Vikara, Vikāra, Vikārā: 30 definitions


Vikara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vikar.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Vikāra (विकार) refers to “aberrations”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.43.—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] O sage, the lord (i.e., Śiva) is never unjust. The supreme Brahman is the goal of the good. How can He be deluded? What sorrow has He? How can he have other aberrations (vikārakva vikāraḥ paro)? Even Viṣṇu and I do not know His real secret. What then about others, the sages, gods, human beings and even Yogins. [...] There is no emotion or aberration (i.e., vikāraekopi na vikāro) at all in Śiva the supreme Being. He points out to the people of the world by his different actions, their respective goals”.

2) Vikara (विकर) refers to “those having deformed hands”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.43 (“Description of Śiva’s wonderful sport”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Immediately the army of Śiva came there consisting of wonderful arrays of Bhūtas, Pretas and Gaṇas.  [...] Some were awful with overgrown moustaches and beards. Some were lame. Some were blind. Some held staffs and nooses and some great iron clubs in their hands. Some rode on peculiar vehicles. Some played on horns. Some played on Ḍamarus. Some played on Gomukhas. Some had no faces. Some had distorted and deformed faces. Some had many faces. Some had no hands. Others had deformed hands (vikara). Some of them had many hands. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vikārā (विकारा).—Derivatives from Prakṛti of which there are sixteen (eleven organs and five elements): Sāṅkhya philosophy.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 3. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 113; 104. 99.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vikāra (विकार).—lit. change; modification; modification of a word-base or an affix, caused generally by the addition of suffixes; cf. प्रकृतेरवस्थान्तरं विकारः (prakṛteravasthāntaraṃ vikāraḥ) Kas. on P. IV.3.134; cf. also लेपागमवर्णविकारज्ञो हि सम्यग्वेदान् परिपाल-यिष्यति (lepāgamavarṇavikārajño hi samyagvedān paripāla-yiṣyati) Mahabhasya Ahnika 1.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Vikāra (विकार) refers to “diseases”, as mentioned in verse 4.33-34 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] avoidance of offences against wisdom, assuagement of the senses, awareness, knowledge of region, season, and constitution, (and) imitation of the conduct of sages: this method (has been) taught in brief for the non-arising of endogenous and accidental diseases [viz., nija-āgantu-vikāra] and for the alleviation of (those which have) arisen”.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Vikāra (विकार):—[vikāraḥ] It signifies 1. derivatives 2. ailments

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Vikāra (विकार) refers to:—Transformation. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Vikarā (विकरा) is a variant for Vikṛtā, which refers to one of the eight Yoginīs (yoginī-aṣṭaka) associated with Nādapīṭha (identified with Kulūta), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The eight Yoginīs (yoginyaṣṭaka): Vīrabhadrā, Kālī, Kapālī, Vikṛtā, Kroṣṭāṅgī, Vāmabhadrā, Vāyuvegā, Hayānanā.—(Note the variants Vikarā and Līvilā)

2) Vikāra (विकार) refers to the “permutated” (phenomenal state), according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “ Akula is (the reality) that should be understood and, O lady of good vows, Kaula comes from Kula. (Although) formless (amūrti), one should meditate on it as having form (because) its pure cognitive state cannot be perceived. Akula is the supreme principle. Śakti, which is five-fold, is Kula. While, (one could say) simply that its permutated (vikāra) (phenomenal) state is (the reality called) Kaula of those who maintain the tradition”.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Vikāra (विकार) refers to a “transformation”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.131:—“[...] For the former [i.e., Ṣaḍdhātusamīkṣā] acknowledge that ordinary human practice is accounted for if this much [is admitted]: the five elements and consciousness, because such other [things as] the sense organs are included in these; whereas the latter admit that the ordinary human practice [consisting in the relationship between] an apprehending [subject] and an apprehended [object] is accounted for if a particular transformation (vikāra-viśeṣa) called ‘consciousness’ arises in the four elements from [some of their] various combinations, and if this transformation does not arise [from other combinations of the four elements]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Vikāra (विकार) refers to “change in form”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.121-128, while describing the prevention of natural disasters]—“[...] [He performs the ritual when people are afflicted by] skin diseases, etc., fevers, untimely death or various sorts of pain, past faults or seizing spirits. Diseases from snake poison, etc., insect bites, etc., rheumatism, change in form (vikāra), phlegm, hemorrhoids, eye diseases, skin diseases, etc., internal disease, and sickness caused by wounds, etc., by the thousands [can occur] if various sorts of evils touch the Maṇḍala, a defect arises from offense [occurs]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Vikāra (विकार) refers to the “bad condition” (of the householder’s body), according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If a creature [intrudes into the site] stepping over [a cord], then [the officiant] should know that there is the body [of that creature, i.e. bones of that creature beneath the site]. He should prognosticate an extraneous substance beneath the site by the bad condition of the householder’s body (vikāragṛhiṇo'ṅgavikāreṇa). If an omen is seen, or if [a creature] cries out, or if [someone] announces a [creature’s] name, then [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing [related to] that [creature]”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Vikāra (विकार) refers to “change” (as opposed to Nirvikāra—“that which has no change”), according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise which deals absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—The Amanaska referred to (or qualified) Samādhi with several terms, which are all negative; [e.g., it has no change (nirvikāra);] [...] The fact that such terminology is found in the Amanaska indicates that descriptions of Śiva and the void-like meditative states in Mantramargic Śaivism, were the basis of the descriptions of Samādhi and Paratattva (the highest reality) in this treatise. The Amanaska Yoga was consistent with the Pātañjala Yogaśāstra’s definition of Yoga, yet it described Samādhi in terms different to those of Pātañjalayoga; such as Nirvikāra—“that which has no change”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Vikara means change or alteration.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Vikāra (विकार) (Cf. Nirvikāra) refers to “changeable” (that which can be changed—i.e., is not changeless), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] The Bodhisattva Gaganagañja then sustained the jewel-canopy of ten thousand yojanas high over the Lord’s lion throne in the sky, joined the palms of his hands, saluted, and praised the Lord with these suitable verses: ‘[...] (7) When the whole assembly regard the body of the Victorious One, his form and distinguishing marks (rūpa-nimitta) appear as different (bhinna), though incomparable (atulya), and even not part of any particular group (asabhāga). Even though his body is changeless (nirvikāra), beyond thought-constructions (nirvikalpa), and without distinguishing marks (animitta), he gladdens the assemblies in accordance with their particular way of thinking and their intentions (yathācittāśaya)”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vikara.—cf. vikara-padāni (LP), a small present, a bonus; cf. Gujarātī pān-sopārī. (LP), cf. vikara-pada explained as ‘miscellancous expenses’. Note: vikara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vikāra : (m.) change; alteration; reversion; disturbance; deformity; quality.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vikāra, (fr. vi+kṛ) 1. change, alteration, in mahā° great change Vism. 366, 367 (of two kinds: anupādiṇṇa & upādiṇṇa, or primary & secondary, i.e. the first caused by kappa-vuṭṭhāna, the second by dhātu-kkhobha); KhA 107 (vaṇṇa°).—2. distortion, reversion, contortion, in var. connections, as kucchi° stomach-ache Vin. I, 301; bhamuka° frowning DhA. IV, 90; raukha° grimace, contortion of the face, J. II, 448; PvA. 123; hattha° hand-figuring, signs with the hand, gesture Vin. I, 157 (+hattha-vilaṅghaka)=M. I, 207 (reads vilaṅgaka); Vin. V, 163 (with other similaṛ gestures); J. IV, 491; V, 287; VI, 400, 489.—Kern. Toev. s. v. vikāra is hardly correct in translating hattha-vikārena at Vin. I, 157 by “eigenhandig, ” i.e. with his own hand. It has to be combined with hattha-vilaṅghakena.—3. perturbation, disturbance, inconvenience, deformity Vin. I, 271, 272 (°ṃ sallakkheti observe the uneasiness); Miln. 224 (tāvataka v. temporary inconvenience), 254 (°vipphāra disturbing influence); SnA 189 (bhūta° natural blemish).—4. constitution, property, quality (cp. Cpd. 1572, 1681) Vism. 449 (rūpa° material quality); VvA. 10 (so correct under maya in P. D. vol. III, p. 147).—5. deception, fraud PvA. 211 (=nikati).—Cp. nibbikāra. (Page 612)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vikarā (विकरा).—m vikarī f (vikaṇēṃ or vikraya or H) Selling or sale, the act of selling or the sold state. Ex. svahastēṃ gōṇī usavōni hātēṃ || miracyāvikarī māṇḍilī tēthēṃ ||. 2 The produce of a sale.

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vikāra (विकार).—m (S) Change of form or nature; alteration of the natural state; any modification or altered mode of being. Ex. dahīṃ hā dudhācā vi0; vāpha, gārā hā jalācā vi0; suvarṇācā vi0 alaṅkāra; mṛttikēcā vi0 ghaṭa. 2 Sickness, disease, disorder; any change from the state of health. 3 Passion, emotion, aroused feeling; any disturbance of the natural or quiescent condition of the soul. Ex. kāma-krōdha-lōbha-mōha-vikāra, manōvikāra, mṛvdikāra.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vikarā (विकरा).—m-f Selling or sale; the pro- duce of a sale.

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vikāra (विकार).—m Change of form or nature. Disease. Passion, emotion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikara (विकर).—

1) Sickness, disease.

2) A particular mode of fighting.

Derivable forms: vikaraḥ (विकरः).

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Vikāra (विकार).—

1) Change of form or nature, transformation, deviation from the natural state; cf. विकृति (vikṛti).

2) A change, alteration, a modification; प्रमथमुखविकारै- र्हासयामास गूढम् (pramathamukhavikārai- rhāsayāmāsa gūḍham) Kumārasambhava 7.95; नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च लक्ष्यतेऽन्तर्गतं मनः (netravaktravikāraiśca lakṣyate'ntargataṃ manaḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.44; Ś.7.

3) Sickness, disease, malady; विकारं खलु परमार्थतोऽज्ञात्वाऽनारम्भः प्रतीकारस्य (vikāraṃ khalu paramārthato'jñātvā'nārambhaḥ pratīkārasya) Ś.4; Kumārasambhava 2.48.

4) Change of mind or purpose; मूर्च्छन्त्यमी विकाराः प्रायेणैश्वर्य- मत्तेषु (mūrcchantyamī vikārāḥ prāyeṇaiśvarya- matteṣu) Ś.5.18.

5) A feeling, an emotion; विकारश्चैतन्यं भ्रम- यति च संमीलयति च (vikāraścaitanyaṃ bhrama- yati ca saṃmīlayati ca) Uttararāmacarita 1.35;3.25,36; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.3.

6) Agitation, excitement, perturbation; कुतः परस्मिन् पुरुषे विकारः (kutaḥ parasmin puruṣe vikāraḥ) Kirātārjunīya 17.23.

7) Contortion, contraction (as of the features of the face); प्रमथमुखविकारैर्हासयामास गूढम् (pramathamukhavikārairhāsayāmāsa gūḍham) Kumārasambhava 7.95.

8) (In Sāṅ. phil.) That which is evolved from a previous source or Prakṛti.

9) A wound.

Derivable forms: vikāraḥ (विकारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vikara (विकर).—and °ra-ka (to Sanskrit vi-kirati; compare vikira): kusuma-°rakaṃ (so mss., Senart em. -nikarakaṃ)… abhikiranti Mahāvastu i.236.6 (verse), they strew a strewing of flowers on (the Buddha Dīpaṃkara); kusuma-vikaraṃ (Senart em. °nikaraṃ) muncanti 8 (verse); °kusuma-vikaraṃ ii.18.11, see vikira.

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Vikāra (विकार) or Vikāla.—(m.; = Pali id.; in Sanskrit evening, so also Pali and [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]), wrong time: paradāre prasakto (v.l. °te) tatra kāle vā vikāle vā gacchati (mss. °nti) Mahāvastu i.243.18, in season and out of season; °la-caryā (compare Pali °la-cariyā), walking abroad at night (so Tibetan, mtshan mo ḥphyan pa) Mahāvyutpatti 2507 (Pali according to Childers, going on the monk's begging rounds in the afternoon); one of the six apāya- sthānāni (bhogānām); vikāla-bhojana (nt.; = Pali id.), or with Senart and mss. vikāra° (§ 2.49), eating at the wrong time, or eating at night or after noon, °bhojanāt prativirato Mahāvastu i.326.18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikara (विकर).—m.

(-raḥ) Sickness, disease. E. vi implying difference, and kara making.

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Vikāra (विकार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Change of form or nature, alteration or deviation from the natural state. 2. Sickness, disease, change from the state of health. 3. Passion, feeling, emotion, transition from the natural or quiescent condition of the soul. 4. Anything evolved from a previous source, (in Sankhya Philosophy.) E. vi implying alteration, kṛ to make, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikāra (विकार).—i. e. vi-kṛ + a, m. 1. Change, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 216, 18; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 23, 7 (perturbation); [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 13, 9 (passion), [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 14, 8. 2. Change of form, [Pañcatantra] 257, 23. 3. Change of mind, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 66, 4. 4. Disease, [Nalodya, (ed. Benary.)] 2, 17; a wound, [Pañcatantra] 218, 13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikara (विकर).—[adjective] robbed of the hands (as a punishment).

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Vikāra (विकार).—[masculine] change, alteration, perturbation, disorder (of body or mind), modification, preparation, production, passion of any kind, love, hatred.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikara (विकर):—[=vi-kara] [from vi] 1a mfn. (for 2. See vi- √1. kṛ) deprived of hands (as a punishment), [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra]

2) Vikāra (विकार):—[=vi-kāra] [from vi] 1a m. (for 2. See vi- √1. kṛ) the syllable vi, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) Vikara (विकर):—[=vi-kara] 1b vi-karaṇa. See p.950.

4) [v.s. ...] 2a etc. See vi- √1. kṛ.

5) Vikāra (विकार):—[=vi-kāra] 1b See p. 950, col. 1.

6) [v.s. ...] 2a etc. See under vi- √1. kṛ.

7) Vikara (विकर):—[=vi-kara] [from vi-kṛ] 2b m. (for 1. See p. 950, col. 1; for 3. See vi-√kṝ) disease, sickness, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a [particular] mode of fighting, [Harivaṃśa] ([varia lectio] viṣkara).

9) Vikāra (विकार):—[=vi-kāra] [from vi-kṛ] 2b m. (for 1. See p. 950, col. 1) change of form or nature, alteration or deviation from any natural state, transformation, modification, change ([especially] for the worse) of bodily or mental condition, disease, sickness, hurt, injury, (or) perturbation, emotion, agitation, passion, [???; Mahābhārata] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] an apparition, spectre, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

11) [v.s. ...] extravagance, [ib.]

12) [v.s. ...] a product, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra]

13) [v.s. ...] (in Sāṃkhya) a production or derivative from Prakṛti (there are 7 Vikāras, viz. buddhi, ‘intellect’, ahaṃ-kāra, ‘the sense of individuality’, and the 5 tan-mātras q.v.; these are also producers, inasmuch as from them come the 16 Vikāras which are only productions, viz. the 5 mahā-bhūtāni q.v., and the 11 organs, viz. the 5 buddhīndriyāṇi or organs of sense, the 5 karmendriyāṇi or organs of action, and manas, ‘the mind’), [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 82 etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] the derivative of a word, [Nirukta, by Yāska]

15) [v.s. ...] contortion of the face, grimace, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

16) [v.s. ...] change of sentiment, hostility, defection, [Mahābhārata; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

17) Vikara (विकर):—[=vi-kara] [from vi-kṝ] 3. vi-kara m. (for 1. See p. 950, col. 1; for 2. p. 954, col. 2) an earth-pit, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikara (विकर):—[vi-kara] (raḥ) 1. m. Sickness.

2) Vikāra (विकार):—[vi-kāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Change of form or nature; sickness; crisis, especially unfavourable; emotion.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vikāra (विकार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Viāra, Vigāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vikara in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vikāra (विकार) [Also spelled vikar]:—(nm) deformation, defilement; change or variation (for the worse); deviation from a natural state; perversion; disorder.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Vikara (विकर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Vikṛ.

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Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vikāra (ವಿಕಾರ):—

1) [noun] a change in one’s status, position, condition, etc.

2) [noun] a change in the form, shape, substance, etc.; transformation; metamorphosis.

3) [noun] the abnormal state, condition of the mind, as misapprehension, wrong opinions, illusion, etc.

4) [noun] the quality of being ugly, offensive to look at; ugliness.

5) [noun] physical or mental illness.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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