Yamaka, aka: Yāmaka; 18 Definition(s)
Yamaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Yamaka (यमक).—A region in ancient India. The inhabitants of this place were called "Yamakas". Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, refers to the presents offered by the princes and people of Yamaka at Yudhiṣṭhira’s Aśvamedhayajña.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Yamaka (यमक).—An eastern tribe.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 44.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Yamaka (यमक, “twin” ) refers to one of the four “figures of speech” (alaṃkāra), used when composing dramatic compositions (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17.
There are ten kinds of yamaka defined:
Yamaka (यमक).—One of the four alaṃkāra, or “figure of speech”;—Description of yamaka: Repetition of words at the beginning of the feet and the other places, constitute Yamaka (lit. “twin”). Listen to their characteristics which I am going to tell you.Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Yamaka (यमक, “repetition”) (or rhyme) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—The figure Yamaka occurs in the repetition of vowels and consonants in the same order, but with a different meaning. According to Bharata, Yamaka is the exercise of words. Maṅkhaka employs the figure Yamaka rarely. His use of this figure is easy and thus, it does not make the meaning unintelligible. Maṅkhaka refrains from too much and artificial employment of this figure.Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Yamaka (यमक) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 4 śabdālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by sound, as opposed to the sense).—Yamaka has been admitted by the Ālaṃkārikas from very ancient times. Bharata has mentioned four basic alaṃkāras among which yamaka is one. It has been admitted by ancient Ālaṃkārikas like Bhāmaha (K.A.-II/17), Rudraṭa (K.A.III/1) Modern Ālaṃkārikas like Mammaṭa (K.P. IX/117), Viśvanātha (S.D.X/10) have discussed it in the same way.
Cirañjiva defines yamaka-alaṃkāra as—“sasvaravyañjanāvṛttyā stabakaṃ yamakaṃ bhavet”.—“When a congregation of letters with its vowels and consonants is repeated, it is the figure yamaka”. When the group of same consonants with their related vowels sometimes having two separate meanings is repeated then yamaka takes place.
Example of the yamaka-alaṃkāra:—
devaṃ nārāyaṇaṃ vande ramaṇīramaṇīyakaṃ ||
“I bow down to the god Nārāyaṇa the husband of beautiful wife that is Lakṣmi”.
Notes: In this line in the word ramaṇīramaṇīyakam the consonants and vowels which go to make this word are repeated. The first word ramaṇī means wife and the second group of letters in ramaṇī is a part of the word ramaṇīyakam which means beautiful. So it is an example of yamaka.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)
Yamaka (यमक) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., yamaka) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Yamaka. The sixth book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. It is divided into ten chapters (called Yamaka) Mula, Khandha, Ayatana, Dhatu, Sacca, Sankhara, Anusaya, Citta, Dhamma and Indriya. The method of treatment of each of the ten divisions tends to be threefold. Firstly, a Pannattivara or section deliminating the term and concept, divided into an Uddesavara, stating the inquiries only, and a Niddesavara, wherein the inquiries are repeated with their several answers. Secondly, and mainly, there is the Pavattivara, referring not to procedure generally, but to living processes, and, lastly, the Parinnavara, dealing with the extent to which a given individual (i.e., a class of beings) understands the category under consideration. There is a Commentary to the Yamaka by Buddhaghosa, which is included in the Pancappakaranatthakatha.
See P.T.S. edn., i.xix ff.; the Yamaka has been published by the P.T.S. 1911, 1913.
2. Yamaka. A Thera holding heretical views, refuted by Sariputta. See Yamaka Sutta.
3. Yamaka. A man belonging to the retinue of King Eleyya. He was a follower of Uddaka Ramaputta. A.ii.180; AA.ii.554.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Yamaka means "Pair".Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas
Sixth book of the Abhidhamma.
The book of pairs of questions.Source: Dhamma Study: Introduction to the Dhamma
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)
Yamaka (यमक) is the name of a twin-mountain which are situated along the banks of the river Sitā. The river Sitā is mentioned as flowing through Videha together with the Sitodā river. Videha is one of the seven regions (kṣetra) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
yamaka : (adj.) double; twin. || yamaka (nt.) a pair; couple.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Yamaka, (fr. yama3) 1. (adj.) double, twin; only in foll. combinations: °pāṭihāriya (& °hīra) the miracle of the double appearances, a miracle performed by the Buddha in Sāvatthī to refute the heretical teachers (cp. Vin. III, 332, Samanta-pāsādika; and in detail DA. I, 57). It consisted in the appearance of phenomena of opposite character in pairs, as e.g. streaming forth of fire & water. (Cp. Mhvs translation 120). The miracle was repeatedly performed by the Buddha & is often referred to, e.g. at Ps. I, 125 (°hīra); J. I, 77, 88, 193; Miln. 106 (°hīraṃ), 349 (°hāriyaṃ); Mhvs 17, 44, 50; 30, 82; 31, 99; Dāvs. I, 50 (°hīraṃ); DhA. III, 213 (id.); SnA 36; Vism. 390; PvA. 137. —sālā the pair of Sal willows in between of which the Buddha passed away VvA. 165; PvA. 212.—2. (adj. or m.) a twin, twin child Mhvs 6, 9 (yamake duve puttaṃ ca dhītaraṃ janesi), 37 (soḷasakkhattuṃ yamake duve duve putte janayi); DhA. I, 353 (same, with vijāyi).—3. (nt.) a pair, couple, N. of one of the Abhidhamma canonical books, also called Yamaka-ppakaraṇa; Tikp 8.—The Yamakasutta refers to the conversion of the bhikkhu Yamaka and is given at S. III, 109 sq.; mentioned at Vism. 479 & VbhA. 32. The phrase yamakato sammasana at Vism. 626 may mean “in pairs” (like kalāpato “in a bundle” ibid.), or may refer to the Yamaka-sutta with its discussion of anicca, dukkha, anatta. (Page 551)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
yamaka (यमक).—m n f (S) Alliteration, rhyme, repetition of a sound in the course of a sentence or line, at the end of two corresponding stanzas, or elsewhere, for many varieties are reckoned. Ex. varṇa-pada- liṅga-prakṛti-pratyaya-bhāṣā-padāvayava-yamaka.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
yamaka (यमक).—m n f Alliteration, rhyme. yamakāla yamaka Tit for tat.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Yamaka (यमक).—a. [yama-svārthe ka]
1) Twin-born, twin.
2) Two-fold, double.
-kaḥ 1 A restraint, check.
2) A twin; one of a pair, a fellow.
3) A great moral or religious duty; see यम (yama) (4).
-kam 1 A double bandage.
2) (In Rhet.) Repetition in the same stanza (in any part of it) of words or syllables similar in sound, but different in meaning, a kind of rhyme, (of which various kinds are enumerated; see Kāv.3.2-52); सभा नलश्रीयमकैर्यमाद्यैर्नलं विनाभूद् घतदिव्यरत्नैः (sabhā nalaśrīyamakairyamādyairnalaṃ vinābhūd ghatadivyaratnaiḥ) N.1.24; आवृत्तिं वर्णसंघातगोचरां यमकं विदुः (āvṛttiṃ varṇasaṃghātagocarāṃ yamakaṃ viduḥ) Kāv.1.61;3.1; S. D.64.
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Yāmaka (यामक).—m. dual. Name of the Nakṣatra पुनर्वसू (punarvasū).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Yamaka (यमक).—(= Pali id. in sense 1), pair, paired; (1) adj. with prātihārya, paired miracle (= Pali ya° pāṭihāriya, °hīra), sc. a miracle in which pairs of opposites, such as e.g. water and fire, are simultaneously produced: °kāni prātihāryāṇi SP 459.12—460.1; read so in Bbh 152.10 for text ayamakāny (api) prāt°; (2) designation of a kind of yoga practice, = Tibetan zuṅ gzug (Das) or zuṅ ḥjug (Jäschke), ‘a technical term of practical mysticism, the forcing the mind into the principal artery in order to prevent dis- traction of mind’ (Jä.) Mvy 798 yamaka-vyatyastāhāra- kuśalāḥ = zuṅ daṅ snrel zhi ḥi rgyud la mkhas pa rnams, clever in the technique (rgyud, see s.v. āhāra, 2; or, the bringing in) of the pair and the inverted (yoga practices). How the word pair applies to the above definition, given by Jäschke and Das, is not clear to me.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Twin, fellow, one of a pair or twins. m.
(-kaḥ) 1. A religious obligation or observance. 2. A twin. 3. Restraint, check. n.
(-kaṃ) 1. A species of alliteration, the repetition of similar words or syllables either in a similar or a dis-similar sense in various parts of a stanza, beginning, middle, or end of each hemistich, pervading the whole verse: ten varieties are enumerated. 2. A couple of like articles; (in medicine,) serum and marrow; oil and ghee, (in diet,) &c. 3. A double bandage. E. kan added to the preceding.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Ends with (+13): Accutagamabyamaka, Ambhahshyamaka, Amreditayamaka, Ayamaka, Ayukpadayamaka, Cakravalayamaka, Caturvyavasitayamaka, Chakravalayamaka, Chaturvyavasitayamaka, Hastishyamaka, Kanchiyamaka, Kanciyamaka, Madhyamaka, Mahayamaka, Malayamaka, Mithunayamaka, Niryamaka, Niyamaka, Padadiyamaka, Padantayamaka.
Full-text (+42): Samudgayamaka, Kanciyamaka, Triyamaka, Padantayamaka, Sandashtayamaka, Padadiyamaka, Malayamaka, Caturvyavasitayamaka, Amreditayamaka, Vikrantayamaka, Cakravalayamaka, Mahayamaka, Yamaka Vagga, Mithunayamaka, Pushpayamaka, Padanta, Amredita, Caturvyavasita, Cakravala, Padadi.
Search found 26 books and stories containing Yamaka, Yāmaka; (plurals include: Yamakas, Yāmakas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
A Discourse on Paticcasamuppada (by Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw)
Chapter 10 - Story Of Yamaka < [Part 9]
Chapter 9 - Not Annihilation < [Part 9]
Chapter 7 - Sassata And Uccheda < [Part 2]
Guide to Tipitaka (by U Ko Lay)
Part VI - Yamaka Pali < [Chapter X - Abhidhamma Pitaka]
Part VII - Patthana Pali < [Chapter X - Abhidhamma Pitaka]
(b) The Seven Books Of Abhidhamma < [Chapter IX - What Is Abhidhamma Pitaka?]
The Doctrine of Paticcasamuppada (by U Than Daing)
A Manual of Abhidhamma (by Nārada Thera)
Introductory Verse < [Chapter I - Different Types of Consciousness]
Summary of Functions < [Chapter III - Miscellaneous Section]
Introducing Buddhist Abhidhamma (by Kyaw Min, U)