Vyatireka: 21 definitions


Vyatireka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vyatirek.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक, “contrast ”) (or dissimilitude) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When the upameya excels or falls short of the upamāna or the vice-versa, it is Vyatireka or contrast. The word Vyatireka means difference or excellence.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक).—Absence; non-concomitance, the association of the absence of fire with the absence of smoke can be called vyatireka kind of concomitance. To put it differently vyatireka is the uniform experience of the co-absence of fire and smoke.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक).—Surplus, excess;

2) Vyatireka.—Separate presence;

3) Vyatireka.—Contrary thing; cf. तत्र फलव्यतिरेकोपि स्यात् । (tatra phalavyatirekopi syāt |) M. Bh. on Ahnika 1.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure vyatireka is one of the figures of speech based on similarity. Actually the word vyatireka means superiority. This superiority may be of upamāna i.e. the thing compared to and the upameya i.e. the thing to be compared. Ālaṃkārikas are devided into two camps regarding this superiority over the other. In the opinion of Udbhaṭa (K.S.S. II/6), Ruyyaka (A.S.P.79), Viśvanātha (X/53) etc., this superiority should be of upameya or upamāna. But according to Bhāmaha (II/75), Vāmana (IV/322), Mammaṭa (X/156), this superiority should be always of upameya. The rhetoricians of both the camps have defined vyatireka following their own views.

Cirañjīva has defined vyatireka as—“vyatireko viśeṣaścedupamānopameyayoḥ”.—“If some speciality is assigned to upameya in comparison to upamāna it is the figure vyatireka”. This definition is taken verbatim from the definition of Jayadeva in his Candrāloka. The same definition is to be found in the Kuvalayānanda of Appayya, (Kuv. 123). Cirañjīva has used the word viśesa in his definition. viśeṣa means some kind of speciality. It is generally believed that upamāna contains more qualities and the upameya is possessed of less qualities. But when this general rule is avoided by describing more qualities in the upameya, it is called viśeṣa, i.e. the speciality. This speciality in upameya gives rise to the figure vyatireka. According to Cirañjīva this viśeṣa lies in the upameya and not in the upamāna. So he belongs to the second camp of rhetorician who holds the view that the superiority of only upameya constitutes the figure vyatireka.

Example of the vyatireka-alaṃkāra:—

sudheva vasudhā satyamānandayati mānasam |
mahāntamapi kiṃ tveṣā saṃmohayati santatam ||

Explanation: Here the nectar is upamāna and the world is upameya. Some kind of speciality is assigned to the world (upameya) on account of its infatuating capacity. So it is an example of vyatireka.

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक, “dissimilitude”) refers to one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Artha (‘sense’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.— An effective use of ‘vyatireka’ is found at various places in this poem of Hari Narayan. Some of his best uses of the alaṅkāra are there in the poem. For illustration, in III.46 the poet has nicely depicted the sense of wisdom by telling that a person should never trust on backbiters. The other examples are II.15, VI.46, X.42, etc.

Kavyashastra book cover
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Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vyatireka in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक) refers to “independent”, according to the Jayadrathayāmala verse 1.3.70ff.—Accordingly, “The imperishable and glorious energy (saṃbhūti) in the condition of the enjoyer, the object of enjoyment and enjoyment (itself) in spiritual disciplines (sādhana) and the like is in every respect Bimbī, who is considered to be the eternal Mother. And she is pure, attained through liberation. No association with impurity is perceived independently (vyatireka) of her”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vyatireka in Shaivism glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक) refers to the “separated turyātīta” (i.e., ‘a spiritual state which is separated from the saṃskāras but does not dissolve them’), according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī (KSTS vol. 65, 327–331).—Accordingly, “This is said [already in the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī]: when the [true] I-sense, due to the power of the realization of its all-pervasiveness, eternality, etc., through the [scriptural] indication of its [innate] autonomy, emerges as it were from the objectified [levels of limited self-hood]—Void etc.—and abides [in its real nature], then that is the state [called] the Fourth. Nevertheless [in that state] the impressions of the Void, etc., still remain. Thus this has exactly the same [nature] as [that which is called] the ‘separated turyātīta [i.e., vyatireka]’”

Note: [iti vyatireka; conjectural emendation: iti avyatireka].—(Cf. Vyatirekaturyātīta).—Following this emendation (Cf. Torella, proposed in an email, 15 July 2014) we can take vyatireka in the sense of kevala or kaivalya, i.e., a spiritual state which is separated from the saṃskāras but does not dissolve them. Even if we do not emend, we can still argue for the same meaning: avyatireka- could indicate that he is “unseparated” from his saṃskāras in the sense of still having them, though they are now powerless to obscure his real nature. However, the emendation makes for a clearer meaning

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vyatireka in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vyatireka, (vi+atireka) what is left over, addition, surplus PvA. 18 (of “ca”), 228 (°to). (Page 653)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vyatireka in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vyatirēka (व्यतिरेक).—m S Unconnectedness; separate or distinct state or quality; absence from. Ex. īśvarīṃ ajñānācā sarvathā vya0 āhē. 2 The law of negation or absence; the necessary non-being of one thing under the non-being of some other thing. Ex. jēthēṃ īśvarabhakti nāhīṃ tēthēṃ bhūtadayā nāhīṃ asā vya0 āhē. 3 Exception, exclusion. vyatirēkamukhēṃ In the manner, mode, or form of Negativeness, i. e. connection negative or of non-existence or absence: opp. to anvayamukhēṃ, under which word see example.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vyatirēka (व्यतिरेक).—m Unconnectedness. Exception.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vyatireka in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक).—

1) Distinction, difference; यथा गन्धस्य भूमश्च न भावो व्यतिरेकतः (yathā gandhasya bhūmaśca na bhāvo vyatirekataḥ) Bhāgavata 3.27.18.

2) Separation from.

3) Exclusion, exception.

4) Excellence, surpassing, excelling.

5) Contrast, dissimilarity.

6) (In logic) Logical discontinuance (opp. anvaya q. v.); यत्र साध्या- भावस्तत्र हेत्वभाव इति व्यतिरेकव्याप्तिः (yatra sādhyā- bhāvastatra hetvabhāva iti vyatirekavyāptiḥ) (e. g. yatra vahnirnāsti tatra dhūmo nāsti is an instance of vyatirekavyāptiḥ).

7) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech which consists in representing the Upameya as superior to the Upamāna in some particular respects; उपमानाद्यन्यस्य व्यतिरेकः स एव सः (upamānādyanyasya vyatirekaḥ sa eva saḥ) K.P.1. (vyatirekeṇa means 'except, without'; vyatireke 'on the contrary supposition'.).

Derivable forms: vyatirekaḥ (व्यतिरेकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. Difference, separateness. 2. A figure in rhetoric, the dissimilitude of things compared in some respects to each other. 3. Exception, exclusion. 4. Excelling. 5. Contrast. 6. A logical discontinuance, opposed to anvaya, (In Nyaya Phil.) E. vi and ati before ric to unite, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक).—i. e. vi-ati-ric + a, m. 1. Separateness. 2. Negative inference, Bhāṣāp. 141. 3. Interception, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 140, 20. 4. Difference. 5. Dissimilitude of things compared in some respects to each other. 6. Exclusion, exception.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक).—[masculine] separateness, exclusion, exception, negation, contrast, opposite of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[nyāya] Pheh. 13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक):—[=vy-atireka] [from vyati-ric] m. distinction, difference, separateness, separation, exclusion, [Lāṭyāyana; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa] etc. (bhāvo vyatireka-tas, a separate or particular existence; vīta-vyatireka, not separate or particular; keṇa ind. or kāt ind. [or vyatireka [in the beginning of a compound]], with exception of, without)

2) [v.s. ...] negation, [Kapila]

3) [v.s. ...] contrariety, contrast to ([compound]), [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra] (ke ind., on the contrary supposition)

4) [v.s. ...] logical discontinuance (opp. to anvaya q.v.), [Bhāṣāpariccheda]

5) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a [particular] figure of speech (the contrasting of things compared in some respects with each other), [Kāvyādarśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc.; Name of [work]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. Difference; exclusion; figure of speech.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Vairea, Vairega.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vyatireka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vyatireka in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vyatireka (व्यतिरेक) [Also spelled vyatirek]:—(nm) difference; contrast; discontinuance; ~[] contrastive; ~[kī bhāṣāvijñāna] contrastive linguistics; ~[kī viśleṣaṇa] contrastive analysis; ~[kī vyākaraṇa] contrastive grammar.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vyatireka in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vyatirēka (ವ್ಯತಿರೇಕ):—

1) [noun] the quality or state of being special; distinction.

2) [noun] a keeping someone or something away from; separation.

3) [noun] a state or condition that is not natural or normal.

4) [noun] a changing of the natural or normal order.

5) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech consisting of things compared in some respects with each other.

6) [noun] (log.) logical discontinuance.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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