Vikara, Vikāra, Vikārā: 14 definitions

Introduction

Vikara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vikārā (विकारा).—Derivatives from Prakṛti of which there are sixteen (eleven organs and five elements): Sāṅkhya philosophy.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 3. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 113; 104. 99.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vikāra (विकार).—lit. change; modification; modification of a word-base or an affix, caused generally by the addition of suffixes; cf. प्रकृतेरवस्थान्तरं विकारः (prakṛteravasthāntaraṃ vikāraḥ) Kas. on P. IV.3.134; cf. also लेपागमवर्णविकारज्ञो हि सम्यग्वेदान् परिपाल-यिष्यति (lepāgamavarṇavikārajño hi samyagvedān paripāla-yiṣyati) Mahabhasya Ahnika 1.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Vikara means change or alteration.

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vikara.—cf. vikara-padāni (LP), a small present, a bonus; cf. Gujarātī pān-sopārī. (LP), cf. vikara-pada explained as ‘miscellancous expenses’. Note: vikara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vikāra : (m.) change; alteration; reversion; disturbance; deformity; quality.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vikāra, (fr. vi+kṛ) 1. change, alteration, in mahā° great change Vism. 366, 367 (of two kinds: anupādiṇṇa & upādiṇṇa, or primary & secondary, i.e. the first caused by kappa-vuṭṭhāna, the second by dhātu-kkhobha); KhA 107 (vaṇṇa°).—2. distortion, reversion, contortion, in var. connections, as kucchi° stomach-ache Vin. I, 301; bhamuka° frowning DhA. IV, 90; raukha° grimace, contortion of the face, J. II, 448; PvA. 123; hattha° hand-figuring, signs with the hand, gesture Vin. I, 157 (+hattha-vilaṅghaka)=M. I, 207 (reads vilaṅgaka); Vin. V, 163 (with other similaṛ gestures); J. IV, 491; V, 287; VI, 400, 489.—Kern. Toev. s. v. vikāra is hardly correct in translating hattha-vikārena at Vin. I, 157 by “eigenhandig, ” i.e. with his own hand. It has to be combined with hattha-vilaṅghakena.—3. perturbation, disturbance, inconvenience, deformity Vin. I, 271, 272 (°ṃ sallakkheti observe the uneasiness); Miln. 224 (tāvataka v. temporary inconvenience), 254 (°vipphāra disturbing influence); SnA 189 (bhūta° natural blemish).—4. constitution, property, quality (cp. Cpd. 1572, 1681) Vism. 449 (rūpa° material quality); VvA. 10 (so correct under maya in P. D. vol. III, p. 147).—5. deception, fraud PvA. 211 (=nikati).—Cp. nibbikāra. (Page 612)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vikarā (विकरा).—m vikarī f (vikaṇēṃ or vikraya or H) Selling or sale, the act of selling or the sold state. Ex. svahastēṃ gōṇī usavōni hātēṃ || miracyāvikarī māṇḍilī tēthēṃ ||. 2 The produce of a sale.

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vikāra (विकार).—m (S) Change of form or nature; alteration of the natural state; any modification or altered mode of being. Ex. dahīṃ hā dudhācā vi0; vāpha, gārā hā jalācā vi0; suvarṇācā vi0 alaṅkāra; mṛttikēcā vi0 ghaṭa. 2 Sickness, disease, disorder; any change from the state of health. 3 Passion, emotion, aroused feeling; any disturbance of the natural or quiescent condition of the soul. Ex. kāma-krōdha-lōbha-mōha-vikāra, manōvikāra, mṛvdikāra.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vikarā (विकरा).—m-f Selling or sale; the pro- duce of a sale.

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vikāra (विकार).—m Change of form or nature. Disease. Passion, emotion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikara (विकर).—

1) Sickness, disease.

2) A particular mode of fighting.

Derivable forms: vikaraḥ (विकरः).

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Vikāra (विकार).—

1) Change of form or nature, transformation, deviation from the natural state; cf. विकृति (vikṛti).

2) A change, alteration, a modification; प्रमथमुखविकारै- र्हासयामास गूढम् (pramathamukhavikārai- rhāsayāmāsa gūḍham) Ku.7.95; नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च लक्ष्यतेऽन्तर्गतं मनः (netravaktravikāraiśca lakṣyate'ntargataṃ manaḥ) Pt.1.44; Ś.7.

3) Sickness, disease, malady; विकारं खलु परमार्थतोऽज्ञात्वाऽनारम्भः प्रतीकारस्य (vikāraṃ khalu paramārthato'jñātvā'nārambhaḥ pratīkārasya) Ś.4; Ku.2.48.

4) Change of mind or purpose; मूर्च्छन्त्यमी विकाराः प्रायेणैश्वर्य- मत्तेषु (mūrcchantyamī vikārāḥ prāyeṇaiśvarya- matteṣu) Ś.5.18.

5) A feeling, an emotion; विकारश्चैतन्यं भ्रम- यति च संमीलयति च (vikāraścaitanyaṃ bhrama- yati ca saṃmīlayati ca) U.1.35;3.25,36; Māl.1.3.

6) Agitation, excitement, perturbation; कुतः परस्मिन् पुरुषे विकारः (kutaḥ parasmin puruṣe vikāraḥ) Ki.17.23.

7) Contortion, contraction (as of the features of the face); प्रमथमुखविकारैर्हासयामास गूढम् (pramathamukhavikārairhāsayāmāsa gūḍham) Ku.7.95.

8) (In Sāṅ. phil.) That which is evolved from a previous source or Prakṛti.

9) A wound.

Derivable forms: vikāraḥ (विकारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vikara (विकर).—and °ra-ka (to Sanskrit vi-kirati; compare vikira): kusuma-°rakaṃ (so mss., Senart em. -nikarakaṃ)… abhikiranti Mahāvastu i.236.6 (verse), they strew a strewing of flowers on (the Buddha Dīpaṃkara); kusuma-vikaraṃ (Senart em. °nikaraṃ) muncanti 8 (verse); °kusuma-vikaraṃ ii.18.11, see vikira.

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Vikāra (विकार) or Vikāla.—(m.; = Pali id.; in Sanskrit evening, so also Pali and [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]), wrong time: paradāre prasakto (v.l. °te) tatra kāle vā vikāle vā gacchati (mss. °nti) Mahāvastu i.243.18, in season and out of season; °la-caryā (compare Pali °la-cariyā), walking abroad at night (so Tibetan, mtshan mo ḥphyan pa) Mahāvyutpatti 2507 (Pali according to Childers, going on the monk's begging rounds in the afternoon); one of the six apāya- sthānāni (bhogānām); vikāla-bhojana (nt.; = Pali id.), or with Senart and mss. vikāra° (§ 2.49), eating at the wrong time, or eating at night or after noon, °bhojanāt prativirato Mahāvastu i.326.18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikara (विकर).—m.

(-raḥ) Sickness, disease. E. vi implying difference, and kara making.

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Vikāra (विकार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Change of form or nature, alteration or deviation from the natural state. 2. Sickness, disease, change from the state of health. 3. Passion, feeling, emotion, transition from the natural or quiescent condition of the soul. 4. Anything evolved from a previous source, (in Sankhya Philosophy.) E. vi implying alteration, kṛ to make, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikāra (विकार).—i. e. vi-kṛ + a, m. 1. Change, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 216, 18; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 23, 7 (perturbation); [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 13, 9 (passion), [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 14, 8. 2. Change of form, [Pañcatantra] 257, 23. 3. Change of mind, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 66, 4. 4. Disease, [Nalodya, (ed. Benary.)] 2, 17; a wound, [Pañcatantra] 218, 13.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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