Vikara, aka: Vikāra, Vikārā; 11 Definition(s)


Vikara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Vikara in Purana glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

Vikārā (विकारा).—Derivatives from Prakṛti of which there are sixteen (eleven organs and five elements): Sāṅkhya philosophy.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 3. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 113; 104. 99.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Vikāra (विकार).—lit. change; modification; modification of a word-base or an affix, caused generally by the addition of suffixes; cf. प्रकृतेरवस्थान्तरं विकारः (prakṛteravasthāntaraṃ vikāraḥ) Kas. on P. IV.3.134; cf. also लेपागमवर्णविकारज्ञो हि सम्यग्वेदान् परिपाल-यिष्यति (lepāgamavarṇavikārajño hi samyagvedān paripāla-yiṣyati) Mahabhasya Ahnika 1.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Vikara means change or alteration.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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India history and geogprahy

Vikara.—cf. vikara-padāni (LP), a small present, a bonus; cf. Gujarātī pān-sopārī. (LP), cf. vikara-pada explained as ‘miscellancous expenses’. Note: vikara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Vikara in Pali glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

vikāra : (m.) change; alteration; reversion; disturbance; deformity; quality.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Vikāra, (fr. vi+kṛ) 1. change, alteration, in mahā° great change Vism. 366, 367 (of two kinds: anupādiṇṇa & upādiṇṇa, or primary & secondary, i.e. the first caused by kappa-vuṭṭhāna, the second by dhātu-kkhobha); KhA 107 (vaṇṇa°).—2. distortion, reversion, contortion, in var. connections, as kucchi° stomach-ache Vin. I, 301; bhamuka° frowning DhA. IV, 90; raukha° grimace, contortion of the face, J. II, 448; PvA. 123; hattha° hand-figuring, signs with the hand, gesture Vin. I, 157 (+hattha-vilaṅghaka)=M. I, 207 (reads vilaṅgaka); Vin. V, 163 (with other similaṛ gestures); J. IV, 491; V, 287; VI, 400, 489.—Kern. Toev. s. v. vikāra is hardly correct in translating hattha-vikārena at Vin. I, 157 by “eigenhandig, ” i.e. with his own hand. It has to be combd with hattha-vilaṅghakena.—3. perturbation, disturbance, inconvenience, deformity Vin. I, 271, 272 (°ṃ sallakkheti observe the uneasiness); Miln. 224 (tāvataka v. temporary inconvenience), 254 (°vipphāra disturbing influence); SnA 189 (bhūta° natural blemish).—4. constitution, property, quality (cp. Cpd. 1572, 1681) Vism. 449 (rūpa° material quality); VvA. 10 (so correct under maya in P. D. vol. III, p. 147).—5. deception, fraud PvA. 211 (=nikati).—Cp. nibbikāra. (Page 612)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

vikarā (विकरा).—m vikarī f (vikaṇēṃ or vikraya or H) Selling or sale, the act of selling or the sold state. Ex. svahastēṃ gōṇī usavōni hātēṃ || miracyāvikarī māṇḍilī tēthēṃ ||. 2 The produce of a sale.

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vikāra (विकार).—m (S) Change of form or nature; alteration of the natural state; any modification or altered mode of being. Ex. dahīṃ hā dudhācā vi0; vāpha, gārā hā jalācā vi0; suvarṇācā vi0 alaṅkāra; mṛttikēcā vi0 ghaṭa. 2 Sickness, disease, disorder; any change from the state of health. 3 Passion, emotion, aroused feeling; any disturbance of the natural or quiescent condition of the soul. Ex. kāma-krōdha-lōbha-mōha-vikāra, manōvikāra, mṛvdikāra.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vikarā (विकरा).—m-f Selling or sale; the pro- duce of a sale.

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vikāra (विकार).—m Change of form or nature. Disease. Passion, emotion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikara (विकर).—

1) Sickness, disease.

2) A particular mode of fighting.

Derivable forms: vikaraḥ (विकरः).

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Vikāra (विकार).—

1) Change of form or nature, transformation, deviation from the natural state; cf. विकृति (vikṛti).

2) A change, alteration, a modification; प्रमथमुखविकारै- र्हासयामास गूढम् (pramathamukhavikārai- rhāsayāmāsa gūḍham) Ku.7.95; नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च लक्ष्यतेऽन्तर्गतं मनः (netravaktravikāraiśca lakṣyate'ntargataṃ manaḥ) Pt.1.44; Ś.7.

3) Sickness, disease, malady; विकारं खलु परमार्थतोऽज्ञात्वाऽनारम्भः प्रतीकारस्य (vikāraṃ khalu paramārthato'jñātvā'nārambhaḥ pratīkārasya) Ś.4; Ku.2.48.

4) Change of mind or purpose; मूर्च्छन्त्यमी विकाराः प्रायेणैश्वर्य- मत्तेषु (mūrcchantyamī vikārāḥ prāyeṇaiśvarya- matteṣu) Ś.5.18.

5) A feeling, an emotion; विकारश्चैतन्यं भ्रम- यति च संमीलयति च (vikāraścaitanyaṃ bhrama- yati ca saṃmīlayati ca) U.1.35;3.25,36; Māl.1.3.

6) Agitation, excitement, perturbation; कुतः परस्मिन् पुरुषे विकारः (kutaḥ parasmin puruṣe vikāraḥ) Ki.17.23.

7) Contortion, contraction (as of the features of the face); प्रमथमुखविकारैर्हासयामास गूढम् (pramathamukhavikārairhāsayāmāsa gūḍham) Ku.7.95.

8) (In Sāṅ. phil.) That which is evolved from a previous source or Prakṛti.

9) A wound.

Derivable forms: vikāraḥ (विकारः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Jalaca Vikara
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Ikṣuvikāra (इक्षुविकार).—1) sugar, molasses. 2) any sweetmeat. Derivable forms: ikṣuvikāraḥ (इक...
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