Vaktra, Vaktrā: 18 definitions



Vaktra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to the “face”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.3.—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Umā (Durgā/Satī) with devotion:—“[...] may she be pleased with us, for keeping up the sustenance of the world, she, who in the form of slumber that is extremely exhilarating to all born in the universe, extends pleasure in the nose, eyes, face (i.e., vaktra), arms, chest and the mind”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vaktrā (वक्त्रा).—A river in the Bhadrā continent.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 25.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—Mouth, or orifice of the mouth which, in general is the place of utterance for all letters, but especially for the vowel अ; cf. सर्व-मुखस्थानमवर्णस्य केचिदिच्छन्ति । (sarva-mukhasthānamavarṇasya kecidicchanti |)

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (e.g., Vaktra) in 20 verses.

2) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to one of the eighteen viṣama-varṇavṛtta (irregular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 332nd chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the vaktra metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

3) Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to one of the thirty-four mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the Garuḍapurāṇa. The Garuḍapurāṇa also deals with the science of prosody (e.g., the vaktra) in its six chapters 207-212. The chapters comprise 5, 18, 41, 7 and 9 verses respectively.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Vaktra (वक्त्र) or Vaktrāgama refers to one of the upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Kāmikāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Vaktra-āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Kāmika-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Vaktra (वक्त्र):—[vaktram] Mouth

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Vaktra (वक्त्र) refers to “- 1. protome band (molding of the capital) (Aj) § 3.19. - 2. cella door (Rau) § 3.37.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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India history and geography

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Agni (अग्नि) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini VI.2.126. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vaktra (वक्त्र).—n The mouth the face.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—[vakti anena vac-karaṇe ṣṭran Uṇ.4.177]

1) The mouth.

2) The face; यद्वक्त्रं मुहुरीक्षसे न धनिनां ब्रूषे न चाटून् मृषा (yadvaktraṃ muhurīkṣase na dhanināṃ brūṣe na cāṭūn mṛṣā) Bh.3.147.

3) Snout, muzzle, beak.

4) Beginning.

5) The point (of an arrow), the spout of a vessel.

6) A sort of garment.

7) Name of a metre similar to anuṣṭubh; see S. D.567; Kāv.1.26.

8) The first term of a progression.

Derivable forms: vaktram (वक्त्रम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—[, nt., Mahāvastu iii.185.17, repeated 19 (verse) atha gāyasi vaktrāṇi, either corruption or false Sanskritization for Pali vattāni, same line, Jātaka (Pali) iii.447.18; Senart assumes that this Pali word = Sanskrit vṛttāni, meters, which is plau- sible. However, [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary] records (without citation from literature) an AMg. vatta = Sanskrit vyakta, defined singing while making the syllables and sounds distinct, an excellent mode of singing. May not the Pali vattāni, and our word, be equivalents of this? Our word might then be a false Sanskritization, or error, instead of vyaktāni.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—m.

(-ktraḥ) A hog. n.

(-ktraṃ) 1. The mouth or face. 2. A sort of garment. 3. Metre, verse, especially of the Vedas. 4. A plant: see tagaramūla. 5. The sprout of a jug. E. vac to speak, Unadi aff. ṣṭran .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—i. e. vac + tra, n. 1. The mouth, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 138; 264, 1. 2. The face, [Pañcatantra] 158, 22. 3. A verse. 4. A sort of garment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र).—[neuter] mouth, face, snout, beak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vaktra (वक्त्र):—[from vac] n. ‘organ of speech’, the mouth, face, muzzle, snout, proboscis, jaws, beak etc., [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (vaktraṃkṛ, to open the mouth, gape)

2) [v.s. ...] the point (of an arrow), [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] the spout (of a jug or vessel See a-vaktra)

4) [v.s. ...] beginning, commencement, [Gaṇitādhyāya]

5) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) the initial quantity or first term of a progression, [Colebrooke]

6) [v.s. ...] a metre containing 4 x 8 syllables, [Kāvyādarśa]

7) [v.s. ...] a sort of garment, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] the root of Tabernaemontana Coronaria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a king of the Karūṣas, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary] ([varia lectio] vakra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaktra (वक्त्र):—(ktraṃ) 1. n. Mouth or face; sort of garment; a metre.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Vaktra (वक्त्र):—(von vac) [Uṇādisūtra.4,166.] n. [Siddhāntakaumudī 249,b,3.] m. (nicht zu belegen) und n. [250,b,6.] vaktra am Ende von Ortsnamen [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 2, 126.]

1) Mund, Maul, Gesicht, Schnauze, Schnabel [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 2, 40.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 572.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 452.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 84.] [Halāyudha 2, 363.] [ŚIKṢĀ] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 4, 107.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 272.] [Mahābhārata 1, 5932. 12, 4273.] [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 9, 82.] [AMṚTAN. Upakośā] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 9, 27.] [Suśruta 1, 116, 14. 120, 19. 155, 7. 187, 10.] netravaktravikāraiḥ [Spr. 310.] vaktrāmṛta [775.] hastodyamaṃ vinā vaktre praviśenna kathaṃ ca na (bhojanam) [1745.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 51, 32. 58, 9. 77, 35. fg.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 165.] [Pañcatantra 264, 1.] candrābha [Mahābhārata 3, 2860. 3000.] [Meghadūta 51.] [Spr. 2518. 2696. fg.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 68, 56. 103. 69, 24.] [Dhūrtasamāgama 66, 5. 6. 8. 72, 11.] mṛgapakṣi [Suśruta 1, 96, 15.] gaja [Mahābhārata 3, 12247.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 93, 2. 13. 94, 13.] karāla (lalūka) [Pañcatantra 158, 22.] vaktraṃ kar den Mund —, das Maul aufsperren [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 56, 17. fg.] Am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā [Mahābhārata.4,185.] [Rāmāyaṇa.5,17,28.] [Ṛtusaṃhāra.3,1.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 28,81. 45,334. 124,98.] [Caurapañcāśikā 28.] [Oxforder Handschriften 146,a, No. 310.] — —

2) Spitze (eines Pfeils): tīkṣṇa [Mahābhārata 7, 4963.] —

3) Schnauze eines Gefässes; s. a . —

4) Anfang: kali [GAṆITĀDHY.] [PRATYABDAŚ. 11.] —

5) the initial quantity of the progression; the first term [Algebra 52.] —

6) = śloka ein aus 4 x 8 Silben bestehendes Metrum [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Colebrooke] [?II,118. 157. Weber’s Indische Studien.8,313. 331. fgg. kāvyādarśa.1,26. Sāhityadarpana 567. PRATĀPAR. 19,a,7.] —

7) eine Art Zeug (vastrabheda) [Medinīkoṣa] —

8) die Wurzel von Tabernaemontana coronaria R. Br. (tagaramūla) [Śabdamālā im Śabdakalpadruma] —

9) fehlerhaft für vakra in agra [Suśruta 2, 56, 4.] — Vgl. a, anvakṣarasaṃdhi (unter anvakṣaram), apa, apara, dadhi, danta, daśa, pañca, pārśva, pūti pṛthu, mahā, yava, sūcī und mukha, vadana .

--- OR ---

Vaktra (वक्त्र):—m. Nomen proprium v.l. für vakra [Mahābhārata 1, 7051. 7019 ed. Bomb.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Vaktra (वक्त्र):——

1) n. — a) Mund , Maul , Gesicht , Schnauze , Schnabel. vaktram kar den Mund — , das Maul aufsperren. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — b) Spitze (eines Pfeils). — c) Schnauze (eines Gefässes). — d) Anfang. — e) the initial quantity of the progression , the first term. — f) ein aus 4 x 8 Silben bestehendes Metrum. — g) *eine Art Zeug. — h) *die Wurzel von Tabernaemontana coronaria.

2) m. Nomen proprium eines Fürsten der Karūṣa [Mahābhārata 1,187,15.188,19.V.L.] vakra. — Häufig mit vakra verwechselt.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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