# Vyaktaganita, Vyaktagaṇita, Vyakta-ganita: 4 definitions

## Introduction:

Vyaktaganita means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

## In Hinduism

### Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu MathematicsVyaktagaṇita (व्यक्तगणित) or “arithmetic” refers to the “science of calculation by the ‘known’”.—It is a technical term commonly found in *gaṇita-śāstra* (ancient Indian mathematics).—The carrying out of mathematical calculations was sometimes called *dhūlīkarma* (“dust-work”), because the figures were written on dust spread on a board or on the ground. Some later writers have used the term *vyaktagaṇita* (“the science of calculation by the ‘known’”) for *pāṭī-gaṇita* to distinguish it from algebra which was called *avyaktagaṇita* (“the science of calculation by the ‘unknown’”).

What distinguishes algebra from arithmetic, according to the Hindus, will be found to some extent in their special names. Both deal with symbols. But in arithmetic the values of the symbols are *vyakta* [i.e., *vyaktagaṇita*], that is, known and definitely determinate, while in algebra they are *avyakta* that is, unknown, indefinite. The relation between these two branches of *gaṇita* is considered by Bhāskara II in the Bījagaṇita to be this:—“The science of calculation with unknowns is the source of the science of calculation with knowns. [...] Algebra is similar to arithmetic in respect of rules (of fundamental operations) but appears as if it were indeterminate. It is not indeterminate to the intelligent; it is certainly not sixfold, but manifold”.

*context information*

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, *gaṇitaśāstra*) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

## Languages of India and abroad

### Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-Englishvyaktagaṇita (व्यक्तगणित).—*n* Arithmetic.

*context information*

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

### Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionaryVyaktagaṇita (व्यक्तगणित).—arithmetic.

Derivable forms: *vyaktagaṇitam* (व्यक्तगणितम्).

Vyaktagaṇita is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms *vyakta* and *gaṇita* (गणित).

Vyaktagaṇita (व्यक्तगणित):—[=*vy-akta-gaṇita*] [from *vy-akta > vy-añj*] n. calculation with known numbers, arithmetic, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 176 n. 3]

*context information*

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (*saṃskṛtam*), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

## See also (Relevant definitions)

Partial matches: Ganita, Vyakta.

Ends with: Avyaktaganita.

Full-text: Avyaktaganita, Vyakta, Ganitata, Avyakta, Dhulikarma, Kuttakaganita, Pati, Patiganita, Bijaganita, Algebra.

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