Egypt Through The Stereoscope

A Journey Through The Land Of The Pharaohs

by James Henry Breasted | 1908 | 103,705 words

Examines how stereographs were used as a means of virtual travel. Focuses on James Henry Breasted's "Egypt through the Stereoscope" (1905, 1908). Provides context for resources in the Travelers in the Middle East Archive (TIMEA). Part 3 of a 4 part course called "History through the Stereoscope."...

Chronological Table

The Predynastic Kingdoms

4241. Introduction of the Calendar.


The Earliest Dynasties (1 and 2); Supremacy of Thinis

3400. Beginning of the dynasties under Menes.


The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3-6); Supremacy of Memphis

2980. Beginning of the Old Kingdom, with the rise of
the 3rd Dynasty.
2445. Fall of the Old Kingdom.


Middle Kingdom (Dynasties 11-13); Supremacy of Thebes

2160. Rise of the Middle Kingdom, with the beginning
of the 11th Dynasty.
2000. Accession of the 12th Dynasty, the great dynasty
of the Middle Kingdom.
1788. Close of the 12th Dynasty, bringing in the decline
of the Middle Kingdom, followed by the
Hyksos domination.


The Empire (Dynasties 18-20); Supremacy of Thebes

1580. Rise of the 18th Dynasty, expulsion of the
Hyksos and beginning of the Empire.
1350. Close of the 18th Dynasty and loss of Asiatic
1350. Rise of the 19th Dynasty, followed by recovery
of Palestine and war with the Hittites; Sethos
I, Ramses II.


1205. Fall of the 19th Dynasty, and after an interval
the accession of the 20th; Ramses III.


The Decadence (Dynasties 20-25)

1150. Final loss of Asiatic conquests; beginning of the
1090. Usurpation of the priest-kings at Thebes, and
succession of the 21st Dynasty in the Delta.
945. Fall of the 21st Dynasty, and accession of the
Libyans as the 22nd Dynasty.
732. Invasion of the Nubians and Nubian domination,
continued with interruptions during the
23rd and 24th dynasties of Delta princes; the
Nubians themselves being the 25th Dynasty.
670. First Assyrian invasion under Esarhaddon.
663. Last Assyrian invasion under Ashurbanipal and
overthrow of the Nubians.


The Restoration (26th Dynasty)

663. Accession of the 26th Dynasty, and beginning of
the Restoration.
525. Fall of the 26th Dynasty and close of the
Restoration period.


The Persian Period (27th Dynasty)

525. Accession of Cambyses after the battle of
404 to 343. Native Dynasties (28, 29 and 30) striving
to expel the Persians.
332. Alexander the Great entered and seized Egypt.


The Greek Period, or Dynasty of the Ptolemies

332. Foundation of Alexandria.
323. Death of Alexander the Great, and accession of
Ptolemy I as Satrap.
30. Death of Cleopatra and close of Ptolemaic rule.


The Roman Period

30. The first Roman prefect, Cornelius Gallus, enters,


324. Accession of Constantine; the first Christian
379. Accession of Theodosius I, who declared Christianity
the religion of the empire and closed
the temples of the old religions.
395. Partition of the Roman empire and accession of
the Byzantine emperors at Constantinople.


The Moslem or Mohammedan Period

640. Conquest of Egypt by the Moslems; first Moslem
868. Accession of the Tulunids, the first independent
Moslem rulers of Egypt.
969-1171. The Fatimids.
1171-1250. The Eyyubids, or Dynasty of Saladin.
1240-1517. The Mamlukes.
1517 to the present. Turkish rule.
1798-1801. French occupation.
1805-1848. Mohammed Ali.
1881. Battle of Tell el-Kebir and beginning of British
1883. Rebellion of the Mahdi in the Sudan.
1885. Death of Gordon and fall of Khartum.
1898. Defeat of the Mahdists and recovery of the


The monuments in the country so constantly illustrate its history that many important events and periods will be discussed as we stand before these monuments themselves. This method will render the great epochs of Egyptian history much clearer, and many of the greatest events are reserved for discussion in the presence of such contemporary monuments.

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