal form —
“He who is not controlled by Māyā or its affects is said to have an eternal form.”

yathā prathame (1.11.38) —
etad īśanam īśasya prakṛti-stho’pi tad-guṇaiḥ |
na yujyate sadātma-sthair yathā buddhis tad-āśrayā
||2.1.181||

An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.38]:
“This is the divinity of the Personality of Godhead: He is not affected by the qualities of material nature, even though He is in contact with them. Similarly, the devotees who have taken shelter of the Lord do not become influenced by the material qualities.”

(52) sarvajñaḥ —
para-citta-sthitaṃ deśa-kālādy-antaritaṃ tathā |
yo jānāti samastārthaḥ sa sarvajño nigadyate
||2.1.182||

(52) sarvajñaḥ: omniscient —
“He who is the embodiment of all things and knows the situation within all hearts through all time and space is called omniscient.”

yathā prathame (1.15.11) —
yo no jugopa vana etya duranta-kṛcchrād
durvāsaso’ri-racitād ayutāgra-bhug yaḥ |
śākānna-śiṣṭam upayujya yatas tri-lokīṃ
tṛptām amaṃsta salile vinimagna-saṅghaḥ
||2.1.183||

An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.15.11]: “During our exile, Durvāsā Muni, who eats with his ten thousand disciples, intrigued with our enemies to put us in dangerous trouble. At that time He [Lord Kṛṣṇa], simply by accepting the remnants of food, saved us. By His accepting food thus, the assembly of munis, while bathing in the river, felt sumptuously fed. And all the three worlds were also satisfied.”

(53) nitya-nūtanaḥ —
sadānubhūyamāno’pi karoty ananubhūtavat |
vismayaṃ mādhurībhir yaḥ sa prokto nitya-nūtanaḥ
||2.1.184||

(53) nitya-nūtanaḥ: ever-fresh —
“He who astonishes by appearing unrelished, though he has already been relished with His sweet qualities, is called ever-fresh.”

yathā prathame (1.11.34) —
yadyapy asau pārśva-gato raho-gatas
tathāpi tasyāṅghri-yugaṃ navaṃ navam |
pade pade kā virameta tat-padāc
calāpi yac chrīr na jahāti karhicit
||2.1.185||

An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.33]:
“Although Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was constantly by their sides, as well as exclusively alone, His feet appeared to them to be newer and newer. The goddess of fortune, although by nature always restless and moving, could not quit the Lord's feet. So what woman can be detached from those feet, having once taken shelter of them?”

yathā vā lalita-mādhave (1.52) —
kulavara-tanu-dharma-grāva-vṛndāni bhindan
sumukhi niśita-dīrghāpāṅga-ṭaṅka-cchaṭābhiḥ |
yugapad ayam apūrvaḥ kaḥ puro viśva-karmā
marakata-maṇi-lakṣair goṣṭha-kakṣāṃ cinoti
||2.1.186||

Another example from Lalita-mādhava:
“O beautiful-faced friend! Who is this excellent craftsman Viśvakarma standing in front of us, breaking the stones of self-control in all the young women with the tips of the long, sharp, chisel-like corners of His eyes and simultaneously constructing a cowpen using millions of sapphires?”

(54) sac-cid-ānanda-sāndrāṅgaḥ —
sac-cid-ānanda-sāndrāṅgaś cidānanda-ghanākṛtiḥ ||2.1.187||

(54) sac-cid-ānanda-sāndrāṅgaḥ: has a body made from condensed eternity—
“He who has a form thoroughly composed of knowledge and bliss, with no contamination of other elements, is called sac-cid-ānanda-sāndrāṅgaḥ.

yathā —
kleśe kramāt pañca-vidhe kṣayaṃ gate
yad-brahma-saukhyaṃ svayam asphurat param |
tad vyarthayan kaḥ purato narākṛtiḥ
śyāmo’yam āmoda-bharaḥ prakāśate
||2.1.188||

“Who is that person standing before us, revealing a human form black in color, full of bliss, who covers even the happiness of brahman which appears spontaneously after the five types of suffering have been destroyed?”

yathā va brahma-saṃhitāyām ādi-puruṣa-rahasye (5.51) —
yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi
-
koṭiṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi vibhūti-bhinnam |
tad brahma niṣkalam anantam aśeṣa-bhūtaṃ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṃ tam ahaṃ bhajāmi
||2.1.189||

Another example from Brahma-saṃhitā [5.40]:
“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose effulgence is the source of the nondifferentiated Brahman mentioned in the Upaniṣads, being differentiated from the infinity of glories of the mundane universe appears as the indivisible, infinite, limitless, truth.”

ataḥ śrī-vaiṣṇavaiḥ sarva-śruti-smṛti-nidarśanaiḥ |
tad brahma śrī-bhagavato vibhūtir iti kīrtyate
||2.1.190||

“Thus the Śrī Vaiṣṇavas who have taken into account all the statements of śruti and smṛti, say that this brahman is the vibhūti of Bhagavān.”

tathā hi yāmunācārya-stotre (14) —
yad-aṇḍāntara-gocaraṃ ca yad daśottarāṇy āvaraṇāni yāni ca |
guṇāḥ pradhānaṃ puruṣaḥ paraṃ padaṃ parātparaṃ brahma ca te vibhūtayaḥ
||2.1.191||

Thus it is stated in the Yāmunācārya-stotra [14]:
“O Bhagavān! The universe, and within the universe all the elements starting with earth, with coverings each ten times thicker than the previous one, the three guṇas, the totality of jīvas, prakṛtī, Vaikuṇṭha and brahman are all Your vibhūtis.”

(55) sarva-siddhi-niṣevitaḥ —
sva-vaśākhila-siddhiḥ syāt sarva-siddhi-niṣevitaḥ ||2.1.192||

(55) sarva-siddhi-niṣevitaḥ: served by all siddhis
“He who controls all mystic powers is called served by all siddhis.

yathā —
daśabhiḥ siddha-sakhībhir vṛtā mahā-siddhayaḥ kramād aṣṭau |
aṇimādayo labhante nāvasaraṃ dvāri kṛṣṇasya
||2.1.193||

“The eight great siddhis, served by the ten companion siddhis, do not even have the opportunity to enter the door of Kṛṣṇa’s palace.”

(56) atha avicintya-mahā-śaktiḥ —
divya-sargādi-kartṛtvaṃ brahma-rudrādi-mohanam |
bhakta-prārabdha-vidhvaṃsa ity ādy acintya-śaktitā
||2.1.194||

(56) atha avicintya-mahā-śaktiḥ: possessor of inconceivable power —
“He who has an extraordinary role in creating and destroying the universes, who can bewilder Brahmā and Śiva and who has the power to destroy the prārabdha-karmas of the devotee, is called the possessor of great, inconceivable powers.”

tatra dviya-sargādi-kartṛtvaṃ, yathā —
āsīc chāyādvitīyaḥ prathamam atha vibhur vatsa-ḍimbhādi-dehān
aṃśenāṃśena cakre tad anu bahu-catur-bāhutāṃ teṣu tene |
vṛttas tattvādi-vītair atha kam alabhavaiḥ stūyamāno’khilātmā
tāvad brahmāṇḍa-sevyaḥ sphuṭam ajani tato yaḥ prapadye tam īśam ||

2.1.195||
An example of His extraordinary role in creating and destroying the universes:
“I surrender to that Lord, the soul of all, who first was alone, then produced forms of the calves and boys by a part of a part of Himself, then spread Himself in those forms as four-handed forms of Viṣṇu, and then was surrounded by Brahmās and others along with the elements, and was praised and served by all the jīvas in the universe. ”

brahma-rudrādi-mohanaṃ, yathā —
mohitaḥ śiśu-kṛtau pitāmaho
hanta śambhur api jṛmbhito raṇe |
yena kaṃsa-ripuṇādya tat-puraḥ
ke mahendra vibudhā bhavad-vidhāḥ
||2.1.196||

An example of His extraordinary ability to bewilder Brahmā, Śiva and others is illustrated as follows:
“Brahmā was bewildered by Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṃsa when he stole the boys and calves. In battle with Kṛṣṇa, Śiva was put to sleep. O Indra, compared with Kṛṣṇa, who are you devatās now?”

bhakta-prārabdha-vidhvaṃso, yathā śrī-daśame (10.45.45) —
guru-putram ihānītaṃ nija-karma-nibandhanam |
ānayasva mahārāja mac-chāsana-puraskṛtaḥ
||2.1.197||

An example of destroying the prārabdha-karmas of the devotee is discussed in the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.45.45]:
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: “Suffering the bondage of his past activity, My spiritual master's son was brought here to you. O great King, obey My command and bring this boy to Me without delay. He has been purified by My edict.”

ādi-śabdena durghaṭa-ghaṭanāpi —
api jani-parihīnaḥ sūnur ābhīra-bhartur
vibhur api bhuja-yugmotsaṅga-paryāpta-mūrtiḥ |
prakaṭita-bahu-rūpo’py eka-rūpaḥ prabhur me
dhiyam ayam avicintyānanta-śaktir dhinoti
||2.1.198||

The word ādi in the definition (verse 194) also refers to accomplishing what is most difficult or impossible (dūrghata-ghaṭana):
“My master Kṛṣṇa, full of infinite inconceivable powers, who though without birth, became the son of Nanda, the leader of the cowherds; who though all-pervading, manifested His form in the arms and lap of Yaśodā; and who though manifesting many forms, is only one form, delights my heart.”

(57) koṭi-brahmāṇḍa-vigrahaḥ: having a form of ten million universes —
agaṇya-jagad-aṇḍāḍhyaḥ koṭi-brahmāṇḍa-vigrahaḥ |
iti śrī-vigrahasyāsya vibhutvam anukīrtitam
||2.1.199||

“He whose form contains unlimited universes is called ‘having a form of ten million universes’. In this way the greatness of His form is glorified.”

yathā tatraiva (10.14.11) —
kvāhaṃ tamo-mahad-ahaṃ-kha-carāgni-vār-bhū-
saṃveṣṭitāṇḍa-ghaṭa-sapta-vitasti-kāyaḥ |
kvedṛg-vidhāvigaṇitāṇḍa-parāṇu-caryā-
vātādhva-roma-vivarasya ca te mahitvam
||2.1.200||

An example from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.11]:
“What am I, a small creature measuring seven spans of my own hand? I am enclosed in a potlike universe composed of material nature, the total material energy, false ego, ether, air, water and earth. And what is Your glory? Unlimited universes pass through the pores of Your body just as particles of dust pass through the openings of a screened window.”

yathā vā —
tattvair brahmāṇḍam āḍhyaṃ surakula-bhuvanaiś cāṅkitaṃ yojanānāṃ
pañcāśat-koṭy-akharva-kṣiti-khacitam idaṃ yac ca pātāla-pūrṇam |
tādṛg-brahmāṇḍa-lakṣāyuta-paricaya-bhāg eka-kakṣaṃ vidhātrā
dṛṣṭaṃ yasyātra vṛndāvanam api bhavataḥ kaḥ stutau tasya śaktaḥ
||2.1.201||

Another example:
“How is it possible to glorify You, who Brahmā saw in Vṛndāvana? In one corner of that Vṛndāvana are situated are situated a million universes, each made of an earth measuring 500,000,000 yojanas in diameter, each filled with lower hellish planets and the upper heavenly planets and all the material elements.”

(58) avatārāvalī-bījam —
avatārāvalī-bījam avatārī nigadyate ||2.1.202||

(58) avatārāvalī-bījam: the seed of all avatāras
“He who is the source of all the avatāras is called the seed of all avatāras.”

yathā śrī-gīta-govinde (1.16) —
vedān uddharate jaganti vahate bhūgolam udbibhrate
daityaṃ dārayate baliṃ chalayate kṣatra-kṣayaṃ kurvate |
paulastyaṃ jayate halaṃ kalayate kāruṇyam ātanvate
mlecchān mūrcchayate daśākṛti-kṛte kṛṣṇāya tubhyaṃ namaḥ
||2.1.203||

An example from the Gīta-govinda:
“I offer my respects to Kṛṣṇa, who takes ten forms: who rescues the Vedas as Matsya, who supports the worlds as Kūrma, lifts the earth from the lower regions as Varāha, pierces Hiraṇyakaṣipu as Nṛsiṃha, tricks Bali as Vāmana, destroys the warriors as Parāśurāma, conquers Rāvana as Rāma, pulls His plough as Balarāma, distributes mercy as Buddha, and kills the rascals as Kalkī.”

(59) hatāri-gati-dāyakaḥ —
mukti-dātā hatārīṇāṃ hatāri-gati-dāyakaḥ ||2.1.204||

(59) hatāri-gati-dāyakaḥ: giver of liberation to those He kills —
“He who gives liberation to those He kills is called giver of the goal to those
He kills.”

yathā —
parābhavaṃ phenila-vaktratāṃ ca
bandhaṃ ca bhītiṃ ca mṛtiṃ ca kṛtvā |
pavarga-dātāpi śikhaṇḍa-maule
tvaṃ śātravāṇām apavargado’si
||2.1.205||

“O topmost jewel! Though You give the pavargas of defeat (pa), foaming mouth (pha), bondage (ba), fear (bha) and death (ma) to Your enemies, You give them the opposite, apavarga or liberation as well.”

yathā vā —
citraṃ murāre sura-vairi-pakṣas
tvayā samantād anubaddha-yuddhaḥ |
amitra-vṛndāny avibhidya bhedaṃ
mitrasya kurvann amṛtaṃ prayāti ||2.1.206||

Another example:

“O Murāri! It is truly astonishing that the demons who wage war with You will all their energy, not being destroyed, are transformed by You into friends and attain liberation.”

(60) ātmārāma-gaṇākarṣī —
ātmārāma-gaṇākarṣīty etad vyaktārtham eva hi ||2.1.207||

(60) ātmārāma-gaṇākarṣī: He who attracts the ātmārāmas
“He who attracts the ātmārāmas is self-explanatory.”

yathā —
pūrṇa-paramahaṃsaṃ māṃ mādhava līlā-mahauṣadhir ghrātā |
kṛtvā bata sāraṅgaṃ vyadhita kathaṃ sārase tṛṣitam
||2.1.208||

“O Mādhava! Though I am a pure paramahaṃsa without desires, by smelling the fragrance of the great herbs of Your pastimes, I have been transformed
into a devotee and am thirsty for the rasa of bhakti.”

athāsādharaṇa-guṇa-catuṣke —
(61) līlā-mādhuryaṃ —
yathā bṛhad-vāmane —
santi yadyapi me prājyā līlās tās tā manoharāḥ |
na hi jāne smṛte rāse mano me kīdṛśaṃ bhavet
||2.1.209||

“Now the four extraordinary qualities of Kṛṣṇa are illustrated:
the sweetness of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes, from Bṛhad-vāmana Purāṇa: “Though all of My pastimes are very attractive and profound, when I remember My rāsa-līlā, I cannot explain what happens to My mind.”

yathā vā —
parisphuratu sundaraṃ caritram atra lakṣmī-pates
tathā bhuvana-nandinas tad-avatāra-vṛndasya ca |
harer api camatkṛti-prakara-vardhanaḥ kintu me
bibharti hṛdi vismayaṃ kam api rāsa-līlā-rasaḥ ||2.1.210||

Another example:

“Let the exquisite pastimes of Nārāyaṇa and the avatāras who cause bliss to the world appear in this universe! But the taste of the rāsa-līlā which causes astonishment even in Hari is filling my heart with incredible astonishment.”

(62) premṇā priyādhikyam, yathā śrī-daśame (10.31.15) —
aṭati yad bhavān ahni kānanaṃ truṭir yugāyate tvām apaśyatām |
kuṭila-kuntalaṃ śrī-mukhaṃ ca te jaḍa udīkṣitāṃ pakṣma-kṛt dṛśām
||2.1.211||

(62) premṇā priyādhikyam: Kṛṣṇa is surrounded by devotees with intense prema. An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.31.15]: “When You go off to the forest during the day, a tiny fraction of a second becomes like a millennium for us because we cannot see You. And even when we can eagerly look upon Your beautiful face, so lovely with its adornment of curly locks, our pleasure is hindered by our eyelids, which were fashioned by the foolish creator.”

yathā vā —
brahma-rātri-tatir apy agha-śatro
sā kṣaṇārdhavad agāt tava saṅge |
hā kṣaṇārdham api vallavikānāṃ
brahma-rātri-tativad virahe’bhūt
||2.1.212||

Another example:
“Killer of Agha! In Your association, the night of Brahmā has passed like half a moment for the cowherd women. Now, in separation from You, half a moment has become as long as Brahmā’s night for them.”

(63) veṇu-mādhuryam, yathā tatraiva (10.33.15) —
savanaśas tad-upadhārya sureśāḥ
śakra-śarva-parameṣṭhi-purogāḥ |
kavaya ānata-kandhara-cittāḥ
kaśmalaṃ yayur aniścita-tattvāḥ
||2.1.213||

(63) veṇu-mādhuryam: the sweetness of Kṛṣṇa’s flute. An example from the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.35.14-15]:
“O pious mother Yaśodā, your son, who is expert in all the arts of herding cows, has invented many new styles of flute-playing. When He takes His flute

to His bimba-red lips and sends forth the tones of the harmonic scale in variegated melodies, Brahmā, Śiva, Indra and other chief demigods become confused upon hearing the sound. Although they are the most learned authorities, they cannot ascertain the essence of that music, and thus they bow down their heads and hearts.”

yathā vā vidagdha-mādhave (1.26) —
rundhann ambu-bhṛtaś camatkṛti-paraṃ kurvan muhus tumburuṃ
dhyānād antarayan sanandana-mukhān vismerayan vedhasam |
autsukyāvalibhir baliṃ caṭulayan bhogīndram āghūrṇayan
bhindann aṇḍa-kaṭāha-bhittim abhito babhrāma vaṃśī-dhvaniḥ
||2.1.214||

Another example, from Vidagdha-mādhava:
“The sound of Kṛṣṇa’s flute wandered everywhere, piercing though the shell of the universe. It stopped the clouds, amazed the Gandharva Tumburu, broke the meditation of the yogīs headed by Sananda, astonished Brahmā, made Bali unsteady with longing, and made Ananta dizzy.”

(64) rūpa-mādhuryaṃ, yathā tṛtīye (3.2.12) —
yan martya-līlaupayikaṃ sva-yoga-
māyā-balaṃ darśayatā gṛhītam |
vismāpanaṃ svasya ca saubhagarddheḥ
paraṃ padaṃ bhūṣaṇa-bhūṣaṇāṅgam
||2.1.215||

(64) rūpa-mādhuryaṃ: the sweetness of His form. An example from the Third
Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [3.2.12]:
“The Lord appeared in the mortal world by His internal potency, yoga-māyā. He came in His eternal form, which is just suitable for His pastimes. This form is wonderful for even for the Lord Himself in His form as the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha, because He is the highest perfection of beauty, enhancing the beauty of all ornaments.”

śrī-daśame ca (10.29.40) —
kā stry aṅga te kala-padāyata-mūrcchitena
saṃmohitā’ryapadavīṃ na calet trilokyām |
trailokya-saubhagam idaṃ ca nirīkṣya rūpaṃ
yad go-dvija-druma-mṛgān pulakāny abibhrat
||2.1.216||

Another example, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.29.40]: “Dear Kṛṣṇa, what woman in all the three worlds wouldn't deviate from religious behavior when bewildered by the sweet, drawn-out melody of Your flute? Your beauty makes all three worlds auspicious. Indeed, even the cows, birds, trees and deer manifest the ecstatic symptom of bodily hair standing on end when they see Your beautiful form.”

yathā vā, lalita-mādhave (8.34) —
aparikalita-pūrvaḥ kaś camatkāra-kārī
sphurati mama garīyān eṣa mādhurya-pūraḥ |
ayam aham api hanta prekṣya yaṃ lubdha-cetāḥ
sarabhasam upabhoktuṃ kāmaye rādhikeva
||2.1.217||

Another example, from Lalita-mādhava:
“What is this great abundance of unprecedented astonishing sweetness that has appeared? Gazing upon it, I become greedy to possess it. I desire to enjoy it with zeal like Rādhā.”

samasta-vividhāścarya-kalyāṇa-guṇa-vāridheḥ |
guṇānām iha kṛṣṇasya diṅ-mātram upadarśitam
||2.1.218||

“Only a small portion of the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, who is an ocean of the multitude of astonishing auspicious qualities, has been shown here.”

yathā ca śrī-daśame (10.14.7) —
guṇātmanas te’pi guṇān vimātuṃ
hitāvatīrṇasya ka īśire’sya |
kālena yair vā vimitāḥ sukalpair
bhū-pāṃśavaḥ khe mihikā dyubhāsaḥ
||2.1.219||

An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.7]:
“In time, learned philosophers or scientists might be able to count all the atoms of the earth, the particles of snow, or perhaps even the shining molecules radiating from the sun, the stars and other luminaries. But among these learned men, who could possibly count the unlimited transcendental

qualities possessed by You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who have descended onto the surface of the earth for the benefit of all living entities?”

nitya-guṇo vanamālī, yad api śikhāmaṇir aśeṣa-netṝṇām |
bhaktāpekṣikam asya, trividhatvaṃ likhyate tad api
||2.1.220||

“Even though Kṛṣṇa is the topmost jewel among unlimited heroes endowed with eternal qualities, He is described as having three forms, that manifest according to the type of devotion of the worshiper.”

hariḥ pūrṇatamaḥ pūrṇataraḥ pūrṇa iti tridhā |
śreṣṭha-madhyādibhiḥ śabdair nāṭye yaḥ paripaṭhyate
||2.1.221||

“The Lord takes three forms described as most perfect, more perfect and perfect. These are described in nāṭya-śāstra as best, medium and inferior.”

prakāśitākhila-guṇaḥ smṛtaḥ pūrṇatamo budhaiḥ |
asarva-vyañjakaḥ pūrṇataraḥ pūrṇo’lpa-darśakaḥ
||2.1.222||

“When Kṛṣṇa manifests all qualities, He is described by the intelligent as most perfect. Manifesting the qualities incompletely, He is called more perfect and manifesting even less qualities, He is call perfect.”

kṛṣṇasya pūrṇatamatā vyaktābhūd gokulāntare |
pūrṇatā pūrṇataratā dvārakā-mathurādiṣu
||2.1.223||

“Kṛṣṇa appears as most perfect in Gokula. In Mathurā, Dvāraka and other places, He appears as more perfect and perfect.”

sa punaś caturvidhaḥ syād dhīrodāttaś ca dhīra-lalitaś ca |
dhīra-praśānta-nāmā tathaiva dhīroddhataḥ kathitaḥ
||2.1.224||

“Kṛṣṇa is also classed into four types: dhīrodātta, dhīra-lalita, dhīra-praśānta and dhīroddhata

bahuvidha-guṇa-kriyāṇām āspada-bhūtasya padmanābhasya |
tat-tal-līlā-bhedād virudhyate na hi catur-vidhāḥ
||2.1.225||

“Classifying Kṛṣṇa into four different types is not a contradiction, because of the respective differences in the pastimes of the Lord, who is the abode of many different types of qualities and activities.”

tatra dhīrodāttaḥ —
gambhīro vinayī kṣantā karuṇaḥ sudṛḍha-vrataḥ |
akatthano gūḍha-garvo dhīrodāttaḥ su-sattva-bhṛt
||2.1.226||

Regarding dhīrodātta: elevated —
“The person who is inscrutable, modest, tolerant, merciful, determined in vows, who obscures others’ pride, is not boastful and is strong, is called dhīrodātta.

yathā —
vīraṃ-manya-mada-prahāri-hasitaṃ dhaureyam ārtoddhṛtau
nirvyūḍha-vratam unnata-kṣiti-dharoddhāreṇa dhīrākṛtim |
mayy uccaiḥ kṛta-kilbiṣe’pi madhuraṃ stutyā muhur yantritaṃ
prekṣya tvāṃ mama durvitarkya-hṛdayaṃ dhīr gīś ca na spandate
||2.1.227||

An example:
“Your smile steals the pride of those who think they are brave. You are eager to deliver those in a suffering condition. You are true to Your promises. You are firm in holding up the high mountain. You have treated me kindly although I have committed offense. You are brought under control by verses of praise. Seeing You with such an inscrutable heart, my words and intelligence have become inactive.”

gambhīratvādi-sāmānya-guṇā yad iha kīrtitāḥ |
tad eteṣu tad-ādhikya-pratipādana-hetave
||2.1.228||

“All of the qualities in the list of special qualities of Kṛṣṇa should be understood to manifest more prominently in these four types than other qualities, though the other qualities are also present.”

idaṃ hi dhīrodāttatvaṃ pūrvaiḥ proktaṃ raghūdvahe |
tat-tad-bhaktānusāreṇa tathā kṛṣṇe vilokyate
||2.1.229||

“The previous authorities have described dhīrodātta qualities in Rāmacandra. These same qualities are also seen in Kṛṣṇa according to the type of love of His devotees.”

dhīra-lalitaḥ —
vidagdho nava-tāruṇyaḥ parihāsa-viśāradaḥ |
niścinto dhīra-lalitaḥ syāt prāyaḥ preyasī-vaśaḥ ||2.1.230||
dhīra-lalita: playful —

“He is called dhīra-lalita who is clever, endowed with fresh youth (end of kaiśora period), skillful at joking and free of worries. He is controlled by His dear devotees.”

yathā —
vācā sūcita-śarvarī-rati-kalā-prāgalbhyayā rādhikāṃ
vrīḍā-kuñcita-locanāṃ viracayann agre sakhīnām asau |
tad-vakṣo-ruha-citra-keli-makarī-pāṇḍitya-pāraṃ gataḥ
kaiśoraṃ saphalī-karoti kalayan kuñje vihāraṃ hariḥ
||2.1.231||

“Kṛṣṇa made Rādhā lower Her eyes in shame by boldly describing Their pastimes of the previous night in front of Her friends. Taking that opportunity, He displayed His skill by expertly drawing frolicking makaris on Her breasts. In this way Kṛṣṇa sported in the groves and fulfilled His youthful years.”

govinde prakaṭaṃ dhīra-lalitatvaṃ pradarśyate |
udāharanti nāṭya-jñāḥ prāyo’tra makara-dhvajam
||2.1.232||

“The qualities of the dhīra-lalita are clearly revealed in Kṛṣṇa. But the dramatic scholars give the example of Cupid.”

dhīra-śāntaḥ —
śama-prakṛtikaḥ kleśa-sahanaś ca vivecakaḥ |
vinayādi-guṇopeto dhīra-śānta udīryate ||2.1.233||
dhīra-śānta: gentle —

“The learned say that he who is peaceful, tolerates suffering, uses discrimination and possesses qualities like modesty is called dhīra-śānta.

yathā —
vinaya-madhura-mūrtir manthara-snigdha-tāro
vacana-paṭima-bhaṅgī-sūcitāśeṣa-nītiḥ |
abhidadhad iha dharmaṃ dharma-putropakaṇṭhe
dvija-patir iva sākṣāt prekṣyate kaṃsa-vairī
||2.1.234||

“Speaking about dharma before Yudhiṣṭhira, Kṛṣṇa appears like the best of brāhmaṇas, pleasant with modesty. His eyes are moving steadily and are filled with love. He shows unlimited good qualities through His skillful speech.”

yudhiṣṭhirādiko dhīrair dhīra-śāntaḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||2.1.235||

“The learned glorify Yudhiṣṭhira and others as being dhīra-śanta.”

dhīroddhataḥ —
mātsaryavān ahaṅkārī māyāvī roṣaṇaś calaḥ |
vikatthanaś ca vidvadbhir dhīroddhata udāhṛtaḥ
||2.1.236||

“The wise call dhīroddhata (haughty) the person who shows envy, pride, anger, fickleness and boastful nature.”

yathā —
āḥ pāpin yavanendra dardura punar vyāghuṭya sadyas tvayā
vāsaḥ kutracid andha-kūpa-kuhara-kroḍe’dya nirmīyatām |
helottānita-dṛṣṭi-mātra-bhasita-brahmāṇḍāṇḍaḥ puro
jāgarmi tvad-upagrahāya bhujagaḥ kṛṣṇo’tra kṛṣṇābhidhaḥ
||2.1.237||

“O sinner! King of the Yavanas! O frog! Today, being foiled, make your residence in the corner of a dark hole. The black snake called Kṛṣṇa is waiting there alert to catch you. Just by glancing casually upwards, I have turned the vessel of the universe to ashes.”

dhīroddhatas tu vidvadbhir bhīmasenādir ucyate ||2.1.238||

“The learned call persons like Bhīma dhīroddhata.”

mātsaryādyāḥ pratīyante doṣatvena yad apy amī |
līlā-viśeṣa-śālitvān nirdoṣe’tre guṇāḥ smṛtāḥ
||2.1.239||

“Although qualities like envy mentioned in verse 236 appear to be faults, they should be regarded as good qualities in Kṛṣṇa, because they are befitting certain pastimes.”

yathā vā —
ambho-bhāra-bhara-praṇamra-jalada-bhrāntiṃ vitanvann asau
ghorāḍambara-ḍambaraḥ suvikuṭām utkṣipya hastārgalām |
durvāraḥ para-vāraṇaḥ svayam ahaṃ labdho’smi kṛṣṇaḥ puro
re śrīdāma-kuraṅgasaṅgara-bhuvo bhaṅgaṃ tvam aṅgīkuru
||2.1.240||

Another example:
“Making the low-hanging, water-filled clouds disperse, swinging a frightful trunk, with terrifying trumpeting sounds, I the monstrous, irrepressible elephant called Kṛṣṇa, destroyer of opponents, have arrived! Flee from the battlefield, O deer called Śrīdāma!”

mitho virodhino’py atra kecin nigaditā guṇāḥ |
harau niraṅkuśaiśvaryāt ko’pi na syād asambhavaḥ
||2.1.241||

“Some of the qualities listed above are contradictory. Though contrary, their existence in Kṛṣṇa is not impossible, because of His unrestricted powers.”

tathā ca kaurme —
asthūlaś cāṇuś caiva sthūlo’ṇuś caiva sarvataḥ |
avarṇaḥ sarvataḥ proktaḥ śyāmo raktānta-locanaḥ |
aiśvarya-yogād bhagavān viruddhārtho’bhidhīyate
||2.1.242||

This is illustrated in a statement from Kūrma Purāṇa:
“The Lord is not gross, nor is He subtle; He is both gross and subtle. He is without color, but is blackish with tinges of red in the corners of His eyes. By His power He possesses contradictory qualities.”

tathāpi doṣāḥ parame naivāhāryāḥ kathañcana |
guṇā viruddhā apy ete samāhāryāḥ samantataḥ
||2.1.243||

“One should never find any fault in the Lord. Though the qualities are contradictory, He can resolve them all completely.”

mahāvārāhe ca —
sarve nityāḥ śāśvatāś ca dehās tasya parātmanaḥ |
hānopādāna-rahitā naiva prakṛtijāḥ kvacit ||2.1.244||
paramānanda-sandohā jñāna-mātrāś ca sarvataḥ |
sarve sarva-guṇaiḥ pūrṇāḥ sarva-doṣa-vivarjitāḥ
||2.1.245||

This is confirmed in the Mahā-Varāha Purāṇa:
“All of the bodies of the Lord are eternal, and appear repeatedly in the material world. They are devoid of increase and decrease. They are never born of matter. All His bodies have the very nature of the highest bliss, are pure knowledge, are full of good qualities, and are devoid of all faults.”

vaiṣṇava-tantre’pi —
aṣṭādaśa-mahā-doṣai rahitā bhagavat-tanuḥ |
sarvaiśvaryamayī satya-vijñānānanda-rūpiṇī
||2.1.246||

It is also confirmed in the Vaiṣṇava-tantra:
“The form of the Lord is without the eighteen great faults, is endowed with all powers and is the very essence of existence, knowledge and bliss.”

aṣṭādaśa-mahā-doṣāḥ, yathā viṣṇu-yāmale —
mohas tandrā bhramo rukṣa-rasatā kāma ulbaṇaḥ |
lolatā mada-mātsarye hiṃsā kheda-pariśramau ||2.1.247||
asatyaṃ krodha ākāṅkṣā āśaṅkā viśva-vibhramaḥ |
viṣamatvaṃ parāpekṣā doṣā aṣṭādaśoditāḥ
||2.1.248||

The eighteen great faults are mentioned in the Viṣṇu-yāmala:
“Bewilderment, sleep, error, material attachment without prema, material lust which brings suffering, fickleness, intoxication, envy, violence, exhaustion,

toil, lying, anger, hankering, worry, absorption in worldly affairs, prejudice and dependence on others.”

itthaṃ sarvāvatārebhyas tato’py atrāvatāriṇaḥ |
vrajendra-nandane suṣṭhu mādhurya-bhara īritaḥ
||2.1.249||

“Thus it has been explained that the amount of sweetness in Kṛṣṇa exceeds that of all the avatāras and the source of avatāras, Mahā-viṣṇu.”

tathā ca brahma-saṃhitāyām ādi-puruṣa-rahasye (5.59) —
yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya
jīvanti loma-bilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ |
viṣṇur mahān sa iha yasya kalā-viśeṣo
govindam ādi-puruṣaṃ tam ahaṃ bhajāmi
||2.1.250||

This is explained in Brahma-saṃhitā [5.59]:
“Brahmā and other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of hair of Mahā-Viṣṇu, remain alive as long as the duration of one exhalation of the latter [Mahā-Viṣṇu]. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whose subjective personality Mahā-Viṣṇu is the portion of a portion.”

athāṣṭāv anukīrtyante sad-guṇatvena viśrutāḥ |
maṅgalālaṅkriyā-rūpāḥ sattva-bhedās tu pauruṣāḥ ||2.1.251||
śobhā vilāso mādhuryaṃ māṅgalyaṃ sthairya-tejasī |
lalitaudāryam ity ete sattva-bhedās tu pauruṣāḥ
||2.1.252||

“Excellent qualities of the heart, the embodiments of auspiciousness, are glorified as eight: glory, playfulness, sweetness, steadiness, strength, beauty and generosity.”

tatra śobhā —
nīce dayādhike spardhā śauryotsāhau ca dakṣatā |
satyaṃ ca vyaktim āyāti yatra śobheti tāṃ viduḥ
||2.1.253||

“Among the ornaments of auspiciousness, where there is mercy to subordinates, emulation of superiors, courage, enthusiasm, expertise and truthfulness, it is known as glory [śobha]”

yathā —
svarga-dhvaṃsaṃ vidhitsur vraja-bhuvi kadanaṃ suṣṭhu vīkṣyātivṛṣṭyā
nīcān ālocya paścān namuci-ripu-mukhānūḍha-kāruṇya-vīciḥ |
aprekṣya svena tulyaṃ kam api nija-ruṣām atra paryāpti-pātraṃ
bandhūn ānandayiṣyann udaharatu hariḥ satya-sandho mahādrim
||2.1.254||

An example:
“Seeing the pain caused by Indra’s rain in Vraja, Kṛṣṇa desired to destroy svarga; but then, considering Indra and the devatās to be inferior, a wave of compassion arose within Him. Seeing no one equal to Himself as a suitable object of anger, He who is firm in truth then lifted Govardhana, with the desire of giving bliss to His friends.”

vilāsaḥ —
vṛṣabhasyeva gambhīrā gatir dhīraṃ ca vīkṣaṇam |
sa-smitaṃ ca vaco yatra sa vilāsa itīryate
||2.1.255||

“Where there is a heavy gait, steady gaze like that of a bull and laughing words, it is called playfulness [vilāsa].”

yathā —
malla-śreṇyām avinayavatīṃ mantharāṃ nyasya dṛṣṭiṃ
vyādhunvāno dvipa iva bhuvaṃ vikramāḍambareṇa |
vāg-ārambhe smita-parimalaiḥ kṣālayan mañca-kakṣāṃ
tuṅge raṅga-sthala-parisare sārasākṣaḥ sasāra
||2.1.256||

An example:
“Lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa, while gazing steadily and boldly at the wrestlers, shaking the earth like an elephant, proud with victory, His words touched with the fragrance of humor, entered the raised arena while sprinkling water on the stage.”

mādhuryam —
tan mādhuryaṃ bhaved yatra ceṣṭādeḥ spṛhaṇīyatā
||2.1.257||

“When there is an expression of desire through actions it is called sweetness
[mādhuryam].”

yathā —
varām adhyāsīnas taṭa-bhuvam avaṣṭambha-rucibhiḥ
kadambaiḥ prālambaṃ pravalita-vilambaṃ viracayan |
prapannāyām agre mihira-duhitus tīrtha-padavīṃ
kuraṅgī-netrāyāṃ madhu-ripur apāṅgaṃ vikirati
||2.1.258||

“While Kṛṣṇa was sitting on the bank of the Yamunā, tarrying there on the pretext of making a long garland of golden kadamba flowers, Rādhā arrived at a ghat on the river. He threw a glance from the corner of His eye at the doe-eyed Rādhā.”

māṅgalyam —
māṅgalyaṃ jagatām eva viśvāsāspadatā matā
||2.1.259||

“Being the object of faith for the entire world is called having auspiciousness
[māṅgalyam].”

yathā —
anyāyyaṃ na harāv iti vyapagata-dvārārgalā dānavā
rakṣī kṛṣṇa iti pramattam abhitaḥ krīḍāsu raktāḥ surāḥ |
sākṣī vetti sa bhaktim ity avanata-vrātāś ca cintojjhitāḥ
ke viśvambhara na tvad-aṅghri-yugale viśrambhitāṃ bhejire
||2.1.260||

An example:
“Because there is no sense of injustice in the Lord, even the demons leave their doors open. Because they have faith that Kṛṣṇa is their protector, the devatās indulge in play without worry. Understanding that He is the witness and thus knows their bhakti, those offering obeisances (devotees) have given up anxiety. O supporter of the universe! Who does not have faith in Your lotus feet?”

sthairyam —
vyavasāyād acalanaṃ sthairyaṃ vighnākulād api
||2.1.261||

“To remain fixed in one’s duties even though they are filled with obstacles is called steadiness [sthairyam].”

yathā —
pratikule’pi sa-śūle, śive śivāyāṃ niraṃśukāyāṃ ca |
vyalunād eva mukundo vindhyāvali-nandanasya bhujān
||2.1.262||

“Even though His act was obstructed by Śiva with his trident and Bāṇa’s mother who had appeared without clothing, Mukunda cut off Bāṇasura’s arms.”

tejaḥ —
sarva-cittāvagāhitvaṃ tejaḥ sadbhir udīryate
||2.1.263||

“The wise say that the ability to enter into the hearts of all others is called influence [tejas].”

yathā śrī-daśame (10.43.17) —
mallānām aśanir nṝṇāṃ naravaraḥ strīṇāṃ smaro mūrtimān
gopānāṃ svajano’satāṃ kṣitirbhujāṃ śāstā sva-pitroḥ śiśuḥ |
mṛtyur bhoja-pater virāḍ aviduṣāṃ tattvaṃ paraṃ yogināṃ
vṛṣṇīnāṃ paradevateti vidito raṅgaḥ gataḥ sāgrajaḥ
||2.1.264||

An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.43.17]:
“The various groups of people in the arena regarded Kṛṣṇa in different ways when He entered it with His elder brother. The wrestlers saw Kṛṣṇa as a lightning bolt, the men of Mathurā as the best of males, the women as Cupid in person, the cowherd men as their relative, the impious rulers as a chastiser, His parents as their child, the King of the Bhojas as death, the unintelligent as the Supreme Lord's universal form, the yogīs as the Absolute Truth and the Vṛṣṇis as their supreme worshipable Deity.”

yadvā —
tejo budhair avajñāder asahiṣṇutvam ucyate
||2.1.265||

“Another definition of tejas is intolerance of offense (since another meaning of tejas is impatience and fierce opposition).”

yathā —
ākruṣṭe prakaṭaṃ didaṇḍayiṣuṇā caṇḍena raṅga-sthale
nande cānakadundubhau ca purataḥ kaṃsena viśva-druhā |
dṛṣṭiṃ tatra surāri-mṛtyu-kulaṭā-samparka-dūtīṃ kṣipan
mañcasyopari sañcukurdiṣur asau paśyācyutaḥ prāñcati
||2.1.266||

An example:
“When the hater of the whole universe, angry Kaṃsa, loudly beckons to Nanda and Vasudeva with the desire to give them punishment, Kṛṣṇa throws a glance like a messenger sent to the unchaste woman called death for the demons, and ascends the arena with a desire to play.”

lalitam —
śṛṅgāra-pracurā ceṣṭā yatra taṃ lalitaṃ viduḥ
||2.1.267||

“Where there are activities of explicit conjugal nature it is known as lalita, voluptuousness.”

yathā—
vidhatte rādhāyāḥ kuca-mukulayoḥ keli-makarīṃ
kareṇa vyagrātmā sarabhasam asavyena rasikaḥ |
ariṣṭe sāṭopaṃ kaṭu ruvati savyena vihasann
udañcad-romāñcaṃ racayati ca kṛṣṇaḥ parikaram
||2.1.268||

An example:
“The King of Rasa, Kṛṣṇa is joyfully drawing makarīs on the bud-like breasts of Rādhā with His right hand using a steady mind. When Ariṣṭāsura roars harshly with pride, Kṛṣṇa, laughing at him while goosebumps rise on His flesh, ties His belt with His left hand.”

audāryam —
ātmādy-arpaṇa-kāritvam audāryam iti kīrtyate
||2.1.269||

“Generosity is glorified as the willingness to offer to another person even one’s soul.”

yathā—
vadānyaḥ ko bhaved atra vadānyaḥ puruṣottamāt |
akiñcanāya yenātmā nirguṇāyāpi dīyate
||2.1.270||

“Is there anyone more magnanimous than the Supreme Lord, who offers even
His soul to the destitute and nondescript?

sāmānyā nāyaka-guṇāḥ sthiratādyā yad apy amī |
tathāpi pūrvataḥ kiñcid viśeṣāt punar īritāḥ
||2.1.271||

“Although these eight qualities were previously discussed, because they are somewhat remarkable, they have again been described in a separate category.”

athāsya sahāyāḥ —
asya gargādayo dharme yuyudhānādayo yudhi |
uddhavādyās tathā mantre sahāyāḥ parikīrtitāḥ
||2.1.272||

“Kṛṣṇa’s assistants: For matters of dharma, the sages such as Garga; for war, persons such as Sātyaki; and for advice, persons such as Uddhava are glorified as assistants to the Lord in revealing these qualities.”

atha kṛṣṇa-bhaktāḥ —
tad-bhāva-bhāvita-svāntāḥ kṛṣṇa-bhaktā itīritāḥ
||2.1.273||

“The devotees of Kṛṣṇa: Those whose hearts are full of attraction to Kṛṣṇa are called the devotees of Kṛṣṇa.”

yo satya-vākya ity ādyā hrīmān ity antimā guṇāḥ |
proktāḥ kṛṣṇe’sya bhakteṣu te vijñeyā manīṣibhiḥ
||2.1.274||

“The learned understand that all the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, from truthfulness
[2.1.24] to bashfulness [2.1.27] are also present in Kṛṣṇa’s devotees.”

te sādhakāś ca siddhāś ca dvi-vidhāḥ parikīrtitāḥ ||2.1.275||

“The devotees are said to be of two types: practitioners (sādhakas) and perfected (siddhas).”

tatra sādhakāḥ —
utpanna-ratayaḥ samyaṅ nairvighnyam anupāgatāḥ |
kṛṣṇa-sākṣāt-kṛtau yogyāḥ sādhakāḥ parikīrtitāḥ
||2.1.276||

“Practitioners (sādhakas) are those who have developed rati for Kṛṣṇa but have not completely extinguished the anarthas, and who are qualified to see Kṛṣṇa directly.”

yathaikādaśe (11.2.46) —
īśvare tad-adhīneṣu bāliśeṣu dviṣatsu ca |
prema-maitrī-kṛpopekṣā yaḥ karoti sa madhyamaḥ
||2.1.277||

An example from the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.2.46]:
“An intermediate or second-class devotee, called madhyama-adhikārī, offers his love to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is a sincere friend to all the devotees of the Lord, shows mercy to ignorant people who are innocent and disregards those who are envious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”

yathā vā —
siktāpy aśru-jalotkareṇa bhagavad-vārtā-nadī-janmanā
tiṣṭhaty eva bhavāgni-hetir iti te dhīmann alaṃ cintayā |
hṛd-vyomany amṛta-spṛhā-hara-kṛpā-vṛṣṭeḥ sphuṭaṃ lakṣate
nediṣṭaḥ pṛthu-roma-tāṇḍava-bharāt kṛṣṇāmbudhasyodgamaḥ
||2.1.278||

Another example:
“Do not worry that after you have been drenched in tears arising from the river of the pastimes of the Lord, you will remain in the flame of suffering in the material world. When all the hairs on your limbs dance, then you will see very near, rising in the sky of your heart, the cloud of Kṛṣṇa’s form, full of the shower of mercy that destroys the desire for liberation.”

bilvamaṅgala-tulyā ye sādhakās te prakīrtitāḥ ||2.1.279||

“Those who are similar to Bilvamaṅgala are known as sādhus.”

atha siddhāḥ —

avijñātākhila-kleśāḥ sadā kṛṣṇāśrita-kriyāḥ |
siddhāḥ syuḥ santata-prema-saukhyāsvāda-parāyaṇāḥ
||2.1.280||

“Those who experience no suffering at all, who perform all actions while taking shelter of Kṛṣṇa, and who always taste the happiness of continuous prema are known as the perfected devotees [siddhas].”

samprāpta-siddhayaḥ siddhā nitya-siddhāś ca te tridhā ||2.1.281||

“There are two types of perfected devotees: those who have attained perfection (sādhana-siddha) and those who are eternally perfect (nitya-siddha).”

tatra samprāpta-siddhayaḥ —
sādhanaiḥ kṛpayā cāsya dvidhā samprāpta-siddhayaḥ
||2.1.282||

“Those who have attained perfection are of two types: those who have attained perfection by performance of sādhana and those who have attained perfection by mercy.”

tatra sādhana-siddhāḥ, yathā tṛtīye (3.15.25) —
yac ca vrajanty animiṣām ṛṣabhānuvṛttyā
dūre yamā hy upari naḥ spṛhaṇīya-śīlāḥ |
bhartur mithaḥ su-yaśasaḥ kathanānurāga-
vaiklavya-bāṣpa-kalayā pulakī-kṛtāṅgāḥ
||2.1.283||

An example of a sādhana-siddha, from the Third Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [3.15.25]:
“Persons whose bodily features change in ecstasy and who breathe heavily and perspire due to hearing the glories of the Lord are promoted to the kingdom of God, even though they do not care for meditation and other austerities. The kingdom of God is above the material universes, and it is desired by Brahmā and other demigods.”

yathā vā —
ye bhakti-prabhaviṣṇutā-kavalita-kleśormayaḥ kurvate
dṛk-pāte’pi ghṛṇāṃ kṛta-praṇatiṣu prāyeṇa mokṣādiṣu |
tān prema-prasarotsava-stavakita-svāntān pramodāśrubhir
nirdhautāsya-taṭān muhuḥ pulakino dhanyān namaskurmahe
||2.1.284||

Another example:
“I offer respects to the great devotees who have destroyed all suffering by the power of bhakti, who hate to glance upon the four objects [dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa] although they offer respects to the devotees, whose hearts are full of the bliss of strong prema, whose faces are washed with tears of bliss and whose limbs are covered with goosebumps.”

mārkaṇḍeyādayaḥ proktāḥ sādhanaiḥ prāpta-siddhayaḥ ||2.1.285||

“It is said that Mārkaṇḍeya and other sages attained perfection by sādhana.”

atha kṛpā-siddhāḥ, yathā śrī-daśame (10.23.43-44) —
nāsāṃ dvijāti-saṃskāro na nivāso gurāv api |
na tapo nātma-mīmāṃsā na śaucaṃ na kriyāḥ śubhāḥ
||2.1.286||
athāpi hy uttamaḥśloke kṛṣṇe yogeśvareśvare |
bhaktir dṛḍhā na cāsmākaṃ saṃskārādimatām api
||2.1.287||

An example of attaining perfection by mercy, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.23.43-44]:

“These women have never undergone the purificatory rites of the twice-born classes, nor have they lived as brahmacārīs in the āśrama of a spiritual master, nor have they executed austerities, speculated on the nature of the self, followed the formalities of cleanliness or engaged in pious rituals. Nevertheless, they have firm devotion for Lord Kṛṣṇa, whose glories are chanted by the exalted hymns of the Vedas and who is the supreme master of all masters of mystic power. We, on the other hand, have no such devotion for the Lord, although we have executed all these processes.”

yathā vā —
na kācid abhavad guror bhajana-yantraṇe’bhijñatā
na sādhana-vidhau ca te śrama-lavasya gandho’py abhūt |
gato’si caritārthatāṃ paramahaṃsa-mṛgya-śriyā
mukunda-pada-padmayoḥ praṇaya-sīdhuno dhārayā
||2.1.288||

Another example:
“You are not known to have suffered pains in the service of the guru, and you have trace of exerting even a drop of labor in following the rules of sādhana. But you have succeeded in attaining the river of nectar of prema coming from the two lotus feet of Mukunda, which are the wealth sought by the paramahaṃsas.”

kṛpā-siddhā yajña-patnī-vairocani-śukādayaḥ ||2.1.289||

“Those who have attained perfection by mercy are Śukadeva, the wives of the brāḥmaṇas and Bali, the son of Virocana.”

atha nitya-siddhāḥ —
ātma-koṭi-guṇaṃ kṛṣṇe premāṇaṃ paramaṃ gatāḥ |
nityānanda-guṇāḥ sarve nitya-siddhā mukundavat
||2.1.290||

“Those whose very body and qualities are bliss like Mukunda’s, and who possess the highest prema for Kṛṣṇa, which is ten million times greater than the attachment for the self are called eternally perfect (nitya-siddha).”

yathā pādme śrī-bhagavat-satyabhāmā-devī-saṃvāde —
atha brahmādi-devānāṃ tathā prārthanayā bhuvaḥ |
āgato’haṃ gaṇāḥ sarve jātās te’pi mayā saha ||2.1.291||
ete hi yādavāḥ sarve mad-gaṇā eva bhāmini |
sarvadā mat-priyā devi mat-tulya-guṇa-śālinaḥ
||2.1.292||

An example from the discussion between Satyabhāmā and the Lord, from the Padma Purāṇa:
“O beautiful Satyabhāmā! I have come because of the prayers of Brahmā and the devatās, and My associates all have taken birth with Me. The Yādavas that you see are all My associates and are full of all qualities like Mine. They always hold Me alone as dear.”

tathā ca śrī-daśame (10.14.32) —
aho bhāgyam aho bhāgyaṃ nanda-gopa-vrajaukasām |
yan-mitraṃ paramānandaṃ pūrṇaṃ brahma sanātanam
||2.1.293||

Another example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.32]: “How greatly fortunate are Nanda Mahārāja, the cowherd men and all the other inhabitants of Vrajabhūmi! There is no limit to their good fortune, because the Absolute Truth, the source of transcendental bliss, the eternal Supreme Brahman, has become their friend.”

tatraiva (10.26.13) —
dustyajaś cānurāgo’smin sarveṣāṃ no vrajaukasām |
nanda te tanaye’smāsu tasyāpy autpattikaḥ katham
||2.1.294||

Also from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.26.13]:
“Dear Nanda, how is it that we and all the other residents of Vraja cannot give up our constant affection for your son? And how is it that He is so spontaneously attracted to us?”

sanātanaṃ mitram iti tasyāpy autpattikaḥ katham |
sneho’smāsv iti caiteṣāṃ nitya-preṣṭhatvam āgatam
||2.1.295||

“One can understand that the inhabitants of Vraja are eternal associates of the Lord by the worlds ‘eternal friend’ in verse 293 and ‘how is it that He is so spontaneously attracted to us?’ in verse 294.”

ity ataḥ kathitā nitya-priyā yādava-vallavāḥ |
eṣāṃ laukikavac-ceṣṭā līlā mura-ripor iva
||2.1.296||

“Thus for this reason, the Yādavas known as the cowherd people are said to
be eternal associates of the Lord. As with the Lord’s actions, their actions also appear worldly, although everything about them is purely spiritual.”

tathā hi pādmottara-khaṇḍe —
yathā saumitri-bharatau yathā saṅkarṣaṇādayaḥ |

tathā tenaiva jāyante nija-lokād yadṛcchayā ||2.1.297||
punas tenaiva gacchanti tat-padaṃ śāśvataṃ param |
na karma-bandhanaṃ janma vaiṣṇavānāṃ ca vidyate ||2.1.298||

Also, from the Uttara-khaṇḍa of the Padma Purāṇa:
“Just as Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata and Saṅkarṣana take birth with the Lord, the Yādava cowherd people, descending from their spiritual planet by the Lord’s will, take birth with the appearance of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and then return to His eternal dhāma along with Him. The birth of these devotees is not caused by bondage to karma.”

ye proktāḥ pañca-pañcāśat kramāt kaṃsaripor guṇāḥ |
te cānye cāpi siddheṣu siddhidatvādayo matāḥ
||2.1.299||

“The first fifty-five of the qualities denoting Kṛṣṇa, as well as qualities such as the ability to give yoga siddhis, are also present in the perfected devotees.”

bhaktās tu kīrtitāḥ śāntās tathā dāsa-sutādayaḥ |
sakhāyo guru-vargāś ca preyasyaś ceti pañcadhā
||2.1.300||

“There are five types of devotees of Kṛṣṇa: those in sānta-rasa, the servants and sons, the friends, the elders and the lovers.”

atha uddīpanāḥ —
uddīpanās tu te proktā bhāvam uddīpayanti ye |
te tu śrī-kṛṣṇa-candrasya guṇāś ceṣṭāḥ prasādhanam
||2.1.301||
smitāṅga-saurabhe vaṃśa-śṛṅga-nūpura-kambavaḥ |
padāṅka-kṣetra-tulasī-bhakta-tad-vāsarādayaḥ
||2.1.302||

“Things that nourish the bhāva of the practitioner are called uddīpanas or stimuli. These are things such as Kṛṣṇa’s qualities, pastimes, decorations, His smile, the fragrance of His body, His flute, horn anklets, conch, footprints, His dhāma, tulasī, devotees and festival days such as Janmāṣṭamī and Ekādaśī.”

tatra guṇāḥ —
guṇās tu trividhāḥ proktāḥ kāya-vāṅ-mānasāśrayāḥ
||2.1.303||

“Qualities are of three types: bodily, mental and verbal.”

tatra kāyikāḥ —
vayaḥ-saundarya-rūpāṇi kāyikāmṛdutādayaḥ
||2.1.304||

“Bodily qualities are age, beauty, His forms and things like softness of body.”

guṇāḥ svarūpam evāsya kāyikādyā yadapy amī |
bhedaṃ svīkṛtya varṇyante tathāpy uddīpanā iti
||2.1.305||

“Though these bodily qualities are included in Kṛṣṇa’s svarūpa, accepting them as separate from the svarūpa, they are called uddīpanas.”

atas tasya svarūpasya syād ālambanataiva hi |
uddīpanatvam eva syād bhūṣaṇādes tu kevalam
||2.1.306||

“The form of Kṛṣṇa is the ālambana. His ornaments, age and other items act as uddīpana.”

eṣām ālambanatvaṃ ca tathoddīpanatāpi ca ||2.1.307||

“His qualities, however act as both ālambana and uddīpana.”

tatra vayaḥ —
vayaḥ kaumāra-paugaṇḍa-kaiśoram iti tat tridhā
||2.1.308||

“Kṛṣṇa has three ages: childhood (kumāra), boyhood (paugaṇḍa) and youth
(kiśora).”

kaumāraṃ pañcamābdāntaṃ paugaṇḍaṃ daśamāvadhi |
ā-ṣoḍaśāc ca kaiśoraṃ yauvanaṃ syāt tataḥ param
||2.1.309||

“Childhood ends with the fifth year; boyhood ends with the tenth year; youth ends with the sixteenth year. After that is manhood (yauvana).”

aucityāt tatra kaumāraṃ vaktavyaṃ vatsale rase |
paugaṇḍaṃ preyasi tat-tat-khelādi-yogataḥ
||2.1.310||
śraiṣṭhyam ujjvala evāsya kaiśorasya tathāpy adaḥ |
prāyaḥ sarva-rasaucityād atrodāhriyate kramāt
||2.1.311||

“Considering the suitability for pastimes, the childhood age is most fit for vātsala or parental rasa, and boyhood is most fit for sakhya-rasa. You is most excellent for madhura-rasa. The majority of examples given in this section are from youth (kaiśora), since it is suitable for all rasas.”

ādyaṃ madhyaṃ tathā śeṣaṃ kaiśoraṃ trividhaṃ bhavet ||2.1.312||

“Youth (kaiśora) has three divisions: beginning, middle and end.”

tatra ādyam —
varṇasyojjvalatā kāpi netrānte cāruṇa-cchaviḥ |
romāvali-prakaṭatā kaiśore prathame sati
||2.1.313||

“At the beginning of the kaiśora age, Kṛṣṇa’s complexion becomes indescribably effulgent, the edges of His eyes become reddish and fine hairs appear on His body.”

tathā —
harati śitimā ko’py aṅgānāṃ mahendra-maṇi-śriyaṃ
praviśati dṛśor ante kāntir manāg iva lohinī |
sakhi tanu-ruhāṃ rājiḥ sūkṣmā darāsya virohate
sphurati suṣamā navyedānīṃ tanau vana-mālinaḥ
||2.1.314||

An example:
“O my friend! Now the body of Kṛṣṇa has taken on a fresh beauty. All His limbs steal the splendor of the dark blue sapphire. A reddish hue has entered the corners of His eyes, and a few very fine hairs have sprung up on His body.”

vaijayantī-śikhaṇḍādi-naṭa-pravara-veśatā |
vaṃśī-madhurimā vastra-śobhā cātra paricchadaḥ
||2.1.315||

“His typical accoutrement during this period is the Vaijayantī garland, peacock feather, the costume of a dancer, the sweetness of His flute playing, and the luster of His dress.”

yathā śrī-daśame (10.21.5) —
barhāpīḍaṃ naṭa-vara-vapuḥ karṇayoḥ karṇikāraṃ
bibhrad-vāsaḥ kanaka-kapiśaṃ vaijayantīṃ ca mālām |
randhrān veṇor adhara-sudhayā pūrayan gopa-vṛndair
vṛndāraṇyaṃ sva-pada-ramaṇaṃ prāviśad gīta-kīrtiḥ
||2.1.316||

An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.21.5]: “Wearing a peacock-feather ornament upon His head, blue karṇikāra flowers on His ears, a yellow garment as brilliant as gold, and the Vaijayantī garland, Lord Kṛṣṇa exhibited His transcendental form as the greatest of dancers as He entered the forest of Vṛndāvana, beautifying it with the marks of His footprints. He filled the holes of His flute with the nectar of His lips, and the cowherd boys sang His glories.”

kharatātra nakhāgrāṇāṃ dhanur āndolitā bhruvoḥ |
radānāṃ rañjanaṃ rāga-cūrṇair ity ādi ceṣṭitam
||2.1.317||

“At the beginning of youth, the activities consist of sharpening His nails, quivering of His bow-like eyebrows, and staining the teeth with dyes.”

yathā—
navaṃ dhanur ivātanor naṭad-agha-dviṣor bhrū-yugaṃ
śarālir iva śāṇitā nakhara-rājir agre kharā |
virājati śarīriṇī rucira-danta-lekhāruṇā
na kā sakhi samīkṣaṇād yuvatir asya vitrasyati
||2.1.318||

An example:
“The two eyebrows of the enemy of Agha are dancing like new bows of Cupid. The tips of His rows of fingernails are so sharp that they shine like a line of arrows. The glistening rows of His attractive teeth embody the redness of dawn. What young woman would not be afraid of seeing Him?”

tan-mohanatā, yathā —
kartuṃ mugdhāḥ svayam acaṭunā na kṣamante’bhiyogaṃ
na vyādātuṃ kvacid api jane vaktram apy utsahante |
dṛṣṭvā tās te nava-madhurima-smeratāṃ mādhavārtāḥ
sva-prāṇebhyas trayam udasṛjann adya toyāñjalīnām ||2.1.319||

The attractiveness of the first part of youth:
“O Mādhava! Gazing upon the new sweetness of Your smile, the bewildered, immobilized gopīs are not able to reveal spontaneously the sentiments in their minds. And they are not able to confide in any person. What more can be said? They are so pained that today they have offered three handfuls of water to their life airs.”

atha madhyamam —
ūru-dvayasya bāhvoś ca kāpi śrīr urasas tathā |
mūrter mādhurimādyaṃ ca kaiśore sati madhyame
||2.1.320||

“During the middle of His kaiśora period, Kṛṣṇa displays indescribable beauty in His two thighs, His two arms and His chest, and sweetness in His whole form.”

yathā —
spṛhayati kari-śuṇḍā-daṇḍanāyoru-yugmaṃ
garuḍa-maṇi-kavāṭī-sakhyam icchaty uraś ca |
bhuja-yugam api dhitsaty argalāvarga-nindām
abhinava-taruṇimnaḥ prakrame keśavasya
||2.1.321||

An example:
“In the course of Kṛṣṇa’s fresh youth, His thighs desired to punish the trunks of elephants, His chest desired to make friends with door panels made of sapphire, and His arms scolded door bolts.”

mukhaṃ smita-vilāsāḍhyaṃ vibhramottarale dṛśau |
tri-jagan-mohanaṃ gītam ity ādir iha mādhurī
||2.1.322||

“The sweetness of His middle youth consists of His face brilliant with soft smile, His eyes restless with flirtation, and His singing which enchants the three words.”

yathā —
anaṅga-naya-cāturī-paricayottaraṅge dṛśau
mukhāmbujam udañcita-smita-vilāsa-ramyādharam |
acañcala-kulāṅganā-vrata-viḍambi-saṅgītakaṃ
hares taruṇimāṅkure sphurati mādhurī kāpy abhūt
||2.1.323||

An example:
“What sweetness became visible at the sprouting of Hari’s youth! His two restless eyes made friendship with the crafty conduct of Cupid. His lotus face became most radiant with attractive lips embellished with smiles. His singing made even the chaste women break their marriage vows.”

vaidagdhī-sāra-vistāraḥ kuñja-keli-mahotsavaḥ |
ārambho rāsa-līlāder iha ceṣṭādi-sauṣṭhavam
||2.1.324||

“The excellence of His behavior during the middle of His youth consists of a profuse concentration of charming but cunning actions, a great festival of pastimes in the groves and the beginning of the rāsa dance.”

yathā —
vyaktālakta-padaiḥ kvacit pariluṭhat-piñchāvataṃsaiḥ kvacit
talpair vicyuta-kāñcibhiḥ kvacid asau vyākīrṇa-kuñjotkarā |
prodyan-maṇḍala-bandha-tāṇḍava-ghaṭālakṣmollasat-saikatā
govindasya vilāsa-vṛndam adhikaṃ vṛndāṭavī śaṃsati
||2.1.325||

An example:
“In some places, by His clearly visible lac-stained footprints, in other places
by the peacock feathers plundered from His headdress, in other places by beds strewn with discarded belts, by a multitude of disheveled groves and sand glowing with the evident marks of dancing in a circle—Vṛndāvan announces the manifold pastimes of Govinda.”

tan-mohanatā, yathā —
vidūrān mārāgniṃ hṛdaya-ravi-kānte prakaṭayann
udasyan dharmenduṃ vidadhad abhito rāga-paṭalam |
kathaṃ hā nas trāṇaṃ sakhi mukulayan bodha-kumudaṃ
tarasvī kṛṣṇābabhre madhurima-bharārko’bhyudayate
||2.1.326||

The attractiveness of the middle period of Kṛṣṇa’s youth:
“O friend! Has an energetic sun full of sweetness arisen in the black sky called Kṛṣṇa? From a distance He has ignited the fire of passion in the sūryakānta jewel of my heart and produced a mass of red clouds in every

direction. He had made the moon of dharma set, and transformed the blooming night lotus of discrimination into a mere bud. How can we be delivered from this condition?”

atha śeṣam —
pūrvato’py adhikotkarṣaṃ bāḍham aṅgāni bibhrati |
tri-vali-vyaktir ity ādyaṃ kaiśore carame sati
||2.1.327||

“When the final period of youth (kaiśora) begins, all His limbs become more alluring than previously, with three lines clearly visible on His navel, etc.”

yathā —
marakata-girer gaṇḍa-grāva-prabhā-hara-vakṣasaṃ
śata-makha-maṇi-stambhārambha-pramāthi-bhuja-dvayam |
tanu-taraṇijā-vīci-cchāyā-viḍambi-bali-trayaṃ
madana-kadalī-sādhiṣṭhoruṃ smarāmy asurāntakam
||2.1.328||

An example:
“I am remembering the killer of demons, Kṛṣṇa, whose chest steals the radiance of a boulder from the sapphire mountain, whose two arms agitate the pride of sapphire pillars, whose three folds of skin on His abdomen shame the beauty of the Yamunā’s delicate waves, and whose excellent thighs surpass
the trunks of banana trees.”

tan-mādhuryaṃ, yathā —
daśārdha-śara-mādhurī-damana-dakṣayāṅga-śriyā
vidhūnita-vadhū-dhṛtiṃ varakalā-vilāsāspadam |
dṛg-añcala-camatkṛti-kṣapita-khañjarīṭa-dyutiṃ
sphurat-taruṇimodgamaṃ taruṇi paśya pītāmbaram
||2.1.329||

The sweetness of the last period of youth:
“O young lady! Behold that person wearing yellow cloth, who is radiating the beauty of fresh youth. With His bodily beauty, capable of defeating the five arrows of Cupid, He makes the women lose all composure. He is the playground of the sixty-four arts, and the astonishing beauty of the tips of His eyes crushes the splendor of the wagtail.”

idam eva hareḥ prājñair nava-yauvanam ucyate ||2.1.330||

“This last part of youth is called new youth (nava-yauvana) by the wise.”

atra gokula-devīnāṃ bhāva-sarvasva-śālitā |
abhūta-pūrva-kandarpa-tantra-līlotsavādayaḥ
||2.1.331||

“The end of youth is characterized by the manifestation of bliss from the most amazing pastimes of conjugal love never before enacted, in which the girls of Vraja are filled with the sum total of love.”

yathā —
kāntābhiḥ kalahāyate kvacid ayaṃ kandarpa-lekhān kvacit
kīrair arpayati kvacid vitanute krīḍābhisārodyamam |
sakhyā bhedayati kvacit smara-kalā-ṣāḍguṇyavān īhate
sandhiṃ kvāpy anuśāsti kuñja-nṛpatiḥ śṛṅgāra-rājyottamam
||2.1.332||

An example:
“The king of the groves, equipped with the six elements necessary for the arts of Cupid, rules the excellent kingdom of romantic love. In one place He picks a quarrel with His beloved women. In another place He dispatches love letters along with parrots. In another place He becomes eager to meet for pastimes.
In another place, He resolves differences using a go-between, and in another place, He unites with a gopī.”

tan-mohanatā, yathā —
karṇākarṇi sakhī-janena vijane dūtī-stuti-prakriyā
patyur vañcana-cāturī guṇanikā kuṇḍa-prayāṇ niśi |
vādhiryaṃ guru-vāci veṇu-virutāv utkarṇateti vratān
kaiśoreṇa tavādya kṛṣṇa guruṇā gaurī-gaṇaḥ paṭhyate
||2.1.333||

An example of attractiveness of the late kaiśora period:
“O Kṛṣṇa, today Your age of youth, in the role of a guru, is teaching the golden gopīs the art of whispering in each others’ ears, the method for making verses of praise for messengers when alone, cleverness in cheating husbands, praactice in sneaking to the forest at night, deafness to the words of the elders, and rapt hearing of the flute sound.”

netuḥ svarūpam evoktaṃ kaiśoram iha yadyapi |
nānākṛti-prakaṭanāt tathāpy uddīpanaṃ matam
||2.1.334||

“Even though the age of youth is said to be the svarūpa of the protagonist (ālambana), it is also considered to be the stimulus (uddīpana) because of appearing as one among many forms of age.”

bālye’pi nava-tāruṇya-prākaṭyaṃ kvacit |
tan nātirasa-vāhitvān na rasajñair udāhṛtam
||2.1.335||

“Sometimes it is heard that new youthfulness appears in Kṛṣṇa even as a small child, but since that does not nourish rasa, it is not mentioned by those knowledgeable in rasa.”

atha saundaryam —
bhavet saundaryam aṅgānāṃ sanniveśo yathocitam
||2.1.336||

“Arrangement of the limbs in the most suitable manner is called beauty.”

yathā —
mukhaṃ te dīrghākṣaṃ marakata-taṭī-pīvaram uro
bhuja-dvandvaṃ stambha-dyuti-suvalitaṃ pārśva-yugalam |
parikṣīṇo madhyaḥ prathima-laharī-hāri jaghanaṃ
na kasyāḥ kaṃsāre harati hṛdayaṃ paṅkaja-dṛśaḥ
||2.1.337||

“O Kṛṣṇa! Your face with long eyes, Your broad chest like an emerald riverbank, Your two arms like pillars, Your graceful sides, narrow waist, and hips attractive with ever-increasing waves of sweetness—which hearts of the lotus-eyed gopīs will not be stolen by these features?”

atha rūpam —
vibhūṣaṇaṃ vibhūṣyaṃ syād yena tad rūpam ucyate
||2.1.338||

“Excellent form is said to be that by which ornaments become worthy of being ornaments.”

yathā —
kṛṣṇasya maṇḍana-tatir maṇi-kuṇḍalādyā
nītāṅga-saṅgatim alaṅkṛtaye varāṅgi |
śaktā babhūva na manāg api tad-vidhāne
sā pratyuta svayam analpam alaṅkṛtāsīt
||2.1.339||

“O beautiful woman! The jeweled earrings and other ornaments contacting His body cannot at all function as ornaments to enhance His beauty. Rather, those ornaments become decorated by His body, and thus have increased their beauty.”

atha mṛdutā —
mṛdutā komalasyāpi saṃsparśāsahatocyate
||2.1.340||

“Tenderness means being so soft that even touching what is soft becomes intolerable.”

yathā —
ahaha navāmbuda-kānter amuṣya sukumāratā kumārasya |
api nava-pallava-saṅgād aṅgāny aparajya śīryanti
||2.1.341||

“Ah! So tender is the body of this young boy with the complexion of a new cloud that by touching new shoots, His limbs become bruised and torn.”

ye nāyaka-prakaraṇe vācikā mānasās tathā |
guṇāḥ proktānta evātra jñeyā uddīpanā budhaḥ
||2.1.342||

“The intelligent understand that all verbal and mental qualities that have been mentioned already in this section describing the protagonist are the uddīpanas.”

ceṣṭā —
ceṣṭā rāsādi-līlāḥ syus tathā duṣṭa-vadhādayaḥ
||2.1.343||

“The rāsa-līlā, killing of the demons and other pastimes are called activities
[ceṣṭā].”

tatra rāso, yathā —
nṛtyad-gopa-nitambinī-kṛta-parīrambhasya rambhādibhir
gīrvāṇībhir anaṅga-raṅga-vivaśaṃ sandṛśyamāna-śriyaḥ |
krīḍā-tāṇḍava-paṇḍitasya paritaḥ śrī-puṇḍarīkākṣa te
rāsārambha-rasārthino madhurimā cetāṃsi naḥ karṣati
||2.1.344||

“O lotus-eyed Lord! You, an expert dancer, longing for the pleasure of the rāsa-līlā to begin, were embraced on all sides by the gracefully-hipped, dancing gopīs. Rambhā and other heavenly damsels, smitten by Cupid’s play, beheld Your beauty at that time. The sweetness exhibited at that time is dragging away our hearts.”

duṣṭa-vadho, yathā lalita-mādhave (9.50) —
śambhur vṛṣaṃ nayati mandara-kandarāntar
mlānaḥ salīlam api yatra śiro dhunāne |
āḥ kautukaṃ kalaya keli-lavād ariṣṭaṃ
taṃ duṣṭa-puṅgavam asau harir unmamātha
||2.1.345||

Killing demons, from Lalita-mādhava:
“When Ariṣṭāsura shakes his head in jest, Śiva pales and departs for a cave in the Mandara Mountain with his bull. Ah! See the fun! Kṛṣṇa so casually killed that wicked bull demon.”

atha prasādhanam —
kathitaṃ vasanākalpa-maṇḍanādyaṃ prasādhanam
||2.1.346||

“Vestment refers to clothing, ornaments, decorations and other similar things.”

tatra vasanam —
navārka-raśmi-kāśmīra-haritālādi-sannibham |
yugaṃ catuṣkaṃ bhūyiṣṭhaṃ vasanaṃ tri-vidhaṃ hareḥ
||2.1.347||

“The Lord has three types of clothing: two-piece outfit, four-piece dress, and multi-piece dress in orange, red, yellow and other colors.”

tatra yugam —
paridhānaṃ sa-saṃvyānaṃ yuga-rūpam udīritam
||2.1.348||

“Two-piece dress refers to a lower cloth wrapped around the waist and an upper shawl.”

yathā stavāvalyāṃ mukundāṣṭake (3) —
kanaka-nivaha-śobhānandi pītaṃ nitambe
tad-upari navaraktaṃ vastram itthaṃ dadhānaḥ |
priyam iva kila varṇaṃ rāga-yuktaṃ priyāyāḥ
praṇayatu mama netrābhīṣṭa-pūrtiṃ mukundaḥ
||2.1.349||

An example from the Mukundāstaka of Stavāvalī:
“May Mukunda, wearing on His hips a yellow dhoti that derides the glory of a pile of gold, with reddish upper cloth, tinged with the passion for His beloved, satisfy the desire of my eyes.”

catuṣkam —
catuṣkaṃ kañcukoṣṇīṣa-tunda-bandhāntarīyakam
||2.1.350||

“The four-piece outfit refers to shirt, turban, sash and lower garment.”

yathā —
smerāsyaḥ parihita-pāṭalāmbara-śrīś
channāṅgaḥ puraṭa-rucoru-kañcakena |
uṣṇīṣaṃ dadhad aruṇaṃ dhaṭīṃ ca citrām
kaṃsārir vahati mahotsave mudaṃ naḥ
||2.1.351||

“The enemy of Kaṃsa, smiling in great joy, and wearing a pink dhoti, orange turban, an excellent vest of shining gold and multi-color sash, creates joy in us.”

bhūyiṣṭham —
khaṇḍitākhaṇḍitaṃ bhūri naṭa-veśa-kriyocitam |
aneka-varṇaṃ vasanaṃ bhūyiṣṭhaṃ kathitaṃ budhaiḥ
||2.1.352||

“The wise say that the multi-piece outfit consists of many pieces of cloth, cut and uncut, of many colors, suitable for performing artists.”

yathā —
akhaṇḍita-vikhaṇḍitaiḥ sita-piśaṅga-nīlāruṇaiḥ
paṭaiḥ kṛta-yathocita-prakaṭa-sanniveśojjvalaḥ |
ayaṃ karabha-rāṭ-prabhaḥ pracura-raṅga-śṛṅgāritaḥ
karoti karabhoru me ghana-rucir mudaṃ mādhavaḥ
||2.1.353||

“O slender thighed-woman! Mādhava, the color of the rain cloud, effulgent like a young elephant king, bedecked for a multitude of pastimes, effulgent with a stylish creation of cut and uncut cloth in white, gold, blue and red colors, is giving me bliss.”

atha ākalpaḥ —
keśa-bandhanam ālepo mālā-citra-viśeṣakaḥ |
tāmbūla-keli-padmādir ākalpaḥ parikīrtitaḥ
||2.1.354||

“Hair styles, applied cosmetics, garlands, body tilaka, tilaka on the forehead, betel-nut preparations and imitation lotuses are called accessories.”

syāj jūṭaḥ kavarī cūḍā veṇī ca kaca-bandhanam |
pāṇḍuraḥ karburaḥ pīta ity ālepas tridhā mataḥ
||2.1.355||

“Tying the hair consists of tying the hair at the back of the neck, binding flowers in the hair, binding the hair in a topknot and braiding the hair. The cosmetics are white, multicolor and yellow.”

mālā tridhā vaijayantī ratna-mālā vana-srajaḥ |
asyā vaikakṣakāpīḍa-prālambādyā bhidā matāḥ
||2.1.356||

“There are three types of garland: vaijayantī, jewel garland and forest garland. They may also extend over the serve as a chaplet around the topknot, or hang down from the neck.”

makarī-patra-bhaṅgāḍhyaṃ citraṃ pīta-sitāruṇam |
tathā viśeṣako’pi syād anyad ūhyaṃ svayaṃ budhaiḥ
||2.1.357||

“The body tilaka (citram) is yellow, white and reddish, filled with pictures of makarīs. The forehead tilaka (viśeṣakha) is also yellow, white or red. Intelligent persons also modify these into other colors spontaneously.”

yathā —
tāmbūla-sphurad-ānanendur amalaṃ dhaṃmillam ullāsayan
bhakti-ccheda-lasat-sughṛṣṭa-ghusṛṇālepa-śriyā peśalaḥ |
tuṅgoraḥ-sthala-piṅgala-srag alika-bhrājiṣṇu-patrāṅguliḥ
śyāmāṅga-dyutir adya me sakhi dṛśor dugdhe mudaṃ mādhavaḥ
||2.1.358||

“O friend! The moon of His face shines with betel nut and a faultless hairstyle. A yellow garland rests on His raised chest. He wears radiant tilaka on His forehead, and His body becomes charming with the wealth of designs made of finely ground saffron ointment. Today the dark-bodied, attractive Mādhava gives bliss to my eyes.”

atha maṇḍanam —
kirīṭaṃ kuṇḍale hāraś catuṣkī valayormayaḥ |
keyūra-nūpurādyaṃ ca ratna-maṇḍanam ucyate
||2.1.359||

“The jeweled ornaments (maṇḍanam) include crowns, earrings, broaches, bracelets, rings, armbands and anklets.”

yathā —
kāñcī citrā mukuṭam atulaṃ kuṇḍale hāri-hīre
hāras tāro valayam amalaṃ candrā-cāruś catuṣkī |
ramyā cormir madhurima-pūre nūpure cety aghārer
aṅgair evābharaṇa-paṭalī bhūṣitā dogdhi bhūṣām
||2.1.360||

“A colorful belt, an incomparable diadem, earrings of alluring diamonds, a pearl necklace, spotless bracelets, pearl-studded broach, delightful rings, and anklets filled with sweetness—these profuse ornaments attain the status of ornaments because they are decorated by the beauty of the limbs of Kṛṣṇa.”

kusumādi-kṛtaṃ cedaṃ vanya-maṇḍanam īritam |
dhātu-kḷptaṃ tilakaṃ patra-bhaṅga-latādikam
||2.1.361||

“When these decorations are made of flowers they are called sylvan ornaments. The drawings using curved lines painted on the forehead and body are made of minerals.”

atha smitaṃ, yathā kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛte (99) —
akhaṇḍa-nirvāṇa-rasa-pravāhair
vikhaṇḍitāśeṣa-rasāntarāṇi |
ayantritodvānta-sudhārṇavāni
jayanti śītāni tava smitāni
||2.1.362||

An example of the smile, from Kṛṣṇa-karnāmṛta:
“O Kṛṣṇa! Your gentle smiles which remove all pain by producing an unbroken stream of rasa of the highest bliss are disgracing all other rasas and emitting an unrestricted ocean of nectar.”

atha aṅga-saurabhaṃ, yathā —
parimala-sarid eṣā yad vahantī samantāt
pulakayati vapur naḥ kāpy apūrvā munīnām |
madhu-ripur uparāge tad-vinodāya manye
kuru-bhuvam anavadyāmoda-sindhur viveśa
||2.1.363||

An example of the fragrance of His limbs:
“Since the unprecedented river of fragrance flowing everywhere is causing the hairs of us self-satisfied sages to stand on end, I think the enemy of Madhu, a faultless ocean of fragrance, has come to Kurukṣetra to enjoy Himself on the occasion of the eclipse.”

atha vaṃśaḥ —
dhyānaṃ balāt paramahaṃsa-kulasya bhindan
nindan sudhā-madhurimāṇam adhīra-dharmā |
kandarpa-śāsana-dhurāṃ muhur eṣa śaṃsan
vaṃśī-dhvanir jayati kaṃsa-nisūdanasya
||2.1.364||

His flute:
“The fickle sound of Kṛṣṇa’s flute reveals its excellence by breaking the meditation of the exalted sages, criticizing the sweetness of nectar, and insistently preaching respect for the edicts of Cupid.”

eṣa tridhā bhaved veṇu-muralī-vaṃśikety api ||2.1.365||

“There are three types of flutes: veṇu, muralī and vaṃśikā.”

tatra veṇuḥ —
pārikākhyo bhaved veṇur dvādaśāṅguler dairghya-bhāk ||2.1.366||

“The flute that is twelve fingers long named Pāvika is called veṇu.”

muralī —
hasta-dvayam itāyāmā mukha-randhra-samanvitā |
catuḥ-svara-cchidra-yuktā muralī cāru-nādinā
||2.1.367||

“The sweet-sounding muralī is two hands long (24 fingers or 18 inches) with a hole at the end and four holes for producing sounds.”

vaṃśī —
ardhāṅgulāntaronmānaṃ tārādi-vivarāṣṭakam |
tataḥ sārdhāṅgulād yatra mukha-randhraṃ tathāṅgulam
||2.1.368||
śiro vedāṅgulaṃ pucchaṃ try-aṅgulaṃ sā tu vaṃśikā |
nava-randhrā smṛtā sapta-daśāṅgula-mitā budhaiḥ
||2.1.369||

“The vaṃsikā is seventeen fingers long (12.75 inches) with nine holes. Eight holes for playing notes are half a finger in diameter and spaced half a finger apart. A hole for blowing is placed 1-1/2 fingers from the eighth hole and is one finger in diameter. There are four fingers space remaining at the head of the flute and three fingers space remaining at the end of the flute.”

daśāṅgulāntarā syāc cet sā tāra-mukha-randhrayoḥ |
mahānandeti vyākhyātā tathā saṃmohinīti ca
||2.1.370||
bhavet sūryāntarā sā cet tata ākarṣiṇī matā |
ānandinī tadā vaṃśī bhaved indrāntarā yadi
||2.1.371||

“When the space between the mouth hole and the first hole for notes is ten fingers, the vaṃśī is called mahānanda (great delight) and sammohinī (the bewitcher). If the space is twelve fingers, the vaṃśī is called ākarṣiṇī (the attractor). If the space is fourteen fingers, the vaṃśī is called ānandinī (bliss-giver).”

gopānāṃ vallabhā seyaṃ vaṃśulīti ca viśrutā |
kramān maṇimayī haimī vaiṇavīti tridhā ca sā
||2.1.372||

“The ānandinī is a favorite with the cowherd people and is also called vaṃśulī. The vaṃśīs are respectively made of jewels, gold or bamboo.”

atha śṛṅgam —
śṛṅgaṃ tu gavalaṃ hema-nibaddhāgrima-paścimam |
ratna-jāla-sphuran-madhyaṃ mandra-ghoṣābhidhaṃ smṛtam
||2.1.373||

The horn:
“A wild buffalo horn with gold covering at both ends and jewel inlay in the middle is called Mandraghoṣa (rumbling thunder).”

yathā —
tārāvalī veṇu-bhujaṅgamena
tārāvalīlā-garalena daṣṭā |
viṣāṇikā-nāda-payo nipīya
viṣāṇi kāmaṃ dvi-guṇī-cakāra
||2.1.374||

“Bitten by the flute, like a scorpion with natural poisonous venom in the form of its shrill sound, the gopī Tārāvalī, leader of a group, drank some milk in the form of the sound of a small buffalo horn to counteract the poison. But rather than mitigate the burning poison of the flute’s sound, it increased the pain twofold.”

atha nūpuraṃ, yathā —
agha-mardanasya sakhi nūpura-dhvaniṃ
niśamayya sambhṛta-gabhīra-sambhramā |
aham īkṣaṇottaralitāpi nābhavaṃ
bahir adya hanta guravaḥ puraḥ sthitāḥ ||2.1.375||

An example of His anklets:
“Having heard the sound of Kṛṣṇa’s ankle bells, I have become extremely impatient to see Him, and am possessed with intense zeal. But I cannot leave this place because my elders are present before me.”

atha kambuḥ —
kambus tu dakṣiṇāvartaḥ pāñcajanyatayocyate
||2.1.376||

The conch:
“The conch with its spiral turning to the right is called Pañcajanya.”

yathā —
amara-ripu-vadhūṭī-bhrūṇa-hatyā-vilāsī
tridiva-pura-purandhrī-vṛnda-nāndīkaro’yam |
bhramati bhuvana-madhye mādhavādhmāta-dhāmnaḥ
kṛta-pulaka-kadambaḥ kambu-rājasya nādaḥ
||2.1.377||

“The sound of the king of conches, Pañcajanya, blown by Kṛṣṇa, wanders throughout the world, causing abortions in the wives of the demons, announcing auspiciousness to the inhabitants of Svarga, and making the hair stand on end.”

atha padāṅkaḥ, yathā śrī-daśame (10.38.26) —
tad-darśanāhlāda-vivṛddha-sambhramaḥ
premṇordhva-romāśru-kalākulekṣaṇaḥ |
rathād avaskandya sa teṣv aceṣṭata
prabhor amūny aṅghri-rajāṃsy aho iti
||2.1.378||

An example of His footprints, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam
[10.38.26]:
“Increasingly agitated by ecstasy at seeing the Lord's footprints, his bodily hairs standing on end because of his pure love, and his eyes filled with tears, Akrūra jumped down from his chariot and began rolling about among those footprints, exclaiming, ‘Ah, this is the dust from my master's feet!’ ”

yathā vā —
kalayata harir adhvanā sakhāyaḥ
sphuṭam amunā yamunā-taṭīm ayāsīt |
harati pada-tatir yad-akṣiṇī me
dhvaja-kuliśākuśa-paṅkajāṅkiteyam
||2.1.379||

Another example:
“O friends! Understand that Kṛṣṇa has gone to the bank of the Yamunā by this path for certain, because the markings of the flag, thunderbolt, goad and lotus are attracting my eyes.”

atha kṣetram, yathā —
hari-keli-bhuvāṃ vilokanaṃ
bata dūre’stu sudurlabha-śriyām |
mathurety api karṇa-paddhatiṃ
praviśan nāma mano dhinoti naḥ
||2.1.380||

An example of His place:
“What to speak of seeing all the places of rare glory there the Lord performed pastimes, even hearing the name of Mathurā steals away my mind.”

atha tulasī, yathā bilvamaṅgale —
ayi paṅkaja-netra-mauli-māle
tulasī-mañjari kiñcid arthayāmi |
avabodhaya pārtha-sārathes tvaṃ
caraṇābja-śaraṇābhilāṣiṇaṃ mām
||2.1.381||

An example of tulasī, from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta:
“O tulasī bud from lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa’s chaplet! I make one prayer to you. Inform the chariot driver of Arjuna that I desire shelter at His lotus feet.”

atha bhakto, yathā caturthe (4.12.21) —
vijñāya tāv uttama-gāya-kiṅkarāv
abhyutthitaḥ sādhvasa-vismṛta-kramaḥ |
nanāma nāmāni gṛṇan madhu-dviṣaḥ
pārṣat-pradhānāv iti saṃhatāñjaliḥ
||2.1.382||

An example of the devotee as uddīpana, from the Fourth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [4.12.21]:
“Dhruva Mahārāja, seeing that these uncommon personalities were direct servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, immediately stood up. But, being puzzled, in hastiness he forgot how to receive them in the proper way. Therefore he simply offered obeisances with folded hands and chanted and glorified the holy names of the Lord.”

yathā vā —
subala bhuja-bhujaṅgaṃ nyasya tuṅge tavāṃse
smita-vilasad-apāṅgaḥ prāṅgaṇe bhrājamānaḥ |
nayana-yugam asiñcad yaḥ sudhā-vīcibhir naḥ
kathaya sa dayitas te kvāyam āste vayasyaḥ
||2.1.383||

Another example:
“O Subala! Please tell us where your dear friend Kṛṣṇa is. While throwing sideward glances endowed with a gentle smile and placing His arm on your raised shoulder while standing in the yard, He would inundate our eyes with waves of nectar.”

atha tad-vāsaro, yathā —
adbhutā bahavaḥ santu bhagavat-parva-vāsarāḥ |
āmodayati māṃ dhanyā kṛṣṇa-bhādrapadāṣṭamī
||2.1.384||

An example of the days commemorating the Lord:
“Here there are many festival days commemorating the Lord. However, the auspicious eighth tithi of the waning moon in the month of Bhadra (Janmāṣṭamī) gives me great joy.”

iti śrī-śrī-bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhau dakṣiṇa-vibhāge
bhakti-rasa-sāmānya-nirūpaṇe vibhāva-laharī prathamā |

“Thus ends the First Wave of the Southern Ocean of Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, concerning vibhāva.”

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