Viruddharajyatikrama, Viruddharājyātikrama, Viruddha-rajyatikrama: 2 definitions



Viruddharajyatikrama means something in Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Viruddharajyatikrama in Jainism glossary
Source: Jaina Yoga

Viruddharājyātikrama (विरुद्धराज्यातिक्रम) refers to “suborning of thieves” and represents one of the transgressions (aticāra) of the Asteya-vrata (vow of not stealing).—Siddhasena (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra verse 7.22), amplifying the explanation of the Tattvārtha-bhāṣya, renders viruddha-rājyātikrama as “the acquisition of property in a country which is engaged in hostilities with one’s own country since even grass or wood acquired under such circumstances must be regarded as stolen”. For Haribhadra (in his commentary on the Āvaśyaka-sūtra p.823a) the offence lies merely in the crossing of such a forbidden frontier since the ruler’s command is thereby disobeyed. That this would be for the purpose of contraband is implied in Abhayadeva’s (in his commentary on Haribhadra’s Śrāvaka-dharma-pañcāśaka 14) reference to thievish intent (caurya-buddhi).

Hemacandra (in his Yogaśāstra verse 3.92) and Siddhasena Sūri are more explicit: they regard the transgression of the forbidden frontier as a form of svāmyadatta which would be of the nature of a bhaṅga, and at the same time not a bhaṅga because the purpose is to carry out a commercial transaction. Yaśodeva (in his commentary (cūrṇī) on Haribhadra’s Śrāvaka-dharma-pañcāśaka 14) even extends the aticāra to cover all trade in one’s own country if forbidden by the ruler.

The Digambaras Pūjyapāda and Cāmuṇḍarāya (in his Caritrasāra p. 6) have a noticeably different interpretation: “the obtaining of merchandise by any means other than licit”. Samantabhadra’s vilopa (see his Ratna-Karaṇḍa-śrāvakācāra with commentary of Prabhācandra verse 3.12) is given the same definition by Prabhācandra, who then equates it with viruddha-rājyātikrama for, as he explains, goods of great value can be acquired with a small outlay under such circumstances.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Viruddharājyātikrama (विरुद्धराज्यातिक्रम) refers to “unlawful trading practice” and represents one of the five transgressions (aticara) of the “minor vow of non-stealing” (acaurya-aṇuvrata) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 27.—What is meant by unlawful trading practice (viruddha-rājyātikrama)? It means to practice the trade in an illegal or inappropriate manner (e.g. smuggling / evading taxes or not obey state orders) by the seller. It can also mean not paying due taxes to the government.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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