Yamaka, Yāmaka: 30 definitions


Yamaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Yamaka (यमक).—A region in ancient India. The inhabitants of this place were called "Yamakas". Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, refers to the presents offered by the princes and people of Yamaka at Yudhiṣṭhira’s Aśvamedhayajña.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Yamaka (यमक).—An eastern tribe.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 44.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Yamaka (यमक, “twin” ) refers to one of the four “figures of speech” (alaṃkāra), used when composing dramatic compositions (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17.

There are ten kinds of yamaka defined:

  1. pādānta-yamaka,
  2. kāñci-yamaka,
  3. samudga-yamaka,
  4. vikrānta-yamaka,
  5. cakravāla-yamaka,
  6. sandaṣṭa-yamaka,
  7. pādādi-yamaka,
  8. āmreḍita-yamaka,
  9. caturvyavasita-yamaka,
  10. mālā-yamaka.
Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Yamaka (यमक).—One of the four alaṃkāra, or “figure of speech”;—Description of yamaka: Repetition of words at the beginning of the feet and the other places, constitute Yamaka (lit. “twin”). Listen to their characteristics which I am going to tell you.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Yamaka (यमक, “repetition”) (or rhyme) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—The figure Yamaka occurs in the repetition of vowels and consonants in the same order, but with a different meaning. According to Bharata, Yamaka is the exercise of words. Maṅkhaka employs the figure Yamaka rarely. His use of this figure is easy and thus, it does not make the meaning unintelligible. Maṅkhaka refrains from too much and artificial employment of this figure.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Yamaka (यमक) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., yamaka) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Yamaka (यमक) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 4 śabdālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by sound, as opposed to the sense).—Yamaka has been admitted by the Ālaṃkārikas from very ancient times. Bharata has mentioned four basic alaṃkāras among which yamaka is one. It has been admitted by ancient Ālaṃkārikas like Bhāmaha (K.A.-II/17), Rudraṭa (K.A.III/1) Modern Ālaṃkārikas like Mammaṭa (K.P. IX/117), Viśvanātha (S.D.X/10) have discussed it in the same way.

Cirañjiva defines yamaka-alaṃkāra as—“sasvaravyañjanāvṛttyā stabakaṃ yamakaṃ bhavet”.—“When a congregation of letters with its vowels and consonants is repeated, it is the figure yamaka”. When the group of same consonants with their related vowels sometimes having two separate meanings is repeated then yamaka takes place.

Example of the yamaka-alaṃkāra:—

devaṃ nārāyaṇaṃ vande ramaṇīramaṇīyakaṃ ||

“I bow down to the god Nārāyaṇa the husband of beautiful wife that is Lakṣmi”.

Notes: In this line in the word ramaṇīramaṇīyakam the consonants and vowels which go to make this word are repeated. The first word ramaṇī means wife and the second group of letters in ramaṇī is a part of the word ramaṇīyakam which means beautiful. So it is an example of yamaka.

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Yamaka (यमक, “chime”) refers to one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Śabda (‘sound’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Unlike the different types of ‘anuprāsa’ we do not find the frequent illustrations of ‘yamaka’ in Bhīṣmacaritam. However Hari Narayan has also shown his skill in the use of this type of alaṅkāra. There are many beautiful examples of this application like I.12, II.36, V.35, VII.14, IX.42, XVI.26 and XVI.47 in his poem.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Yamaka (यमक) refers to the “well-known device of repeating words similar in sound but different in sense” (here duplicate, extremely similar), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 10.24.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Yamaka. The sixth book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. It is divided into ten chapters (called Yamaka) Mula, Khandha, Ayatana, Dhatu, Sacca, Sankhara, Anusaya, Citta, Dhamma and Indriya. The method of treatment of each of the ten divisions tends to be threefold. Firstly, a Pannattivara or section deliminating the term and concept, divided into an Uddesavara, stating the inquiries only, and a Niddesavara, wherein the inquiries are repeated with their several answers. Secondly, and mainly, there is the Pavattivara, referring not to procedure generally, but to living processes, and, lastly, the Parinnavara, dealing with the extent to which a given individual (i.e., a class of beings) understands the category under consideration. There is a Commentary to the Yamaka by Buddhaghosa, which is included in the Pancappakaranatthakatha.

See P.T.S. edn., i.xix ff.; the Yamaka has been published by the P.T.S. 1911, 1913.

2. Yamaka. A Thera holding heretical views, refuted by Sariputta. See Yamaka Sutta.

3. Yamaka. A man belonging to the retinue of King Eleyya. He was a follower of Uddaka Ramaputta. A.ii.180; AA.ii.554.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Yamaka means "Pair".

Source: Dhamma Study: Introduction to the Dhamma

Sixth book of the Abhidhamma.

The book of pairs of questions.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Yamaka (यमक) is the name of a twin-mountain which are situated along the banks of the river Sitā. The river Sitā is mentioned as flowing through Videha together with the Sitodā river. Videha is one of the seven regions (kṣetra) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Yamaka (यमक) and Śamaka were two men that appeared before king Bharata, as mentioned in chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “[...] Folding his hands and raising them, the King [i.e., Bharata] spoke to Lady Marudevī burdened with sorrow in a voice resembling new nectar. [...] Just then, two men, named Yamaka and Śamaka, approached and were announced to the King by the King’s door-keeper. [...]”.

2) Yamaka (यमक) is the name of a mountain range in Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2.—Accordingly, “To the north of Meru and to the south of the Nīla Mountains are the Gandhamādana and Mālyavat Mountains, with the shape of an elephant’s tusk. Between them are the very charming Uttarakurus with 100 golden mountains at the sides of the 5 lakes divided by Śītā. On the banks of the river Śītā are 2 mountains named Yamaka, corresponding to the golden Vidtrakūṭa and Citrakūṭa”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

yamaka : (adj.) double; twin. || yamaka (nt.) a pair; couple.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Yamaka, (fr. yama3) 1. (adj.) double, twin; only in foll. combinations: °pāṭihāriya (& °hīra) the miracle of the double appearances, a miracle performed by the Buddha in Sāvatthī to refute the heretical teachers (cp. Vin. III, 332, Samanta-pāsādika; and in detail DA. I, 57). It consisted in the appearance of phenomena of opposite character in pairs, as e.g. streaming forth of fire & water. (Cp. Mhvs translation 120). The miracle was repeatedly performed by the Buddha & is often referred to, e.g. at Ps. I, 125 (°hīra); J. I, 77, 88, 193; Miln. 106 (°hīraṃ), 349 (°hāriyaṃ); Mhvs 17, 44, 50; 30, 82; 31, 99; Dāvs. I, 50 (°hīraṃ); DhA. III, 213 (id.); SnA 36; Vism. 390; PvA. 137. —sālā the pair of Sal willows in between of which the Buddha passed away VvA. 165; PvA. 212.—2. (adj. or m.) a twin, twin child Mhvs 6, 9 (yamake duve puttaṃ ca dhītaraṃ janesi), 37 (soḷasakkhattuṃ yamake duve duve putte janayi); DhA. I, 353 (same, with vijāyi).—3. (nt.) a pair, couple, N. of one of the Abhidhamma canonical books, also called Yamaka-ppakaraṇa; Tikp 8.—The Yamakasutta refers to the conversion of the bhikkhu Yamaka and is given at S. III, 109 sq.; mentioned at Vism. 479 & VbhA. 32. The phrase yamakato sammasana at Vism. 626 may mean “in pairs” (like kalāpato “in a bundle” ibid.), or may refer to the Yamaka-sutta with its discussion of anicca, dukkha, anatta. (Page 551)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

yamaka (यमक).—m n f (S) Alliteration, rhyme, repetition of a sound in the course of a sentence or line, at the end of two corresponding stanzas, or elsewhere, for many varieties are reckoned. Ex. varṇa-pada- liṅga-prakṛti-pratyaya-bhāṣā-padāvayava-yamaka.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

yamaka (यमक).—m n f Alliteration, rhyme. yamakāla yamaka Tit for tat.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Yamaka (यमक).—a. [yama-svārthe ka]

1) Twin-born, twin.

2) Two-fold, double.

-kaḥ 1 A restraint, check.

2) A twin; one of a pair, a fellow.

3) A great moral or religious duty; see यम (yama) (4).

-kam 1 A double bandage.

2) (In Rhet.) Repetition in the same stanza (in any part of it) of words or syllables similar in sound, but different in meaning, a kind of rhyme, (of which various kinds are enumerated; see Kāv.3.2-52); सभा नलश्रीयमकैर्यमाद्यैर्नलं विनाभूद् घतदिव्यरत्नैः (sabhā nalaśrīyamakairyamādyairnalaṃ vinābhūd ghatadivyaratnaiḥ) N.1.24; आवृत्तिं वर्णसंघातगोचरां यमकं विदुः (āvṛttiṃ varṇasaṃghātagocarāṃ yamakaṃ viduḥ) Kāv.1.61;3.1; S. D.64.

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Yāmaka (यामक).—m. dual. Name of the Nakṣatra पुनर्वसू (punarvasū).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Yamaka (यमक).—(= Pali id. in sense 1), pair, paired; (1) adj. with prātihārya, paired miracle (= Pali ya° pāṭihāriya, °hīra), sc. a miracle in which pairs of opposites, such as e.g. water and fire, are simultaneously produced: °kāni prātihāryāṇi Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 459.12—460.1; read so in Bodhisattvabhūmi 152.10 for text ayamakāny (api) prāt°; (2) designation of a kind of yoga practice, = Tibetan zuṅ gzug ([Tibetan-English Dictionary]) or zuṅ ḥjug (Jäschke (Tibetan-English Dictionary)), ‘a technical term of practical mysticism, the forcing the mind into the principal artery in order to prevent dis- traction of mind’ (Jäschke (Tibetan-English Dictionary)) Mahāvyutpatti 798 yamaka-vyatyastāhāra- kuśalāḥ = zuṅ daṅ snrel zhi ḥi rgyud la mkhas pa rnams, clever in the technique (rgyud, see s.v. āhāra, 2; or, the bringing in) of the pair and the inverted (yoga practices). How the word pair applies to the above definition, given by Jäschke (Tibetan-English Dictionary) and [Tibetan-English Dictionary], is not clear to me.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yamaka (यमक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Twin, fellow, one of a pair or twins. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A religious obligation or observance. 2. A twin. 3. Restraint, check. n.

(-kaṃ) 1. A species of alliteration, the repetition of similar words or syllables either in a similar or a dis-similar sense in various parts of a stanza, beginning, middle, or end of each hemistich, pervading the whole verse: ten varieties are enumerated. 2. A couple of like articles; (in medicine,) serum and marrow; oil and ghee, (in diet,) &c. 3. A double bandage. E. kan added to the preceding.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yamaka (यमक).—[yama + ka], I. m. A religious observance. Ii. n. A poetical refinement, a species of alliteration.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yamaka (यमक).—[adjective] double, twofold; [neuter] a kind of paronomasia ([rhetorie]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Yamaka (यमक):—[from yam] mfn. twin, doubled, twofold, [Mahābhārata]

2) [v.s. ...] m. a religious obligation or observance (= vrata), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] sneha) two similar greasy substances, oil and ghee, [Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] m. or n. restraint, check (= yama), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [from yam] n. (in med.) a double band or bandage, [Suśruta]

6) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) the repetition in the same stanza of words or syllables similar in sound but different in meaning, paronomasia (of which various kinds are enumerated), [Kāvyādarśa; Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti] etc. (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 457])

7) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]

8) Yāmaka (यामक):—[from ] 1. yāmaka (for 2. See p. 851, col. 3), in [compound] = 1. yāma

9) [from yāma] 2. yāmaka m. [dual number] (for 1. See p. 850, col. 1) Name of the Nakṣatra Punarvasu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yamaka (यमक):—[(kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) a.] Twin; fellow. m. A religious obligation or observance. n. Alliteration, rhyme.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Yamaka (यमक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Jamaga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Yamaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Yamaka (यमक) [Also spelled yamak]:—(nm) a particular word-based figure of speech, a kind of pun.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Yamaka (ಯಮಕ):—

1) [noun] = ಯಮ - [yama -] 1, 5, 6 & 7.

2) [noun] twice the quantity, size, extent, etc.

3) [noun] a mixture of ghee and oil.

4) [noun] a mode in the mace-fight.

5) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of pun, using in a verse words or syllables sounding similar but different in meaning; a paronomasia.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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