Vitana, Vitāna, Vitānā: 24 definitions


Vitana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: Aparājitapṛcchā, a Critical Study

Vitāna (वितान, “canopy”):—The Aparājitapṛcchā divides vitāna primarily into four varieties:—

  1. padma,
  2. nābhichanda,
  3. sabhā-mārga
  4. and mandāraka.
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vitāna (वितान) refers to “canopies” (suitable for great festivities), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.37 (“The letter of betrothal is dispatched”).—Accordingly, as Himavat prepared the wedding of Menā and Śiva: “[...] Great festivities went on in the city. Banners, flags and festoons shone everywhere. The canopies hid the sunlight (vitāna-vinivṛtta-arka). Himavat welcomed them with great delight and reverence. The mountains and the rivers, the gents and the ladies were duly received. He housed them suitably in separate places. They were gratified with the amenities provided by Himavat”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Vitāna (वितान).—A Sādhya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 44.

2) Vitānā (विताना).—The mother of Bṛhadbhānu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 35.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Vitāna (वितान, “ceiling”).—The ceilings of the temples are covered by the slabs, dressed on the lower portion and the sides, while they are undressed on the outer part.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Vitāna (वितान) refers to one of the eighteen viṣama-varṇavṛtta (irregular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 332nd chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the vitāna metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Vitāna (वितान) means “curtain” which is the symbol of Vitānadharā, another name for Paṭadhāriṇī: one of the four “Door Goddesses”, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—Her Colour is blue; her Symbol is the curtain; she has two arms.—The fourth and the last goddess in the series of four deities of the door is called by the name of Paṭadhāriṇī [...] A statuette of this goddess occurs in China under the title of Vitānadharā  where vitāna means a curtain.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Vitāna (वितान) refers to a “(vajra) canopy” [i.e., oṃ vajravitāna hūṃ khaṃ hūṃ], according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Vitāna (वितान) refers to an “(adamantine) canopy”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: [while explaining the body circle (kāyacakra)]: “[...] He should push [the obstacle demons by means of the stakes] into the directions starting with the east inside the adamantine cage. The adamantine ground should be underneath. A net of arrows is [placed] above. Moreover, there are an adamantine fence, [an adamantine] canopy (vitāna), and the dharmodayā (“origin of phenomenal existences”) inside. It is triangle, [the second one is] square, and [the third one is] pentagonal [in shape]. He should also visualize a hexagonal one, [the fourth one]. He should arrange them all in sequence corresponding to the order of the four layers. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Vitāna (वितान) refers to a “canopy” (suitable for performing rituals), according to the 2nd-century Meghasūtra (“Cloud Sutra”) in those passages which contain ritual instructions.—Accordingly, “He who desires a mighty rain must perform this rite ‘the great-cloud-circle’ in an open space, overspread by a blue canopy (nīla-vitāna-vitata), shaded by a blue banner, on a clear spot of earth; [being] a prophet of the Law, seated on a blue seat, fasting according to the aṣṭāṅga, with well-washed limbs, clad in pure raiment, anointed with fragrant odour, wearing the three white stripes, he must recite it for a day and night continuously facing the east; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vitāna.—(SII 13), probably, a canopy. Note: vitāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vitāna : (nt.) a canopy.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vitāna, (m. & nt.) (fr. vi+tan) spread-out, canopy, awning Vin. IV, 279; J. I, 40, 62, 83; DhA. II, 42; SnA 447; VvA. 32, 173; PvA. 154. See also cela°. (Page 620)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vitāna (वितान).—n S An awning or a canopy; a ceiling or a large cloth stretched over.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vitāna (वितान).—a.

1) Vacant, empty.

2) Pithless.

3) Dismayed, sad; क्षितिपतिमण्डलमन्यतो वितानम् (kṣitipatimaṇḍalamanyato vitānam) R.6.86.

4) Dull, stupid.

5) Wicked, abandoned.

-naḥ, -nam 1 Spreading out, expansion, extension; ब्रह्मावर्ते यत्र यजन्ति यज्ञै- र्यज्ञेश्वरं यज्ञवितानविज्ञाः (brahmāvarte yatra yajanti yajñai- ryajñeśvaraṃ yajñavitānavijñāḥ) Bhāgavata 1.17.33; विलुलितकमलौघः कीर्ण- वल्लीवितानः (vilulitakamalaughaḥ kīrṇa- vallīvitānaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 11.28; Kirātārjunīya 7.19.

2) An awning, a canopy; विद्युलेखाकनकरुचिरं श्रीवितानं ममाभ्रम् (vidyulekhākanakaruciraṃ śrīvitānaṃ mamābhram) V.4.13; R.19. 39; Kirātārjunīya 3.42; Śiśupālavadha 3.5.

3) A cushion.

4) A collection, quantity, an assmblage; प्रस्तारस्थगिता इवोन्मुखमणि- ज्योतिर्वितानैर्दिशः (prastārasthagitā ivonmukhamaṇi- jyotirvitānairdiśaḥ) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 6.5; Kirātārjunīya 17.61.

5) A sacrifice, an oblation; वितानेष्वप्येवं तव मम च सोमे विधिरभूत् (vitāneṣvapyevaṃ tava mama ca some vidhirabhūt) Ve.6.3; 3.16; Śiśupālavadha 14.1.

6) The sacrificial hearth or altar.

7) Season, opportunity.

8) Plenty, abundance.

9) Performance, accomplishment.

-nam 1 Leisure, rest.

2) A dual part of the elephant's head to which the hook is applied; Mātaṅga L.12.19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vitāna (वितान).—nt., woof: Mahāvyutpatti 7520 = Tibetan spun. Contrasted with ātāna, q.v.; nowhere recorded in this sense. See also mahāvitānadharma.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vitāna (वितान).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Empty, pithless, sapless. 2. Empty, vacant. 3. Dull, stupid. 4. Wicked, abandoned. mn.

(-naḥ-naṃ) 1. Spreading, expansion. 2. An awning, a canopy. 3. Sacrifice, offering, oblation. 4. The sacrificial hearth or hole in which the sacred fires are kept. 5. A heap, a quantity. 6. Season, opportunity. n.

(-naṃ) 1. A form of the Anusht'ubh metre or verse of four lines of eight syllables each; each line of the stanza named Vitana consists of two Iambics, one Trochee, and one Spondee. 3. Leisure, rest, interval of occupation. E. vi before, tan to spread, aff. ghañ .

--- OR ---

Vītana (वीतन).—m. Du. (-nī) The sides of cartilages of the larynx. E. vi + tan-acpṛṣo0 dīrgha .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vitāna (वितान).—i. e. vi-tan + a, m. I. adj. 1. Empty. 2. Pithless. 3. Stupid. Ii. m. and n. 1. Spreading, expansion, [Nalodya, (ed. Benary.)] 2, 50. 2. A heap, a quantity. 3. A canopy, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 76; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 3, 93; an awning, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 40, 37; a cover, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 9, 50; a cushion, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 2156. 4. The hearth or hole in which the sacred fires are kept. 5. Sacrifice, [Nalodya, (ed. Benary.)] 2, 50.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vitāna (वितान).—[masculine] [neuter] spreading out, extension; awning, canopy; abundance, multitude; sacrificial act; [masculine] the distribution of the sacred fires & these themselves.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vitāna (वितान):—[=vi-tāna] [from vi] 1. vi-tāna mfn. (for 2. See under vi-√tan) ‘out of tune’, dejected, sad, [Raghuvaṃśa vi, 86]

2) [v.s. ...] empty, [Haravijaya] (also in av, [Śiśupāla-vadha iii, 50])

3) [v.s. ...] dull, stupid, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] wicked, abandoned, [ib.]

5) Vitana (वितन):—[=vi-tana] [from vi-tan] See āhara-vitanā.

6) Vitāna (वितान):—[=vi-tāna] [from vi-tan] 2. vi-tāna mn. (for 1. See p. 950, col. 3) extension, great extent or quantity, mass, heap, plenty, abundance, [Kāvya literature; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] high degree, [Bhartṛhari]

8) [v.s. ...] manifoldness, variety, [Gīta-govinda]

9) [v.s. ...] performance, accomplishment, development, growth, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] an oblation, sacrifice, [Mahābhārata; Śiśupāla-vadha; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] an awning, canopy, cover, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

12) [v.s. ...] the separate arrangement of the three sacred fires or the separate fires themselves, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra]

13) [v.s. ...] m. or n. (?) a [particular] bandage for the head, [Suśruta]

14) Vitānā (विताना):—[=vi-tānā] [from vi-tāna > vi-tan] f. Name of the wife of Sattrāyaṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

15) Vitāna (वितान):—[=vi-tāna] [from vi-tan] n. Name of a [particular] metre or of a class of metres, [Piṅgala Scholiast, i.e. halāyudha [Scholiast or Commentator]; Colebrooke]

16) [v.s. ...] leisure, opportunity, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [=vi-tāna] a etc. See p. 962, col. 3.

18) Vītana (वीतन):—m. [dual number] (possibly [from] vi + √tan) the sides or cartilages of the larynx or throat, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vitāna (वितान):—[vi-tāna] (naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. m. n. A spreading; awning; a sacrifice; sacrificial hearth; a heap. n. Leisure; a metre of the 1st class, 8th genus. a. Worthless; stupid; wicked.

2) Vītana (वीतन):—(nau) 1. m. du. The sides or cartilages of the larynx.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vitāna (वितान) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Viāṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vitana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vitāna (वितान) [Also spelled vitan]:—(nf) a canopy; extension.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vitāna (ವಿತಾನ):—

1) [noun] the fact of spreading or being spread; the extent to which something is so spread.

2) [noun] the quality or state of having more than sufficient or required quantity; abundance.

3) [noun] a large number of persons or things gathered together or considered as a unit; a multitude.

4) [noun] a line of persons or things arranged one behind another; a row; a file.

5) [noun] a drapery, awning or other rooflike covering fastened above a bed, throne, etc. or held on poles over a person or sacred thing; a canopy.

6) [noun] an elaborate religious sacrifice.

7) [noun] a platform on which a religious sacrifice is conducted.

8) [noun] a time or occasion esp. an appropriate or favorable one.

9) [noun] a pondering; the proces of thinking deeply and analysing.

10) [noun] the quality or condition of being nothing or not existing; nonexistence or extinction.

11) [noun] that which is deprived of essence; a sapless thing; the quality of being so.

12) [noun] the quality of being contemptible, sordid or petty; sordidness; pettiness.

13) [noun] lack of intelligence, sharpness; stupidity.

14) [noun] a stupid, slow-witted man.

15) [noun] a hurrying or being hurried; rush; urgency.

16) [noun] (jain.) name of a hell.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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