Sri Lanka: Maritime influence

Image title: Sri Lanka: Maritime influence

Description of the photo

English text:

Maritime influence on Sri Lankan performing art — There are historical and archaeological evidence to prove that Sri Lanka had a firm tradition of performing arts during the historic period. It was associated on one hand with the courtly performances and of was affiliated with the mundane life of the rural farmers on the other. An 8th century graffiti on the historic mirror wall at Sigiriya records a concert known as Giragga Samajja, that was performed in the public domain. The bas-relief appeared in some of the architectural edifices of eighth and ninth centuries CE depict several joyful dancing figures. A monastic legislation called Dambadeni Katikavat, compiled in the thirteenth Century, prohibits the involvement of Buddhist monks in mundane performances.

The influence by Portuguese, Catholic religion and South Indian tradition to the 19th Century performing arts in Sri Lanka was crucial. Baila and Kapirinna songs that were propagated after the arrival of Portuguese have been well adopted to the modern tradition of Sri Lankan songs. Twentieth Century performing arts in Sri Lanka are nurtured by the Pasan and Kantaru songs which were disseminated from the Catholic Church. Influence of the South Indian drama and songs into the Sri Lankan performing arts, is boldly reflected in the Nurti and Nadagam tradition of the early twentieth Century. Such sources of foreign origin, which inspired the modern tradition of performing arts drifted into the country through various socio-economic channels of the Indian Ocean.

A bas relief Caving performing the dancers, Niyamgampaya Viharaya, Kandy District

Sinhala text (not proofread):

ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ ප‍්‍රසාංගික කලාව වෙන මුහුදු සම්බන්ධනාවල බලපෑම — ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ ඓතිහාසික යුගයේදී ප්‍රසාංගික කලාවන් පිළිබඳ ස්ථිරසාර සම්ප්‍රදායයක් පැවති බවට ඓතිහාසික මෙන්ම පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක සාධක තිබේ. එය එක් පසෙකින් රාජසභා සංදර්ශන සමඟ සම්බන්ධ වූ අතර අනෙක් පසින් ග්‍රාමීය ගොවිජනතාවගේ ජනජිවිතය සමඟ සම්බන්ධ විය. ක්‍රිස්තු වර්ෂයෙන් අටවන සියවසේදී පමණ ප්‍රසිද්ධියේ රඟ දැක්වූ 'ගිරග්ග සමජ්ජ' නම් ප්‍රසංගයක් පිළිබඳව සීගිරි කැටපත් පවුරේ සඳහන්ය. ක්‍රිස්තු වර්ෂයෙන් දහතුන්වන සියවසේ රචිත ‘දඹදෙණි කතිකාවත' නම් වු ආරාමික ව්‍යවස්ථාවේ කාව්‍ය නාටක ආදී දේ බෞද්ධ භික්ෂුන්වහන්සේලා විසින් සේවනය නොකළ යුතු දෑ ලෙස නම් කොට තිබේ.

දහනම වන සියවසේ ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ ප්‍රසාංගික කලාව වෙත පෘතුගීසි ආභාසය, ක්‍රිස්තියානි ආගම සහ දකුණු ඉන්දීය සම්ප්‍රදාය මැගින් ඇති කළ බලපෑම තීරණාත්මකය. පෘතුගීසි ආගමනයෙන් පසු මෙරට පැතිරි ගිය බයිලා සහ කපිරිඤ්ඤා ගීත වර්තමාන ශ්‍රී ලාංකික ගීත සම්ප්‍රදායට මැනවින් අනුකූලනය වී තිබේ. ක්‍රිස්තියානි පල්ලිය කේන්ද්‍ර කොට ගෙන ප්‍රභවය වූ පසන් සහ කන්තාරු ගී මඟින් විසිවන සියවසේ මෙරට ප්‍රසාංගික කලාව විවිධ පරිමාණයෙන් පෝෂණය ලැබීය. දකුණු ඉන්දීය නාටක සහ ගීතවල ආනුභාව උද්දීප්තව පිළිබිඹු වන්නේ විසිවන සියවසේ මුල්භාගයේ ප්‍රචලිත වු ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ නූර්ති සහ නාඩගම් සම්ප්‍රදාය මඟිනි. මෙරට ප්‍රසාංගික කලාව වෙත ආනුභාව පෑ මෙම විදේශීය ප්‍රභවයක් ඇති මූලාශ්‍ර සම්ප්‍රදායයන් නෙක විධ සමාජ ආර්ථික සහ දේශපාලනික නාලිකා ඔස්සේ ඉන්දීය සාගරය හරහා පැමිණි ඒවායි.

නියංගම්පාය විහාරයේ නැට්ටුවන් දක්වන අර්ධ උන්නත මූර්තියක්, මහනුවර දිස්ත්‍රික්කය

Transcription:

śrī laṅkāvē parasāṅgika kalāva vena muhudu sambandhanāvala balapǣma — śrī laṅkāvē aitihāsika yugayēdī prasāṅgika kalāvan piḷibanda sthirasāra sampradāyayak pævati bavaṭa aitihāsika menma purāvidyātmaka sādhaka tibē. eya ek pasekin rājasabhā saṅdarśana samaṅga sambandha vū atara anek pasin grāmīya govijanatāvagē janajivitaya samaṅga sambandha viya. kristu varṣayen aṭavana siyavasēdī pamaṇa prasiddhiyē raṅga dækvū 'giragga samajja' nam prasaṅgayak piḷibandava sīgiri kæṭapat pavurē sandahanya. kristu varṣayen dahatunvana siyavasē rachita ‘daḅadeṇi katikāvata' nam vu ārāmika vyavasthāvē kāvya nāṭaka ādī dē bauddha bhikṣunvahansēlā visin sēvanaya nokaḷa yutu dǣ lesa nam koṭa tibē.

dahanama vana siyavasē śrī laṅkāvē prasāṅgika kalāva veta prutugīsi ābhāsaya, kristiyāni āgama saha dakuṇu indīya sampradāya mægin æti kaḷa balapǣma tīraṇātmakaya. prutugīsi āgamanayen pasu meraṭa pætiri giya bayilā saha kapiriññā gīta vartamāna śrī lāṅkika gīta sampradāyaṭa mænavin anukūlanaya vī tibē. kristiyāni palliya kēndra koṭa gena prabhavaya vū pasan saha kantāru gī maṅgin visivana siyavasē meraṭa prasāṅgika kalāva vividha parimāṇayen pōṣaṇaya læbīya. dakuṇu indīya nāṭaka saha gītavala ānubhāva uddīptava piḷibiḅu vannē visivana siyavasē mulbhāgayē prachalita vu śrī laṅkāvē nūrti saha nāḍagam sampradāya maṅgini. meraṭa prasāṅgika kalāva veta ānubhāva pǣ mema vidēśīya prabhavayak æti mūlāśra sampradāyayan neka vidha samāja ārthika saha dēśapālanika nālikā ossē indīya sāgaraya harahā pæmiṇi ēvāyi.

niyaṅgampāya vihārayē næṭṭuvan dakvana ardha unnata mūrtiyak, mahanuvara distrikkaya

Transcription:

shri lankave parasangika kalava vena muhudu sambandhanavala balapama — shri lankave aitihasika yugayedi prasangika kalavan pilibanda sthirasara sampradayayak pavati bavata aitihasika menma puravidyatmaka sadhaka tibe. eya ek pasekin rajasabha sandarshana samanga sambandha vu atara anek pasin gramiya govijanatavage janajivitaya samanga sambandha viya. kristu varshayen atavana siyavasedi pamana prasiddhiye ranga dakvu 'giragga samajja' nam prasangayak pilibandava sigiri katapat pavure sandahanya. kristu varshayen dahatunvana siyavase rachita ‘daḅadeni katikavata' nam vu aramika vyavasthave kavya nataka adi de bauddha bhikshunvahansela visin sevanaya nokala yutu da lesa nam kota tibe.

dahanama vana siyavase shri lankave prasangika kalava veta prutugisi abhasaya, kristiyani agama saha dakunu indiya sampradaya magin ati kala balapama tiranatmakaya. prutugisi agamanayen pasu merata patiri giya bayila saha kapiriñña gita vartamana shri lankika gita sampradayata manavin anukulanaya vi tibe. kristiyani palliya kendra kota gena prabhavaya vu pasan saha kantaru gi mangin visivana siyavase merata prasangika kalava vividha parimanayen poshanaya labiya. dakunu indiya nataka saha gitavala anubhava uddiptava pilibiḅu vanne visivana siyavase mulbhagaye prachalita vu shri lankave nurti saha nadagam sampradaya mangini. merata prasangika kalava veta anubhava pa mema videshiya prabhavayak ati mulashra sampradayayan neka vidha samaja arthika saha deshapalanika nalika osse indiya sagaraya haraha pamini evayi.

niyangampaya viharaye nattuvan dakvana ardha unnata murtiyak, mahanuvara distrikkaya

Automated translation (not verified):

The Impact of Sea Connections on Performing Arts in Sri Lanka — There is historical and archeological evidence that there was a strong tradition of performing arts during Sri Lanka's historical period. It was associated with the royal pageants on the one hand and the folk life of the rural peasantry on the other. The Sigiri Mirror Wall mentions a concert called 'Giragga Samajja' which was performed in public around the eighth century AD. In the monastic constitution called 'Dambadeni Kathikavata', written in the thirteenth century AD, things such as poetry and drama have been named as things that should not be served by Buddhist monks.

The impact of Portuguese influence, Christianity and South Indian tradition on Sri Lankan performing arts in the nineteenth century was decisive. The ballads and kapirinja songs that spread in this country after the arrival of the Portuguese have been well adapted to the current Sri Lankan song tradition. Pasan and Kantaru songs, which were centered around the Christian Church, nourished the performing arts of the country in the twentieth century on a different scale. South Indian plays and songs are inspired by the Noorti and Nadagam traditions of Sri Lanka which were popular in the early twentieth century. These foreign-sourced traditions that inspired the performing arts of this country came across the Indian Ocean through various socio-economic and political channels.

A half-elevated sculpture of dancers at Niangampaya Temple, Kandy District

Tamil text (not proofread):

இலங்கையின் செயல்முறைக் கலைகள் மீது கடல்தொடர்புகளின் செல்வாக்கு் — இலங்கையின் வரலாற்று யுகத்தில் செயல்முறைக்கலைகள் தொடர்பாக நிரந்தர சம்பிரதாயங்கள் இருந்ததாக வரலாற்று மற்றும் தொல்பொருள் ஆராய்ச்சிகள் சான்று பகிர்கின்றன. அது ஒரு புறம் அரச அரண்மனைக் கண்காட்சிகளுடன் தொடர்புபட்டதுடன் மறுபுறம் கிராமிய விவசாய மக்களின் சாதாரணமான வாழ்க்கையுடனும் தொடர்புப்பட்டது. எட்டாம் நூற்றாண்டளவில் பிரசித்திபெற்ற “கிரக்க சமஜ்ஜ” என்னும் நாடக ஃ சங்கீதக் கச்சேரி ஒன்றை பொது ஜனங்களுக்காக நடித்ததைப் பற்றி விவரங்கள் சீகிரியாவின் கண்ணாடி சுவரின் (மிரர் வோள்) விவரணம் செயிதிருப்பதைக் காணலாம். கிறிஸ்துவுக்குப் பின் எட்டாம் மற்றும் ஒன்பதாம் நூற்றாண்டுகளுக்குறிய வாஸ்துசாஸ்திரங்களில் அழகிய நடன அசைவுகளைக் கொண்ட உருவங்களைக் காணக்கூடியதாக உள்ளது. கிறிஸ்துவுக்குப் பின் 13 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டில் எழுதப்பட்ட தம்பதெனி கத்திகாவதை என்ற யாப்பில் இவ்வாறான காவியம் மற்றும் நாடகம் ஆகியவற்றை பார்வையிடுவது பௌத்த துறவிகளுக்கு ஏற்றதல்ல எனவும் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ளது.

19 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டில் இலங்கையின் கலையில் போர்த்துக்கேயர்களும் கிறிஸ்தவ சமயமும் தென்னிந்தியாவின் சம்பிரதாயங்களும் அதிக அழுத்தங்களை ஏற்படுத்தன. போர்த்துக்கேயரின் வருகையை அடுத்து பைலா, கபிரிஞ்ஞா போன்ற பாடல்கள் இலங்கை இசைத்துறையில் அதிக ஆதிக்கம் செலுத்தின. தேவாலயங்களை மையப்படுத்தி பாடப்பட்ட பாடல்கள் 20 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டில் இலங்கையில் செயல் முறை கலையை போஷித்தது. 20 நூற்றண்டின் ஆரம்ப கட்டத்தில் இலங்கையில் பிரபல்யம் பெற்ற நுர்த்தி மட்டும் நாடகக்கலை மீது தென்னிந்திய நாடகங்கள் மற்றும் பாடல்களின் சாயல்கள் காணக்கூடியதாக உள்ளது. இலங்கையின் நூதன செயல்முரைகலை மரபு மீது அந்நிய நாட்டின் மூலத்தைக் கொண்ட செல்வாக்குகள் இந்து சமுததிரத்தின் பல் வேறு சமூக பொருளாதார வழிகளின் ஊடாக வந்துசேர்ந்தன.

சற்றே புடைத்திருக்கும்படி சிற்பங்களை வடிக்கும் முறையில் செய்யப்பட்ட ஒரு சிற்ப வேலை - கண்டி மாவட்டம், நியம்கம்பாய விஹாரயில் உள்ள இதில் நடனமாடுபவர்கள் மூன்று பேரின் உருவத்தை காணக்கூடியதாக உள்ளது. (ஊநு 14ம் நூற்றாண்டு)

Transcription:

ilaṅkaiyiṉ ceyalmuṟaik kalaikaḷ mītu kaṭaltoṭarpukaḷiṉ celvākku — ilaṅkaiyiṉ varalāṟṟu yukattil ceyalmuṟaikkalaikaḷ toṭarpāka nirantara campiratāyaṅkaḷ iruntatāka varalāṟṟu maṟṟum tolporuḷ ārāyccikaḷ cāṉṟu pakirkiṉṟaṉa. atu oru puṟam araca araṇmaṉaik kaṇkāṭcikaḷuṭaṉ toṭarpupaṭṭatuṭaṉ maṟupuṟam kirāmiya vivacāya makkaḷiṉ cātāraṇamāṉa vāḻkkaiyuṭaṉum toṭarpuppaṭṭatu. eṭṭām nūṟṟāṇṭaḷavil piracittipeṟṟa “kirakka camajja” eṉṉum nāṭaka ḵ caṅkītak kaccēri oṉṟai potu jaṉaṅkaḷukkāka naṭittataip paṟṟi vivaraṅkaḷ cīkiriyāviṉ kaṇṇāṭi cuvariṉ (mirar vōḷ) vivaraṇam ceyitiruppataik kāṇalām. kiṟistuvukkup piṉ eṭṭām maṟṟum oṉpatām nūṟṟāṇṭukaḷukkuṟiya vāstucāstiraṅkaḷil aḻakiya naṭaṉa acaivukaḷaik koṇṭa uruvaṅkaḷaik kāṇakkūṭiyatāka uḷḷatu. kiṟistuvukkup piṉ 13 ām nūṟṟāṇṭil eḻutappaṭṭa tampateṉi kattikāvatai eṉṟa yāppil ivvāṟāṉa kāviyam maṟṟum nāṭakam ākiyavaṟṟai pārvaiyiṭuvatu pautta tuṟavikaḷukku ēṟṟatalla eṉavum kuṟippiṭappaṭṭuḷḷatu.

19 ām nūṟṟāṇṭil ilaṅkaiyiṉ kalaiyil pōrttukkēyarkaḷum kiṟistava camayamum teṉṉintiyāviṉ campiratāyaṅkaḷum atika aḻuttaṅkaḷai ēṟpaṭuttaṉa. pōrttukkēyariṉ varukaiyai aṭuttu pailā, kapiriññā pōṉṟa pāṭalkaḷ ilaṅkai icaittuṟaiyil atika ātikkam celuttiṉa. tēvālayaṅkaḷai maiyappaṭutti pāṭappaṭṭa pāṭalkaḷ 20 ām nūṟṟāṇṭil ilaṅkaiyil ceyal muṟai kalaiyai pōṣittatu. 20 nūṟṟaṇṭiṉ ārampa kaṭṭattil ilaṅkaiyil pirapalyam peṟṟa nurtti maṭṭum nāṭakakkalai mītu teṉṉintiya nāṭakaṅkaḷ maṟṟum pāṭalkaḷiṉ cāyalkaḷ kāṇakkūṭiyatāka uḷḷatu. ilaṅkaiyiṉ nūtaṉa ceyalmuraikalai marapu mītu anniya nāṭṭiṉ mūlattaik koṇṭa celvākkukaḷ intu camutatirattiṉ pal vēṟu camūka poruḷātāra vaḻikaḷiṉ ūṭāka vantucērntaṉa.

caṟṟē puṭaittirukkumpaṭi ciṟpaṅkaḷai vaṭikkum muṟaiyil ceyyappaṭṭa oru ciṟpa vēlai - kaṇṭi māvaṭṭam, niyamkampāya vihārayil uḷḷa itil naṭaṉamāṭupavarkaḷ mūṉṟu pēriṉ uruvattai kāṇakkūṭiyatāka uḷḷatu. (ūnu 14m nūṟṟāṇṭu)

Transcription:

ilangaiyin seyalmuraig kalaigal mithu kadalthodarpugalin selvakku — ilangaiyin varalarru yugathil seyalmuraikkalaigal thodarpaga niranthara sambirathayangal irunthathaga varalarru marrum tholporul araychigal sanru pagirkinrana. athu oru puram arasa aranmanaig kankadsigaludan thodarpupattathudan marupuram kiramiya vivasaya makkalin satharanamana vazhkkaiyudanum thodarpuppattathu. ettam nurrandalavil pirasithiperra “kirakka samajja” ennum nadaga q sangithag kacheri onrai pothu janangalukkaga nadithathaip parri vivarangal sigiriyavin kannadi suvarin (mirar vol) vivaranam seyithiruppathaig kanalam. kiristhuvukkup pin ettam marrum onpatham nurrandugalukkuriya vasthusasthirangalil azhagiya nadana asaivugalaig konda uruvangalaig kanakkudiyathaga ullathu. kiristhuvukkup pin 13 am nurrandil ezhuthappatta thambatheni kathigavathai enra yappil ivvarana kaviyam marrum nadagam agiyavarrai parvaiyiduvathu pautha thuravigalukku errathalla enavum kurippidappattullathu.

19 am nurrandil ilangaiyin kalaiyil porthukkeyarkalum kiristhava samayamum thenninthiyavin sambirathayangalum athiga azhuthangalai erpaduthana. porthukkeyarin varugaiyai aduthu paila, kapirijna ponra padalkal ilangai isaithuraiyil athiga athikkam seluthina. thevalayangalai maiyappaduthi padappatta padalkal 20 am nurrandil ilangaiyil seyal murai kalaiyai poshithathu. 20 nurrandin aramba kattathil ilangaiyil pirapalyam perra nurthi mattum nadagakkalai mithu thenninthiya nadagangal marrum padalkalin sayalkal kanakkudiyathaga ullathu. ilangaiyin nuthana seyalmuraigalai marapu mithu anniya nattin mulathaig konda selvakkugal inthu samuthathirathin pal veru samuga porulathara vazhigalin udaga vanthusernthana.

sarre pudaithirukkumbadi sirpangalai vadikkum muraiyil seyyappatta oru sirpa velai - kandi mavattam, niyamkambaya viharayil ulla ithil nadanamadupavarkal munru perin uruvathai kanakkudiyathaga ullathu. (unu 14m nurrandu)

Automated translation (not verified):

Influence of maritime communication on the performing arts of Sri Lanka — Historical and archaeological researches provide evidence that there were enduring rituals related to the performing arts during the historical period of Sri Lanka. It was associated on the one hand with royal palace exhibitions and on the other hand with the mundane life of rural peasants. Details of a famous 8th century drama and music concert called “Krakka Samajja” performed for the public can be found in the description of Sigiriya's mirror wall (mirror wall). Figures with beautiful dance movements can be seen in the Vastu Shastras of the eighth and ninth centuries AD. It is also mentioned in the Yap of Dambatheni Kathikavati, written in the 13th century AD, that viewing such epics and dramas is not suitable for Buddhist monks.

In the 19th century, the Portuguese, Christianity and South Indian traditions exerted more pressure on Sri Lankan art. After the arrival of the Portuguese, songs like Baila and Kapirinja became more dominant in the Sri Lankan music industry. Church-centered hymns nourished performance art in Sri Lanka in the 20th century. Nourthi, which became popular in Sri Lanka in the early 20th century, has traces of South Indian plays and songs on drama. Influences of foreign origin on Sri Lanka's classical artistic tradition arrived through various socio-economic channels of the Indian Ocean.

A sculptural work done in the slightly incised style of incised carvings - in the Niamkambaya Vihara, Kandy district, in which three figures of dancers can be seen. (Unu 14th century)

Gallery information:

These photos were taken at the Maritime Museum in Galle (Sri Lanka) which include objects recovered from the 2nd century B.C. Godawaya shipwreck. The Maritime Museum is housed in Galle's historic Dutch warehouse (built in 1671) and opened its doors on May 9, 1992. The Maritime Archaeology Museum is serving as a centre of education for various groups of visitors and researchers of Southern region of Sri Lanka.

Photo details:
Date: 2023-09-17
Camera: SONY ILCE-6400
Exposure: 1/160
Aperture: f/4
ISO: 6400
Focal length: 21mm

High resolution:
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Size: 1.45 MB
Resolution: 1308 x 2000
© Copyright: see gallery source

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