Vaktra, Vaktrā: 24 definitions


Vaktra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to the “face”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.3.—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Umā (Durgā/Satī) with devotion:—“[...] may she be pleased with us, for keeping up the sustenance of the world, she, who in the form of slumber that is extremely exhilarating to all born in the universe, extends pleasure in the nose, eyes, face (i.e., vaktra), arms, chest and the mind”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vaktrā (वक्त्रा).—A river in the Bhadrā continent.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 25.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—Mouth, or orifice of the mouth which, in general is the place of utterance for all letters, but especially for the vowel अ; cf. सर्व-मुखस्थानमवर्णस्य केचिदिच्छन्ति । (sarva-mukhasthānamavarṇasya kecidicchanti |)

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (e.g., Vaktra) in 20 verses.

2) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to one of the eighteen viṣama-varṇavṛtta (irregular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 332nd chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the vaktra metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

3) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to one of the thirty-four mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the Garuḍapurāṇa. The Garuḍapurāṇa also deals with the science of prosody (e.g., the vaktra) in its six chapters 207-212. The chapters comprise 5, 18, 41, 7 and 9 verses respectively.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Vaktra (वक्त्र) or Vaktrāgama refers to one of the upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Kāmikāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Vaktra-āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Kāmika-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to the “mouth”, according to the Tantrasadbhāva (verse 6.218): an important Trika Tantra and a major authority for Kashmiri Trika Śaivites.—Accordingly, “For those who know the Self, Prayāga should be understood as located in the [cakra of the] navel, Varuṇā [i.e. Vārāṇasī] in the heart region, Kolagiri in the throat, Bhīmanāda in the palate, Jayantī in the place of Bindu, Caritra in [the plexus] called Nāda, and Ekāmraka in [the plexus of] Śakti. The eighth, Koṭivarṣa, is likewise said to be in the Mouth of the Guru (guru-vaktra-gata). These are the places I have declared to be present in the person internally”.

2) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to the “mouth” representing one of the nine Granthis (‘knots’ or ‘joints’), according to verse 4.497ff of the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, “[...] A series of nine lotuses is visualized situated at points in the body called granthis (knots or joints). These are located at the crown of the head, the forehead, throat, navel, knees, mouth (vaktra), heart, genitals, and feet, following the order of their sequence in nyāsa. The eight-petalled lotuses situated therein are loci for installation of the principal nine deities: Kapālīśabhairava, who is installed in the crown lotus, and two sets of four goddesses, the Devīs and the Dūtīs [i.e., Karālā, to be installed on the mouth]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Vaktra (वक्त्र):—[vaktram] Mouth

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to “- 1. protome band (molding of the capital) (Aj) § 3.19. - 2. cella door (Rau) § 3.37.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to the “mouth”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] He who recites your syllable with pure heart and proper devotion, O Śārikā, which consists of abja and vaktravṛtta, in his mouth (vaktra) a fully developed voice stays, which has the beauty of unfolding through various good emotions. He who recites your syllable, consisting of abja and vaktravṛtta, and called asthyātmā, O Śārikā, is liberated in life and, enjoying supreme bhogas, will later dissolve in your state, O Bhavānī. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

1) Vaktra (वक्त्र) or “mouth” is associated with Rāgavajrī, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “[...] Mohavajrī in the eyes. Dveṣavajrī in the ears. Īrṣyāvajrī in the nostrils. Rāgavajrī in the mouth (vaktra). Sūryavajrī in touch. Aiśvaryavajrī in the seat of all senses. The element of earth, Pātanī. The element of water, Māraṇī. The element of fire, Ākarṣaṇī. The element of wind, Padmanṛtyeśvarī. The element of Space, Padmajvālanī. Thus, the purity of the divinities in the seat of the elements”.

2) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to the “mouth” and is associated with the syllable kaṃ, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi.—Accordingly, “[Do caturviṃśati-aṅga nyāsa; Touch twenty-one parts of one’s body with right middle finger, and recite seed syllables] ... Kaṃ on the mouth (kaṃ vaktre)”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to the “mouth (of a serpent)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The three worlds, which are made foolish by the action of the poison of lust, are fast asleep in this gaping mouth of Yama’s serpent (vaktraantakabhogivaktravivare) which is marked by fangs of destruction. While this one whose disposition is pitiless is devouring everyone, certainly there is no way out from this for you, noble fellow, by any means [even] with some difficulty without knowledge of what is beyond the senses. [Thus ends the reflection on] helplessness”.

Synonyms: Mukha, Vadana.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Agni (अग्नि) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini VI.2.126. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vaktra (वक्त्र).—n The mouth the face.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—[vakti anena vac-karaṇe ṣṭran Uṇādi-sūtra 4.177]

1) The mouth.

2) The face; यद्वक्त्रं मुहुरीक्षसे न धनिनां ब्रूषे न चाटून् मृषा (yadvaktraṃ muhurīkṣase na dhanināṃ brūṣe na cāṭūn mṛṣā) Bhartṛhari 3.147.

3) Snout, muzzle, beak.

4) Beginning.

5) The point (of an arrow), the spout of a vessel.

6) A sort of garment.

7) Name of a metre similar to anuṣṭubh; see S. D.567; Kāv.1.26.

8) The first term of a progression.

Derivable forms: vaktram (वक्त्रम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—[, nt., Mahāvastu iii.185.17, repeated 19 (verse) atha gāyasi vaktrāṇi, either corruption or false Sanskritization for Pali vattāni, same line, Jātaka (Pali) iii.447.18; Senart assumes that this Pali word = Sanskrit vṛttāni, meters, which is plau- sible. However, [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary] records (without citation from literature) an AMg. vatta = Sanskrit vyakta, defined singing while making the syllables and sounds distinct, an excellent mode of singing. May not the Pali vattāni, and our word, be equivalents of this? Our word might then be a false Sanskritization, or error, instead of vyaktāni.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—m.

(-ktraḥ) A hog. n.

(-ktraṃ) 1. The mouth or face. 2. A sort of garment. 3. Metre, verse, especially of the Vedas. 4. A plant: see tagaramūla. 5. The sprout of a jug. E. vac to speak, Unadi aff. ṣṭran .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—i. e. vac + tra, n. 1. The mouth, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 138; 264, 1. 2. The face, [Pañcatantra] 158, 22. 3. A verse. 4. A sort of garment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—[neuter] mouth, face, snout, beak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vaktra (वक्त्र):—[from vac] n. ‘organ of speech’, the mouth, face, muzzle, snout, proboscis, jaws, beak etc., [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (vaktraṃkṛ, to open the mouth, gape)

2) [v.s. ...] the point (of an arrow), [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] the spout (of a jug or vessel See a-vaktra)

4) [v.s. ...] beginning, commencement, [Gaṇitādhyāya]

5) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) the initial quantity or first term of a progression, [Colebrooke]

6) [v.s. ...] a metre containing 4 x 8 syllables, [Kāvyādarśa]

7) [v.s. ...] a sort of garment, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] the root of Tabernaemontana Coronaria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a king of the Karūṣas, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary] ([varia lectio] vakra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र):—(ktraṃ) 1. n. Mouth or face; sort of garment; a metre.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vaktra (वक्त्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Vakka, Vatta.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vaktra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vaktra (ವಕ್ತ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the opening through which human beings take in food; the mouth.

2) [noun] the front part of the head, from the forehead to the chin; the face.

3) [noun] the front portion of an utensil ( from where the contents are poured); the spout.

4) [noun] the bill of a bird; the beak.

5) [noun] the pointed end of an arrow.

6) [noun] beginning; commencement.

7) [noun] the root of the plant milky jasmine (Tabernaemontana divaricata = Ervatamia coronaria).

8) [noun] (pros.) a metrical foot with nine syllables, belonging to the class of Břhati.

9) [noun] (pros.) name of a metre similar to Anuṣtubh.

10) [noun] (dance) an opening of the mouth widely and pushing the tongue (as a lion).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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