Virakta, Viraktā: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Virakta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Virakt.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Viraktā (विरक्ता, “hostile”).—The characteristics of a hostile woman are as follows: when kissed she wipes off her mouth, speaks unpleasant words, becomes angry even when sweet words have been spoken to her, hates his friends, praises his enemies, lies down on the bed with her back turned against him, goes to bed first, is never pleased even after a great deal of honour has been shown her, never puts up with suffering, becomes angry without any provocation, does not look at him or greet him. The woman who betrays these signs should be marked as “hostile” (viraktā).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Virakta (विरक्त) means “detached”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the God said: “O Mother of Kula [i.e., Kulāmbikā], with you I am one whose suffering has been burnt away. I am Śrīkaṇṭha who is free of debt. My world of transmigration has been destroyed. So what wonder is it if (I have attained) Nirvāṇa, the supreme state. I am detached in every way [i.e., viraktavirakto'haṃ sarvabhāvena](and so) reveal (your) divine knowledge!”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Virakta (विरक्त) refers to “unattached”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.21 (“Nārada instructs Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Nārada said to Pārvatī: “O Pārvatī, listen. I am sympathetic to you. I shall speak truly. My words will be beneficent to you in all respects. They will lead to the achievement of your desire. They are free from aberrations. The great god has been served by you without austerities. You had some pride which He, the blesser of the distressed, eradicated. O Śivā, after burning Kāma, lord Śiva though favourably disposed to His devotees, left you, since the lord is a great Yogin and so unattached [i.e., virakta] to you. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Virakta (विरक्त) refers to “(one who is) detached from desire”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[Digression on a case brought against the Buddha; B. The defense].—[4. Insults to the Disciples].—The Buddha had hard words for the Bhikṣus and treated them like fools (mohapuruṣa). There are two kinds of hard words: i) insult coming from an evil intention (duṣcitta); ii) insult out of compassion for beings and with the intention of converting them (paripācana). In the person detached from desire (virakta), there is no insult coming from a bad intention; how then would there be one in the Buddha? It is out of pity for beings and in order to convert them that the Buddha had these strong words. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Virakta (विरक्त) refers to “renunciation (of worldly pleasures)”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] Even with renunciation of worldly pleasures (virakta-viṣayasukha), meditation accompanied by austerities, propagation of true faith, and auspicious death are rare. If these are achieved, then the attainment of enlightenment has borne fruit. By contemplating on the difficulty in attaining true faith, one does not become negligent after attaining this rare jewel”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Virakta.—(SITI), an ascetic; a man free from worldly attachment; a recluse of the Śaiva order. Note: virakta is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

virakta (विरक्त).—p (S) That is freed from all worldly affections and passions; delivered from desire. 2 That is become averse or indifferent to.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

virakta (विरक्त).—p That is freed from all worldly affection and passions.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Virakta (विरक्त).—p. p.

1) Very red, ruddy; विरक्तसंध्याकपिशं पुरस्तात् (viraktasaṃdhyākapiśaṃ purastāt) R.13.64.

2) Discoloured.

3) Changed in mind, disaffected, displeased; यां चिन्तयामि सततं मयि सा विरक्ता (yāṃ cintayāmi satataṃ mayi sā viraktā) Bhartṛhari 2.2.

4) Free from passion or worldly attachment, indifferent; विरक्तः प्रव्रजेद् धीमान् सरक्तस्तु गृहे वसेत् (viraktaḥ pravrajed dhīmān saraktastu gṛhe vaset) Nāradapari. Up.3.14.

5) Impassioned.

-ktā An unfortunate or unhappy woman.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virakta (विरक्त).—mfn.

(-ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) 1. Averse, indifferent, free from inclination or affection. 2. Stoical, void of attachment to worldly objects. 3. Impassioned, interested, feeling passion or regard for any person or any thing. 4. Discoloured. E. vi privative or pleonastic, before rañj to feel passion, aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virakta (विरक्त).—[adjective] discoloured, passionless, indifferent to or averse from ([ablative], [locative], [accusative] [with] prati, or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Virakta (विरक्त):—[=vi-rakta] a etc. See under vi-√rañj.

2) [=vi-rakta] [from vi-rañj] b mfn. discoloured, changed in colour, [Raghuvaṃśa]

3) [v.s. ...] changed in disposition, disaffected, estranged, averse, indifferent to id est. having no interest in ([ablative] [locative case] [accusative] with prati, or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] become indifferent id est. arousing no interest, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

5) [v.s. ...] impassioned, feeling excessive passion, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virakta (विरक्त):—[vi-rakta] (ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) a. Indifferent; averse; interested in.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Virakta (विरक्त) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Viratta.

[Sanskrit to German]

Virakta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Virakta in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Virakta (विरक्त) [Also spelled virakt]:—(a) detached (from the world); disaffected, averse; indifferent; (nm) a recluse; ~[ktatā]/[kti] detachment, indifference; disaffection; aversion, disgust.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Virakta (ವಿರಕ್ತ):—

1) [adjective] colourless or that has lost original or natural colour.

2) [adjective] not interested; indifferent; listless; apathetic.

3) [adjective] not filled with, influenced by passions; detached from worldly attachments; not interested in or not inclined toward sensual enjoyments.

4) [adjective] red; reddish.

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Virakta (ವಿರಕ್ತ):—

1) [noun] a man who is indifferent; an apathetic man.

2) [noun] he who is not filled with, influenced by passions; a man who is detached from worldly attachments or not interested in or not inclined toward sensual enjoyments.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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