Vyapara, Vyāpāra: 22 definitions

Introduction:

Vyapara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vyapar.

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In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Vyāpāra (व्यापार).—An activity denoted by a verbal root. It is described to be made of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by different agents and instruments helping the process of the main activity.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaiva philosophy

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Vyāpāra (व्यापार) refers to an “application” (of a philosophical standpoint) [?], according to the Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.8-9.—Accordingly, “[...] [—Objection from the Sautrāntika:] [...] Alternatively, if [you] claim that [the external object cannot be inferred because] there is no experience of externality through a particular [entity characterized as] not being consciousness, [then] since the visual organ and so on have not been previously experienced [as] a particular cause either, there can be no inference [of the sense organs either]; so why don’t [you simply] admit that inference applies (vyāpāra) [in both cases]?”.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Vyāpāra (व्यापार) refers to an “action” (of one who is bodiless), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.2-5]—“[...] An action (vyāpāra) of [one who is] bodiless cannot be seen, O Parameśvara. When having a body [results in a condition] in all living beings of [being] bound, how does the agency of the bound [individual] contradict those agents [who are] devoid of power? Thus, [because] mantras consist of the nature of Śiva, how do they actually accomplish [anything]?”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vyāpāra (व्यापार) refers to “activity”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.29 (“Śivā-Śiva dialogue”).—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Pārvatī: “[...] You are indeed the subtle primordial nature consisting of Rajas, Sattva and Tamas. You are capable of perpetual activity (vyāpāravyāpāradakṣā satataṃ). You are both possessed and devoid of attributes. O slender-waisted lady, of all living beings I am the soul without abberation without yearnings. I take up bodies at the requests and wishes of my devotees. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vyapara in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

1) Vyāpāra (व्यापार) refers to the “activity (of the mind)”, according to Rājānaka Alaka’s commentary on the 9th-century Haravijaya by Rājānaka Ratnākara.—Accordingly, “[This] state of Yoga is without discursive cognition, that is, without the activity of the mind (manas-vyāpāra) whose nature is discursive thought. [That is to say, it is] without mind”.

2) Vyāpāra (व्यापार) refers to the “activity (of love-making)”, according to the Haṭhapradīpikā 3.90.—Accordingly, “Pure ashes, which were produced by burning cow-dung, [should first be] placed in water. After having sex in which Vajrolī Mudrā [was performed], the woman and man, who are sitting comfortably and have finished love making (mukta-vyāpāra), [should] immediately smear their own bodies [with the ashes mixed with water]

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Vyāpāra (व्यापार) refers to the “action” (of the poison of lust), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The three worlds, which are made foolish by the action of the poison of lust (vyāpārasmaragaravyāpāramugdhīkṛtam), are fast asleep in this gaping mouth of Yama’s serpent which is marked by fangs of destruction. While this one whose disposition is pitiless is devouring everyone, certainly there is no way out from this for you, noble fellow, by any means [even] with some difficulty without knowledge of what is beyond the senses. [Thus ends the reflection on] helplessness”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vyāpāra.—(SII 1), a trade. (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXVI, p. 20), administration. Cf. mudrā-vyāpāra. Note: vyāpāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vyapara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vyāpāra : (m.) occupations; work; business.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vyāpāra, (vi+ā+pṛ) occupation, business, service, work J. I, 341; V, 60; Vism. 595. Cp. veyyāvacca, vyappatha (by°), vyāvaṭa. (Page 654)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vyāpāra (व्यापार).—m (S) Work or action generally; any working or acting; any work, operation, business, or proceeding. 2 Trade, traffic, commerce, mercantile business.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vyāpāra (व्यापार).—m Work or action. Trade.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vyāpāra (व्यापार).—

1) Employment, engagement, business, occupation; ततः प्रविशति यथोक्तव्यापारा शकुन्तला (tataḥ praviśati yathoktavyāpārā śakuntalā) Ś.1; Ku. 2.54.

2) Application, employment; वृष्णीनामिव नीतिविक्रम- गुणव्यापारशान्तद्विषाम् (vṛṣṇīnāmiva nītivikrama- guṇavyāpāraśāntadviṣām) Mu.2.4.

3) Profession, trade, practice, exercise; as in शस्त्रव्यापार (śastravyāpāra).

4) An act, doing, performance.

5) Working, operation, action, influence; (vrataṃ) व्यापाररोधि मदनस्य निषेवितव्यम् (vyāpārarodhi madanasya niṣevitavyam) Ś.1.26; तस्यानुमेने भगवान् विमन्युर्व्यापारमात्मन्यपि सायकानाम् (tasyānumene bhagavān vimanyurvyāpāramātmanyapi sāyakānām) Kumārasambhava 7.93; V.3.17.

6) Being placed on; हस्तं कम्पवती रुणद्धि रशनाव्यापार- लोलाङ्गुलिम् (hastaṃ kampavatī ruṇaddhi raśanāvyāpāra- lolāṅgulim) M.4.15.

7) Exertion, effort; आर्याप्यरुन्धती तत्र व्यापारं कर्तुमर्हति (āryāpyarundhatī tatra vyāpāraṃ kartumarhati) Kumārasambhava 6.32 'will be pleased to exert herself in that behalf'; न व्यापारशतेनापि शुकवत् पाठ्यते बकः (na vyāpāraśatenāpi śukavat pāṭhyate bakaḥ) H. Pr.43. (vyāpāraṃ kṛ 1 to take part in.

2) to have effect on.

3) to meddle; as in avyāpāreṣu vyāpāraṃ yo naraḥ kartumicchati Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.21.)

Derivable forms: vyāpāraḥ (व्यापारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāpāra (व्यापार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Occupation, business, trade. 2. Exercise, practice. 3. Effort. 4. Meddling. E. vi, āṅ before pṛ to be busy, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāpāra (व्यापार).—i. e. vi-ā- 2. pṛ + a, m. 1. Occupation, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 202, 18; doing, [Pañcatantra] 162, 8; business, 262, 7; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 58 (vyāpāraṃ vrajasi śarīre, You have to do with my body, i. e. you command over my body). 2. Work, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 26; Bhāṣāp. 58; 79. 3. Affair, [Pañcatantra] 57, 8. 4. Trade (cf. vraj), profession. 5. Exercise, practice, exertion, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 43, M. M.; activity, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 10, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāpāra (व्यापार).—[masculine] occupation, business, exertion, concern.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vyāpāra (व्यापार):—[=vy-āpāra] [from vyā-pṛ] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) occupation, employment, business, profession, function (sāyakānāṃ vyāp, ‘the business of arrows’ id est. ‘hitting the mark’; often in [compound] e.g. mānasa-vy, ‘occupation of mind’ [Vedāntasāra]; vāg-vy, ‘employment of speech’, talk, [Hitopadeśa]; gṛha-vy, ‘occ° with domestic affairs’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] doing, performance, action, operation, transaction, exertion, concern ([accusative] with √kṛ, ‘to perform any one’s [gen.] business’ [Kathāsaritsāgara]; ‘to render good offices in any affair’ [Kumāra-sambhava]; ‘to meddle in’ [loc.] [Pañcatantra]; with √vraj, ‘to engage in’ [loc.] [Vikramorvaśī]; with √, ‘to be concerned about’, ‘care for’ [gen.]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] Name of the tenth [astrology] mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāpāra (व्यापार):—[vyā+pāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Occupation; business.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vyāpāra (व्यापार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vāvāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vyapara in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vyapara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vyāpāra (व्यापार) [Also spelled vyapar]:—(nm) trade, business; traffic; function; action; phenomenon; -[cinha] trade-mark: -[viṣayaka/saṃbaṃdhī] mercantile; pertaining to trade/business; -[saṃgha] mercantile association; -[guṭa] trade block; -[nideśikā] trade directory; -[vargīkaraṇa] trade classification; —[śeṣa] balance of trade; —[saṃgha] trade association; [vyāpāre vasati lakṣmā] trade is the mother of money.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vyāpāra (ವ್ಯಾಪಾರ):—

1) [noun] an occupation; a trade; a vocation.

2) [noun] energetic action; activity.

3) [noun] the buying and selling of commodities or the bartering of goods; trade; commerce.

4) [noun] the doing of something; the state of being in motion or of working.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Vyāpāra (व्यापार):—n. business; trade; profession; occupation; industry;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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