Vikala, Vikāla: 25 definitions


Vikala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Vikala (विकल) is the name of a rākṣasa chief, presiding over Ābhāsa, according to the Parākhyatantra 5.44-45. Ābhāsa refers to one of the seven pātālas (‘subterranean paradise’). The word pātāla in this tantra refers to subterranean paradises for seekers of otherworldly pleasures and each the seven pātālas is occupied by a regent of the daityas, nāgas and rākṣasas.

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

Source: Yakṣiṇī-sādhana in the Kakṣapuṭa tantra

Vikalā (विकला) is the name of one of the thirty-six Yakṣiṇīs mentioned in the Uḍḍāmareśvaratantra. In the yakṣiṇī-sādhana, the Yakṣiṇī is regarded as the guardian spirit who provides worldly benefits to the practitioner. The Yakṣiṇī (e.g., Vikalā) provides, inter alia, daily food, clothing and money, tells the future, and bestows a long life, but she seldom becomes a partner in sexual practices.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Vikala (विकल, “maimed”) refers to one of the sixty defects of mantras, according to the 11th century Kulārṇava-tantra: an important scripture of the Kaula school of Śāktism traditionally stated to have consisted of 125.000 Sanskrit verses.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Śrī Devī: “For those who do japa without knowing these defects [e.g., vikala—maimed], there is no realization even with millions and billions of japa. [...] Oh My Beloved! there are ten processes for eradicating defects in Mantras as described. [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Vikala (विकल) refers to “disfigured” or “distraught”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as Śaṃkara said to Bhagavat (Viṣṇu): “I am disfigured (vikala), distraught (vihvala) and foolish (dhīvivarjita), and am not one whom you should have relations with (agamya) and (so) I do not ask you anything. And I do not ever want knowledge of the Command from you. Nonetheless, even though I have become distraught (vikala) in the Middle Country, I have come recalling to mind that scalpel of divine knowledge. [...]”.

2) Vikala (विकल) refers to “one who is a cripple”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—Accordingly, while describing the signs of one who is not a Siddha: “He is excessively tall, bald, deformed, short, dwarfish, his nose is ugly or he has black teeth and is wrathful . Some of his limbs are missing and is deceitful, cripple [i.e., vikala] and deformed, foolish, inauspicious, envious, deluded, badly behaved, and violent; without any teacher, he is devoid of the rites, he maligns the Krama without cause, he is not devoted to the Siddhas, he (always) suffers and is without wisdom. He is (always) ill and one should know that he is (always) attached (to worldly objects) and has no scripture. He has no energy and is dull and lazy. Ugly, he lives by cheating and, cruel, he is deluded, and devoid of (any) sense of reality. Such is the characteristic of one who is not accomplished (asiddha) in a past life”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Vikalā (विकला) is the name of a kingdom or tribe of people, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Cancer (Karka) the Ābhīras, the Śabaras, the Pallavas, the Mallas, the Matsyas, the Kurus, the Śakas, the Pāñcālas and the Vikalās will be afflicted with miseries and food grains will be destroyed”.

2) Vikala (वक्र, “irregular”) refers to the “motion of irregular rate” and represents one of the four motions of Mercury (Budha), according to Devata and mentioned in the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 7).—Accordingly, “According to Devata, the effects of the Ṛjvya (direct), the Ativakra (over retrograde), the Vakra (retrograde) and the Vikala (of irregular rate) motions of Mercury will last respectively for 30, 24, 12 and 6 days. [...] When Mercury is in his Ṛjvya course, mankind will be happy; when in his Ativakra course he will destroy wealth; when he is in his Vakra course there will be wars in the land; and when he is in his Vikala course mankind will be afflicted with fear and disease”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vikala (विकल) refers to “distressed”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.2 (“The birth of Śiva’s son”).—Accordingly, after Śiva spoke to the Gods: “[...] Viṣṇu and other gods became relieved and they eulogised the great lord Śiva who is favourably disposed to His devotees. O great sage, only Agni did not become happy. Śiva, the great lord, gave a separate hint to him. Then the distressed fire (vikala) [tataḥ savahnirvikalaḥ], O sage, eulogised Śiva with palms joined in reverence and piteously spoke these words”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Mantrashastra (the science of Mantras)

Source: Wisdom Library: Mantrashastra

Vikala (विकल) refers to one of the various mantradoṣa (“defects of mantras”), according to Tantric digests such as the Bṛhattantrasāra (part 4 page 814), Nāradapurāṇa (Nārada-mahā-purāṇa) (verses 64.14-58), Śaradātilaka (verses 2.71-108), Padārthādarśa and Śrīvidyārṇava-tantra.—Vikala is defined as “mantras consisting of 13 or 15 syllables”. [unverified translation!] The Mantra defect elimination methods consist in performing purification rites (saṃskāra).—See Kulārṇava-tantra verse 15.71-2 and Śaradātilaka verse 2.114-22.

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Mantrashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, mantraśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mantras—chants, incantations, spells, magical hymns, etc. Mantra Sastra literature includes many ancient books dealing with the methods reciting mantras, identifying and purifying its defects and the science behind uttering or chanting syllables.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

T Expired time. Beyond time.

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Vikāla (विकाल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Vikāla] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Vikala (विकल) refers to “imperfect (senses)”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “In one minute living being there are organisms infinite times the emancipated souls. Thus the entire universe is densely filled with one-sensed beings with no interspace. To become a being with more than one sense is as difficult as finding out a very small piece of diamond buried in the sands of an ocean. Even among these most of them are endowed with imperfect senses (vikala-indriya) (i.e. less than five senses). Hence birth as a five-sensed being is as rare as gratitude among the good qualities. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vikala : (adj.) defective; in want of; being without. || vikāla (m.), the wrong time; afternoon and the night.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vikala, (adj.) (Sk. vikala) defective, in want of, deprived, (being) without Th. 2, 391; Pv IV. 1 (bhoga°); J. IV, 278; VI, 232; Miln. 106, 307 (udakena); DA. I, 222; PvA. 4 (hattha°). Cp. vekalla. (Page 612)

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Vikāla, (vi+kāla) “wrong time, ” i.e. not the proper time, which usually means “afternoon” or “evening, ” and therefore often “too late. ” — Vin. IV, 274 (=time from sunset to sunrise); J. V, 131 (ajja vikālo to-day it is too late); VvA. 230 (id.).—Loc. vikāle (opp. kāle) as adv. meaning: (1) at the wrong time Vin. I, 200; Sn. 386; PvA. 12.—(2) too late Vv 84 (=akāle VvA. 337); DhA. I, 356; IV, 69.—(3) very late (at night) J. V, 458.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vikala (विकल).—a (S) Impaired or imperfect; i. e. broken, distorted, deformed, decayed, defective--a limb, member, organ: and attrib. the person. 2 Imperfect, incomplete, deficient, wanting--a business or some performance or act.

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vikalā (विकला).—f S A sixtieth part of a kalā (a digit or 1/16th of the moon's diameter). 2 A sixtieth part of a minute, a second.

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vikaḷa (विकळ).—See in order under vikala.

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vikaḷā (विकळा).—See in order under vikala.

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vikaḷā (विकळा).—a (vi & kaḷā) Colorless, lacklustre, pallid, wan--complexion or countenance.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vikala (विकल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—a Impaired; broken; incom- plete.

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vikalā (विकला) [-ḷā, -ळा].—f A sixtieth part of a kaḷā; a second.

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vikaḷā (विकळा).—a Colourless, pallid.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikala (विकल).—a.

1) Deprived of a part or member, defective, imperfect, maimed, mutilated; कूटकृद्विकलेन्द्रियाः (kūṭakṛdvikalendriyāḥ) Y.2.7; Manusmṛti 8.66; Uttararāmacarita 4.24.

2) Frightened, alarmed; नादस्ताव- द्विकलकुररीकूजितस्निग्धतारः (nādastāva- dvikalakurarīkūjitasnigdhatāraḥ) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 5.2.

3) Devoid or destitute of (in comp.); आरामाधिपतिर्विवेकविकलः (ārāmādhipatirvivekavikalaḥ) Bv.1.31; प्रसूति° (prasūti°) Ś6.24; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.8; Mṛcchakaṭika 5.41; न तु कुलविकलानां वर्तते वृत्तशुद्धिः (na tu kulavikalānāṃ vartate vṛttaśuddhiḥ) Avimārakam 2.5.

4) Agitated, weakened, dispirited, unnerved, drooping, sinking, languid; किमिति विषीदसि रोदिषि विकला विहसति युवतिसभा तव सकला (kimiti viṣīdasi rodiṣi vikalā vihasati yuvatisabhā tava sakalā) Gītagovinda 9; विरहेण विकलहृदया (viraheṇa vikalahṛdayā) Bv.2.71,164; श्रुतियुगले पिकरुतविकले (śrutiyugale pikarutavikale) Gīt. 12; वहति विकलः कायो मोहं न मुञ्चकि चेतनाम् (vahati vikalaḥ kāyo mohaṃ na muñcaki cetanām) Uttararāmacarita 3.31. Māl. 7.1;9.12.

5) Ineffective, useless; विकलमिह पूर्वसुकृतम् (vikalamiha pūrvasukṛtam) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.9.

6) Wanting, failing.

7) Withered, decayed.

-lā, -lī A woman during her courses; (L. D. B. however says 'A woman who has passed child-bearing', ṛtuhīnā).

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Vikalā (विकला).—The sixtieth part of a Kalā, q. v.

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Vikāla (विकाल).—

1) Evening, evening twilight, the close of day.

2) Improper time, unseasonable hour; (avelā); अभिज्ञातकृतः पन्था विकाले गन्तुमिच्छता (abhijñātakṛtaḥ panthā vikāle gantumicchatā) Rām.2.99. 1; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.297.83; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.88/89.

Derivable forms: vikālaḥ (विकालः).

See also (synonyms): vikālaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vikāla (विकाल) or Vikāra.—(m.; = Pali id.; in Sanskrit evening, so also Pali and [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]), wrong time: paradāre prasakto (v.l. °te) tatra kāle vā vikāle vā gacchati (mss. °nti) Mahāvastu i.243.18, in season and out of season; °la-caryā (compare Pali °la-cariyā), walking abroad at night (so Tibetan, mtshan mo ḥphyan pa) Mahāvyutpatti 2507 (Pali according to Childers, going on the monk's begging rounds in the afternoon); one of the six apāya- sthānāni (bhogānām); vikāla-bhojana (nt.; = Pali id.), or with Senart and mss. vikāra° (§ 2.49), eating at the wrong time, or eating at night or after noon, °bhojanāt prativirato Mahāvastu i.326.18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikala (विकल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) 1. Confused, confounded, agitated. 2. Defective, imperfect. 3. Decayed, impaired, withered, waned. f. (-lā or ) A woman in whom menstruation has ceased. n.

(-laṃ) The one-sixteenth of a Kala, the second of a degree. E. vi privative, and kalā a digit of the moon, &c.

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Vikāla (विकाल).—m.

(-laḥ) Twilight, the close of day. E. vi implying prohibition, (of peculiar ceremonies,) and kāla time.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikala (विकल).—i. e. vi-kalā, I. adj. 1. Defective, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 201, M.M. 2. Wanting, failing, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 8; [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 200, M.M.; [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 152. 3. Decayed, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 68, 3; impaired. 4. Confused (cf. kala), [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 54, 7; sorrowful, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 18, 1. Ii. f. and , A woman in whom menstruation has ceased.

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Vikāla (विकाल).—[vi-kāla], m. 1. Twilight, [Pañcatantra] 258, 9. 2. Afternoon (? cf. vaikālika).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikala (विकल).—[adjective] defective, imperfect, crippled, mutilated, weak; destitute of, -less ([instrumental] or —°); depressed, sad, unwell. Abstr. [feminine], tva [neuter]

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Vikāla (विकाल).—[masculine] evening.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikala (विकल):—[=vi-kala] [from vi] a See sub voce

2) Vikāla (विकाल):—[=vi-kāla] [from vi] a m. twilight, evening, afternoon (am ind. in the evening, late), [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) Vikala (विकल):—[=vi-kala] b mf(ā, or ī)n. deprived of a part or a limb or a member, mutilated, maimed, crippled, impaired, imperfect, deficient in or destitute of ([instrumental case] or [compound]; cf. [Pāṇini 2-1, 31 [Scholiast or Commentator]]), [Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] confused, agitated, exhausted, unwell, depressed, sorrowful, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

5) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Śambara, [Harivaṃśa]

6) [v.s. ...] of a son of Lambôdara, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] of a son of Jīmūta, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] of another man, [Catalogue(s)]

9) [v.s. ...] f(ā or ī). a woman in whom menstruation has begun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Vikalā (विकला):—[=vi-kalā] [from vi-kala] f. the 60th part of a Kalā, the second of a degree, [Sūryasiddhānta]

11) [v.s. ...] a [particular] stage in the revolution of the planet Mercury, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

12) Vikāla (विकाल):—[=vi-kāla] b etc. See p. 950, col. 1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikala (विकल):—[vi-kala] (laḥ-lā-laṃ) a. Out of order, confused, impaired; dried up. f. A woman whose menstruation has ceased.

2) Vikāla (विकाल):—(laḥ) 1. m. Twilight.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vikala (विकल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Viala, Viāla, Vigala.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vikala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vikala (विकल) [Also spelled vikal]:—(a) restless, agitated; dismembered, mutilated, crippled; ~[lāṃga] crippled, disabled; ~[lita] restless; agitated.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vikala (ವಿಕಲ):—

1) [adjective] deprived of a part or a limb or a member; mutilated; maimed; crippled.

2) [adjective] confused; bewildered; agitated.

3) [adjective] excited; has become anxious.

4) [adjective] useless; worthless.

5) [adjective] deficient; impefect; lacking.

6) [adjective] dry; dried; withered.

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Vikala (ವಿಕಲ):—

1) [noun] the state or quality of being deprived of a part or a limb or a member; lameness.

2) [noun] a false idea or conception; belief or opinion not in accord with the facts; illusion.

3) [noun] loss of courage or hope; dejection (as of a person separated from his or her lover).

4) [noun] deficiancy; lack; imperfection.

5) [noun] a man driven by hallucination; an illusioned man.

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Vikaḷa (ವಿಕಳ):—[adjective] = ವಿಕಲ [vikala]1.

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Vikaḷa (ವಿಕಳ):—[noun] = ವಿಕಲ [vikala]2.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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