Sri Lanka: Weaponry

Image title: Sri Lanka: Weaponry

Description of the photo

English text:

From Bow to Fire arm — Weaponry of any society is a clear indication of the nature and the scale of how that society had interacted with the outer world. The earliest prehistoric communities in Sri Lanka had utilized stone implements on the one hand as apparatuses of hunting animals and processing food, and as a method of self protection on the other. Fire arms were not used for a long time in the historic period. As suggested by the literary evidence, ancient paintings, sculptures and reliefs, there existed a set of weapons that was based on by the energy bodily generated. It comprises the individual weapons like clubs, spears, bows, battle axes, shears, swords, knives, daggers, javelins, choppers, quoils, nets, slings, and lassos. Use of fire arms was introduced to Sri Lanka by foreigners. According to Quroze, besides clubs, the Sinhala militia had used fire arms against the Portuguese. The local people who used the weapons had adapted well to the use of gun powder when it was first introduced by the Portuguese. Two literary works named Rajasingha Hatana and Mukkara Hatana that deal with warfare of the 17th Century list several fire arms that were used in the contemporary period as dik tuvakku, bondikula, kodituvakku, bogum tuvakku, dhee tuvakku, ath tuvakku and pedrenera. Leuke, the Disave of the Satara korale in 1745 had made a beautiful gun and donated it to King Kirti Sri Rajasinghe. This is now housed in the Rijkmuseum in the Netherlands. It is the only surviving example of guns made in the 18th century found in Sri Lanka.

1) A solider with a firearm, Dumbulla viharaya, (18th century), Mathale District
2) A wooden bas-relief showing two soldiers holding a firearm and a javelin, Padeniya viharaya, (18th century), Kurunegala District

Sinhala text (not proofread):

ලී මුගුරෙන් ගිනි අවියට — ඕනෑම සමාජයක භාවිත වන අවි ආයුධ එම සමාජය බාහිර ලෝකය සමඟ අන්තර්ක්‍රියා කළ ආකාරයේ ස්වභාවය සහ පරිමාණය පිළිබිඹු කරන එක් දර්ශකයකි. ශ්‍රි ලංකාවේ ප්‍රාග්ඓතිහාසික යුගයට අයත් ගල්මෙවලම් එක් අතකින් සතුන් දඩයම් කිරීම සහ ආහාර සකසා ගැනීමට භාවිත කරන ලද අතර තවත් අතකින් ආත්ම ආරක්ෂාව සඳහාද යොදා ගන්නට ඇත. ඓතිහාසික යුගයේ වැඩි කාලපරිච්ඡේදයක් තුළ ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ භාවිත වූ අවි ආයුධ අතරට ගිනිඅවි අයත් වූයේ නැත. සාහිත්‍යමය සාධක සහ පැරණි චිත්‍ර, මූර්ති සහ කැටයම් මඟින් ඉදිරිපත් වන සාක්ෂි අනුව එවක භාවිත වූයේ කාය ශක්තියට මුල්තැන දීමෙන් ක්‍රියාත්මක කරන අවි ආයුධ කට්ටලයකි. ඊට මුගුර, සෝතිය හෝ හෙල්ල, දුන්න, යුධ පොරව, කතුර, කඩුව, පිහිය, කිණිස්ස, තෝමරය, කැත්ත, චක්‍රය, කොකු, දැල්, ගල් පටිය, සහ වර මන්ද ආදී දේ අයත් විය. ගිනිඅවි භාවිතය ශ්‍රී ලංකාවට හුරු වූයේ විදේශිකයින්ගෙනි. පෘතුගීසීන්ට එරෙහි සටන්වලදී සිංහල සොල්දාදුවන් මුගුරුවලින් මෙන්ම ගිනිඅවිවලින්ද සටන් කළ බව ක්රෝස් සඳහන් කරයි. වෙඩි බෙහෙත් භාවිතය හඳුනාගත් වහා ඊට මැනවින් අනුවර්තනය වීමට මෙරට අවි ආයුධ භාවිත කරන්නන් සමත් විය. දහහත්වන සියවසේ යුධ කටයුතුවල ස්වභාවය විස්තර කරන රාජසිංහ හටන සහ මුක්කර හටන යන මුලාශ්‍ර එසමයේ භාවිත වූ ගිනිඅවි කිහිපයක් පිළිබඳව සඳහන් කරයි. දිතුවක්කු, බොන්ඩිකුල කොඩිතුවක්කු, බොගම් තුවක්කු, ධී තුවක්කු, අත් තුවක්කු සහ පෙද්රෙනෙර ආදිය ඉන් කිහිපයකි. 1745 දී සතර කෝරළය පාලනය කළ ලෙව්නේ දිසාව විසින් සාදවා කීර්ති ශ්‍රී රාජසිංහ රජු (ක්‍රි.ව 1747-1760) වෙත පිරිනමන ලද අලංකාර තුවක්කුවක් දැනට නෙදර්ලන්තයේ රාජකීය කෞතුකාගාරයේ ප්‍රදර්ශනය කෙරේ. එය දැනට ඉතිරි වී තිබෙන 18 වන සියවසට අයත් ගිනිඅවි පිළිබඳ එකම නිදර්ශනයයි.

1) ගිනි අවියක් මානා ගෙන සිටින සොල්දාදුවෙක්, දඹුළු විහාරය, (18 වන සියවස), මාතලේ දිස්ත්‍රික්කය
2) ගිනි අවියක් සහ හෙල්ලක් දරා සිටින සොල්දාදුවන් දෙදෙනෙක්, පාදෙණිය විහාරය, (18 වන සියවස), කුරුණෑගල දිස්ත්‍රික්කය

Transcription:

lī muguren gini aviyaṭa — ōnǣma samājayaka bhāvita vana avi āyudha ema samājaya bāhira lōkaya samaṅga antarkriyā kaḷa ākārayē svabhāvaya saha parimāṇaya piḷibiḅu karana ek darśakayaki. śri laṅkāvē prāgaitihāsika yugayaṭa ayat galmevalam ek atakin satun daḍayam kirīma saha āhāra sakasā gænīmaṭa bhāvita karana lada atara tavat atakin ātma ārakṣāva sandahāda yodā gannaṭa æta. aitihāsika yugayē væḍi kālaparichchhēdayak tuḷa śrī laṅkāvē bhāvita vū avi āyudha ataraṭa giniavi ayat vūyē næta. sāhityamaya sādhaka saha pæraṇi chitra, mūrti saha kæṭayam maṅgin idiripat vana sākṣi anuva evaka bhāvita vūyē kāya śaktiyaṭa multæna dīmen kriyātmaka karana avi āyudha kaṭṭalayaki. īṭa mugura, sōtiya hō hella, dunna, yudha porava, katura, kaḍuva, pihiya, kiṇissa, tōmaraya, kætta, chakraya, koku, dæl, gal paṭiya, saha vara manda ādī dē ayat viya. giniavi bhāvitaya śrī laṅkāvaṭa huru vūyē vidēśikayingeni. prutugīsīnṭa erehi saṭanvaladī siṅhala soldāduvan muguruvalin menma giniavivalinda saṭan kaḷa bava krōs sandahan karayi. veḍi behet bhāvitaya handunāgat vahā īṭa mænavin anuvartanaya vīmaṭa meraṭa avi āyudha bhāvita karannan samat viya. dahahatvana siyavasē yudha kaṭayutuvala svabhāvaya vistara karana rājasiṅha haṭana saha mukkara haṭana yana mulāśra esamayē bhāvita vū giniavi kihipayak piḷibandava sandahan karayi. dituvakku, bonḍikula koḍituvakku, bogam tuvakku, dhī tuvakku, at tuvakku saha pedrenera ādiya in kihipayaki. 1745 dī satara kōraḷaya pālanaya kaḷa levnē disāva visin sādavā kīrti śrī rājasiṅha raju (kri.va 1747-1760) veta pirinamana lada alaṅkāra tuvakkuvak dænaṭa nedarlantayē rājakīya kautukāgārayē pradarśanaya kerē. eya dænaṭa itiri vī tibena 18 vana siyavasaṭa ayat giniavi piḷibanda ekama nidarśanayayi.

1) gini aviyak mānā gena siṭina soldāduvek, daḅuḷu vihāraya, (18 vana siyavasa), mātalē distrikkaya
2) gini aviyak saha hellak darā siṭina soldāduvan dedenek, pādeṇiya vihāraya, (18 vana siyavasa), kuruṇǣgala distrikkaya

Transcription:

li muguren gini aviyata — onama samajayaka bhavita vana avi ayudha ema samajaya bahira lokaya samanga antarkriya kala akaraye svabhavaya saha parimanaya pilibiḅu karana ek darshakayaki. shri lankave pragaitihasika yugayata ayat galmevalam ek atakin satun dadayam kirima saha ahara sakasa ganimata bhavita karana lada atara tavat atakin atma arakshava sandahada yoda gannata ata. aitihasika yugaye vadi kalaparichchhedayak tula shri lankave bhavita vu avi ayudha atarata giniavi ayat vuye nata. sahityamaya sadhaka saha parani chitra, murti saha katayam mangin idiripat vana sakshi anuva evaka bhavita vuye kaya shaktiyata multana dimen kriyatmaka karana avi ayudha kattalayaki. ita mugura, sotiya ho hella, dunna, yudha porava, katura, kaduva, pihiya, kinissa, tomaraya, katta, chakraya, koku, dal, gal patiya, saha vara manda adi de ayat viya. giniavi bhavitaya shri lankavata huru vuye videshikayingeni. prutugisinta erehi satanvaladi sinhala soldaduvan muguruvalin menma giniavivalinda satan kala bava kros sandahan karayi. vedi behet bhavitaya handunagat vaha ita manavin anuvartanaya vimata merata avi ayudha bhavita karannan samat viya. dahahatvana siyavase yudha katayutuvala svabhavaya vistara karana rajasinha hatana saha mukkara hatana yana mulashra esamaye bhavita vu giniavi kihipayak pilibandava sandahan karayi. dituvakku, bondikula kodituvakku, bogam tuvakku, dhi tuvakku, at tuvakku saha pedrenera adiya in kihipayaki. 1745 di satara koralaya palanaya kala levne disava visin sadava kirti shri rajasinha raju (kri.va 1747-1760) veta pirinamana lada alankara tuvakkuvak danata nedarlantaye rajakiya kautukagaraye pradarshanaya kere. eya danata itiri vi tibena 18 vana siyavasata ayat giniavi pilibanda ekama nidarshanayayi.

1) gini aviyak mana gena sitina soldaduvek, daḅulu viharaya, (18 vana siyavasa), matale distrikkaya
2) gini aviyak saha hellak dara sitina soldaduvan dedenek, padeniya viharaya, (18 vana siyavasa), kurunagala distrikkaya

Automated Translation (not verified):

From Wooden Clubs to Firearms — The weapons used in any society are an indicator of the nature and scale of that society's interactions with the outside world. Stone tools belonging to the prehistoric era of Sri Lanka were used for hunting animals and preparing food on the one hand, and on the other hand they may have been used for self-defense. Firearms were not among the weapons used in Sri Lanka during most of the historical period. According to the evidence presented by literary factors and ancient paintings, sculptures and engravings, a set of weapons was used that prioritized physical strength. These included club, sothia or spear, bow, battle axe, scissors, sword, knife, dagger, mace, mace, wheel, hook, net, stone belt, and vara manda etc. The use of firearms was introduced to Sri Lanka by foreigners. Croce notes that Sinhalese soldiers fought with clubs as well as firearms in their battles against the Portuguese. As soon as the use of gunpowder was recognized, the weapons users in this country were able to adapt to it. Rajasingha Hatana and Mukkara Hatana, which describe the nature of warfare in the seventeenth century, refer to some of the firearms used in Esama. Rifles, Bondicula flag guns, Bogam guns, Dhi guns, hand guns and mortars are some of them. A beautiful gun made in 1745 and presented to King Keerthi Sri Rajasingha (1747-1760 AD) by Levne District, who ruled Satara Korala, is currently on display in the Royal Netherlands Museum. It is the only surviving illustration of an 18th century firearm.

Tamil text (not proofread):

வில்லிலிருந்து ஆயுதத்திற்கு — எந்தவொரு சமுதாயத்திலும் பயன்படுத்தப்படும் ஆயுதங்கள் அந்த சமூகம் வெளி உலகத்துடன் கொண்டுள்ள தொடர்பின் சுபாவத்தை வெளிப்படுத்தும் ஒரு காரணியாகும். வரலாற்றுக்கு முற்பட்ட காலங்களில் இலங்கையில் வசித்துவந்த சமூகங்களால் பாவனைசெயியப்பட்ட ஆயுதங்கள் ஒரு புரத்தில் மிருகங்களை வேட்டையாடுவதற்கும் உணவுப்பண்டங்களை தயாரிப்பதற்கும் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டது. இது தவிர அவை ஆரம்பகால ஆயுதங்களாகவும் தற்பாதுகாப்புக்காகவும் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டது. வரலாற்று யுகத்தில் நீண்டகாலம் வரை பயன்படுத்திய ஆயுதங்களில் துப்பாக்கிகள் இடம்பெறவில்லை. வரலாற்று ரீதியான விவரங்களிலும், புராதன ஓவியங்களிலும், சிற்ப கலைகளிலும் உடல் வலிமையால் தாங்கக்கூடிய ஆயுங்களையே பயன்படுத்தி உள்ளனர். அதில் தடிகள், வில்லும் அம்பும், யுத்தத்தின் பாவிக்கப்படும் கோடாரி, பெரிய கத்தரிக்கோல், வாள், கத்தி, குத்துவாள், ஈட்டி, வெட்டும் கோடரி, ஏறி தட்டு, வலை மற்றும் கவண் ஆகியன அடங்குகின்றன. துப்பாக்கியை இலங்கையர்களிடம் அந்நிய நாட்டவர்களால் அறிமுகப்படுத்தப்பட்டது. போர்த்துக்கேயருக்கு எதிரான யுத்தத்தின் போது சிங்கள படைவீரர்கள் தடிகளையும் துப்பாக்கிகளையும் பயன்படுத்தி போரிட்டதாக கிவ்ரோஸ் என்பவர் குறிப்பிட்டுள்ளார். வெடி பொருட்களை பயன்படுத்த ஆரம்பித்ததும் அதற்கு உடனடியாக ஈடுகொடுக்க இலங்கையில் துப்பாக்கிப் பயன்படுத்துபவர்கள் பழகிக்கொண்டனர். பதினேழாவது நூற்றண்டின் யுத்த நிலைமைகளை தெரிவிக்கும் ராஜசிங்க ஹட்டன முக்கர ஹட்டன போன்ற விவரங்களில் அக்காலகட்டத்தில் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்ட ஆயுதுங்கள் தொடர்பாகவும் தெரிவித்த சமகாலத்தின் பாவிக்கப்படட்டவைகளாக நீண்டதுப்பாக்கி, பொண்டிகுள கொடித்துப்பாக்கி, பொகம் துப்பாக்கி, தீத்துப்பாக்கி, கைத்துப்பாக்கி மற்றும் பெத்ரனெர ஆகியன அதில் சிலவாகும். 1745 ஆம் ஆண்டு சத்தரக் கோரளையை நிர்கித்த லெவ்கே திசாவே தயாரிக்கப்பட்டு கீர்த்தி சிறி ராஜசிங்க மன்னனிடம் கையளித்த அழகான துப்பாக்கி ஒன்று தற்பொழுது நெதர்லாந்தில் அரசாங்க நூதனசாலையில் காட்சிக்கு வைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. அந்த காலகட்டத்தில் பயன்படுத்தப்பட்ட துப்பாக்கிகளுக்கு ஒரே உதாரணம் அதுவாகும்.

1) துப்பாக்கியுடன் ஒரு ராணுவ வீரர், தம்புள்ள விஹாரய, மாத்தளை மாவட்டம் (ஊநு 18ம் நூற்றாண்டு)
2) சற்றே புடைத்திருக்கும்படி சிற்பங்களை வடிக்கும் முறையில், மரத்தில் செய்யப்பட்ட ஒரு சிற்ப வேலை துப்பாக்கியையும் எறியும் ஈட்டியையும் கைக்கொண்டு நிற்கும் இரு படைவீரர்களின் உருவம். (பாதெனியா விஹாரய, குருணாகள் மாவட்டம் (18ம் நூற்றாண்டு)

Transcription:

villiliruntu āyutattiṟku — entavoru camutāyattilum payaṉpaṭuttappaṭum āyutaṅkaḷ anta camūkam veḷi ulakattuṭaṉ koṇṭuḷḷa toṭarpiṉ cupāvattai veḷippaṭuttum oru kāraṇiyākum. varalāṟṟukku muṟpaṭṭa kālaṅkaḷil ilaṅkaiyil vacittuvanta camūkaṅkaḷāl pāvaṉaiceyiyappaṭṭa āyutaṅkaḷ oru purattil mirukaṅkaḷai vēṭṭaiyāṭuvataṟkum uṇavuppaṇṭaṅkaḷai tayārippataṟkum payaṉpaṭuttappaṭṭatu. itu tavira avai ārampakāla āyutaṅkaḷākavum taṟpātukāppukkākavum payaṉpaṭuttappaṭṭatu. varalāṟṟu yukattil nīṇṭakālam varai payaṉpaṭuttiya āyutaṅkaḷil tuppākkikaḷ iṭampeṟavillai. varalāṟṟu rītiyāṉa vivaraṅkaḷilum, purātaṉa ōviyaṅkaḷilum, ciṟpa kalaikaḷilum uṭal valimaiyāl tāṅkakkūṭiya āyuṅkaḷaiyē payaṉpaṭutti uḷḷaṉar. atil taṭikaḷ, villum ampum, yuttattiṉ pāvikkappaṭum kōṭāri, periya kattarikkōl, vāḷ, katti, kuttuvāḷ, īṭṭi, veṭṭum kōṭari, ēṟi taṭṭu, valai maṟṟum kavaṇ ākiyaṉa aṭaṅkukiṉṟaṉa. tuppākkiyai ilaṅkaiyarkaḷiṭam anniya nāṭṭavarkaḷāl aṟimukappaṭuttappaṭṭatu. pōrttukkēyarukku etirāṉa yuttattiṉ pōtu ciṅkaḷa paṭaivīrarkaḷ taṭikaḷaiyum tuppākkikaḷaiyum payaṉpaṭutti pōriṭṭatāka kivrōs eṉpavar kuṟippiṭṭuḷḷār. veṭi poruṭkaḷai payaṉpaṭutta ārampittatum ataṟku uṭaṉaṭiyāka īṭukoṭukka ilaṅkaiyil tuppākkip payaṉpaṭuttupavarkaḷ paḻakikkoṇṭaṉar. patiṉēḻāvatu nūṟṟaṇṭiṉ yutta nilaimaikaḷai terivikkum rājaciṅka haṭṭaṉa mukkara haṭṭaṉa pōṉṟa vivaraṅkaḷil akkālakaṭṭattil payaṉpaṭuttappaṭṭa āyutuṅkaḷ toṭarpākavum terivitta camakālattiṉ pāvikkappaṭaṭṭavaikaḷāka nīṇṭatuppākki, poṇṭikuḷa koṭittuppākki, pokam tuppākki, tīttuppākki, kaittuppākki maṟṟum petraṉera ākiyaṉa atil cilavākum. 1745 ām āṇṭu cattarak kōraḷaiyai nirkitta levkē ticāvē tayārikkappaṭṭu kīrtti ciṟi rājaciṅka maṉṉaṉiṭam kaiyaḷitta aḻakāṉa tuppākki oṉṟu taṟpoḻutu netarlāntil aracāṅka nūtaṉacālaiyil kāṭcikku vaikkappaṭṭuḷḷatu. anta kālakaṭṭattil payaṉpaṭuttappaṭṭa tuppākkikaḷukku orē utāraṇam atuvākum.

1) tuppākkiyuṭaṉ oru rāṇuva vīrar, tampuḷḷa vihāraya, māttaḷai māvaṭṭam (ūnu 18m nūṟṟāṇṭu)
2) caṟṟē puṭaittirukkumpaṭi ciṟpaṅkaḷai vaṭikkum muṟaiyil, marattil ceyyappaṭṭa oru ciṟpa vēlai tuppākkiyaiyum eṟiyum īṭṭiyaiyum kaikkoṇṭu niṟkum iru paṭaivīrarkaḷiṉ uruvam. (pāteṉiyā vihāraya, kuruṇākaḷ māvaṭṭam (18m nūṟṟāṇṭu)

Transcription:

villilirunthu ayuthathirku — enthavoru samuthayathilum payanpaduthappadum ayuthangal antha samugam veli ulagathudan kondulla thodarpin supavathai velippaduthum oru karaniyagum. varalarrukku murpatta kalangalil ilangaiyil vasithuvantha samugangalal pavanaiseyiyappatta ayuthangal oru purathil mirugangalai vettaiyaduvatharkum unavuppandangalai thayarippatharkum payanpaduthappattathu. ithu thavira avai arambagala ayuthangalagavum tharpathugappukkagavum payanpaduthappattathu. varalarru yugathil nindagalam varai payanpaduthiya ayuthangalil thuppakkigal idamberavillai. varalarru rithiyana vivarangalilum, purathana oviyangalilum, sirpa kalaigalilum udal valimaiyal thangakkudiya ayungalaiye payanpaduthi ullanar. athil thadigal, villum ambum, yuthathin pavikkappadum kodari, periya katharikkol, val, kathi, kuthuval, itti, vettum kodari, eri thattu, valai marrum kavan agiyana adanguginrana. thuppakkiyai ilangaiyarkalidam anniya nattavarkalal arimugappaduthappattathu. porthukkeyarukku ethirana yuthathin pothu singala padaivirarkal thadigalaiyum thuppakkigalaiyum payanpaduthi porittathaga kivros enpavar kurippittullar. vedi porudkalai payanpadutha arambithathum atharku udanadiyaga idugodukka ilangaiyil thuppakkip payanpaduthupavarkal pazhagikkondanar. pathinezhavathu nurrandin yutha nilaimaigalai therivikkum rajasinga hattana mukkara hattana ponra vivarangalil akkalagattathil payanpaduthappatta ayuthungal thodarpagavum therivitha samagalathin pavikkappadattavaigalaga nindathuppakki, pondigula kodithuppakki, pogam thuppakki, thithuppakki, kaithuppakki marrum pethranera agiyana athil silavagum. 1745 am andu satharag koralaiyai nirkitha levke thisave thayarikkappattu kirthi siri rajasinga mannanidam kaiyalitha azhagana thuppakki onru tharpozhuthu netharlanthil arasanga nuthanasalaiyil kadsikku vaikkappattullathu. antha kalagattathil payanpaduthappatta thuppakkigalukku ore utharanam athuvagum.

1) thuppakkiyudan oru ranuva virar, thambulla viharaya, mathalai mavattam (unu 18m nurrandu)
2) sarre pudaithirukkumbadi sirpangalai vadikkum muraiyil, marathil seyyappatta oru sirpa velai thuppakkiyaiyum eriyum ittiyaiyum kaikkondu nirkum iru padaivirarkalin uruvam. (patheniya viharaya, kurunagal mavattam (18m nurrandu)

Automated Translation (not verified):

From Bow to Weapon — The weapons used in any society are a factor in expressing the nature of that society's relationship with the outside world. Weapons used by communities living in Sri Lanka in prehistoric times were used for hunting animals and preparing food in a puram. Apart from this they were used as early weapons and for self-defense. Guns were not among the longest-used weapons in the historical era. In historical details, ancient paintings and sculptures, only the lives that can be sustained by physical strength have been used. These include staves, bow and arrow, battle axe, great scimitar, sword, knife, dagger, spear, chopping axe, climbing plate, net and slingshot. Guns were introduced to Sri Lankans by foreigners. Kivros mentioned that Sinhalese soldiers fought with sticks and guns during the war against the Portuguese. Gun users in Sri Lanka have become accustomed to immediately reacting to the use of explosives. Rajasinghe Hattana Mukkara Hattana, which describes the war conditions of the seventeenth century, also mentions the weapons used at that time, and some of them are the long gun, Pondikula flag gun, Bogam gun, fire gun, pistol and Petranera. A beautiful gun made in 1745 by Levke Disave, who ruled Chattarak Korala and presented to King Kirti Siri Rajasingha, is now on display in the Government Museum in the Netherlands. It is the only example of firearms used in that period.

Gallery information:

These photos were taken at the Maritime Museum in Galle (Sri Lanka) which include objects recovered from the 2nd century B.C. Godawaya shipwreck. The Maritime Museum is housed in Galle's historic Dutch warehouse (built in 1671) and opened its doors on May 9, 1992. The Maritime Archaeology Museum is serving as a centre of education for various groups of visitors and researchers of Southern region of Sri Lanka.

Photo details:
Date: 2023-09-17
Camera: SONY ILCE-6400
Exposure: 1/125
Aperture: f/3.5
ISO: 6400
Focal length: 18mm

High resolution:
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Size: 1.60 MB
Resolution: 1308 x 2000
© Copyright: see gallery source

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