Vaira, Vairā: 22 definitions


Vaira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vair.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vaira (वैर) (Cf. Vaira) refers to “fiendish feelings”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.14 (“The Birth of Tāraka and Vajrāṅga”).—Accordingly, after Vajrāṅga spoke to Brahmā: “On hearing that, O sage, I said—‘Sāttvika feelings constitute the essence of real philosophy. I shall lovingly create an exquisite lady’. After offering her who was named Varāṅgī, to that son of Diti, I went to my abode in great delight. So also Kaśyapa, his father. Thereafter the demon eschewed his diabolical feelings and resorted to sublime thoughts. Since he was free from fiendish feelings [i.e., nir-vaira] he became happy. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vairā (वैरा).—A river sacred to the Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 64.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Vaira (वैर) refers to “heroism”, according to the Devyāmata (chapter 105).—Accordingly, [while describing the consequences of a doorway]—“[...] Those facing north are listed next, in sequence, from the northwest on. At Roga is bondage. At Nāga (Vāsuki) is an enemy. At Mukhya is an increase in sons and wealth. At Bhalvāṭa is gain. At Soma is a gain in wealth. At Anantaka is heroism in sons (putra-vaira). [...]

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vaira (वैर) (Cf. Pañcavaira) refers to “enmity”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXXII-XXXIV).—Accordingly, “... Let us suppose that, with or without reason, one hates someone. If one wants to insult him, curse him, strike him or rob him, this is enmity (vaira), If one waits for the proper moment and, given the chance, one torments him with all one’s strength, this is hostility (upanāha). Since maitrī counteracts both these things, it is said to be free of enmity and hostility. [...] The fetter ‘hostility’ is called enmity (vaira). When enmity increases, is prolonged and becomes attached to but not yet fixed in the mind, it takes the name of hostility (upanāha) and also rivalry. When the mind is determined and no longer has any scruples, this is called malice”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Vaira (वैर) refers to a species of Anudiśa gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in the Digambara tradition where the Anudiśa heaven is one of the five heavens of the upper world (ūrdhvaloka).

Source: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Vaira (वैर) refers to “diamond”, and is the name of a type of precious stone (gem or jewel) typically used in ancient India. Both the king (rājan) and the people used to keep previous stones as a part of their wealth and affluence. The king’s mansion was studded with precious stones of various kinds. The rich people possessed them in large quantity and used them in ornaments and for other purposes. The courtesans (gaṇiya) possessed costly jewels and their chambers were adorned with precious jewels. The palanquins of the kings, nobles and rich persons (śreṣṭhins) were inlaid with costly gems.

There were persons expert in the field of gem and jewels (e.g., vaira) called maṇikāras (jewellers). There is a reference of maṇikāra-śreṣṭhin in Rājagṛha who had abundant gems and jewels. Various ornaments of pearls and jewels are mentioned in the texts viz. Kaṇagāvali (necklace of gold and gems), rayaṇāvali (necklace of jewels), muttāvali (necklace of pearls), etc. The above description of the various agricultural, agro-based, mining or forestry occupations clearly depicts the high level of perfection achieved in the respective fields.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Vaira (वैर) refers to the “enemies (of desire)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the enemies (vairān) of desire (lobhasya)]—Tolerance of anger and humility towards pride, moreover straightforwardness towards deception [and] abandonment of attachment, these are the enemies (dviṣa) [com.vairin] of desire respectively. Yogis continually drive away desire and dislike through equanimity or through the state of non-attachment , and they drive away wrong faith through the application of right faith”.

Synonyms: Dviṣa, Vairin, Arāti.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vaira.—(IA 18), blood-money. Note: vaira is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vaira (वैर).—n (S) Enmity, hatred, hostility. vaira ugaviṇēṃ To gratify one's hatred.

--- OR ---

vairā (वैरा).—m The portion (of rice, pulse &c.) allotted for the day's consumption, taken out from the store, and set apart to be dressed. maṇācā vairā gharīṃ asaṇēṃ g. of s. To have a large household.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vaira (वैर).—n Enmity.

--- OR ---

vairā (वैरा).—m The portion (of rice &c.) taken out from the store and set apart to be dressed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vaira (वैर).—[vīrasya bhāvaḥ aṇ]

1) Hostility, enmity, animosity, spite, grudge, opposition, quarrel; दानेन वैराण्यपि यान्ति नाशम् (dānena vairāṇyapi yānti nāśam) Subhāṣ.; अज्ञातहृदयेष्वेवं वैरीभवति सौहृदम् (ajñātahṛdayeṣvevaṃ vairībhavati sauhṛdam) Ś.5. 24 'turns into enmity'; विधाय वैरं सामर्षे नरोऽरौ य उदासते । प्रक्षिप्योदर्चिषं कक्षे शेरते तेऽभिमारुतम् (vidhāya vairaṃ sāmarṣe naro'rau ya udāsate | prakṣipyodarciṣaṃ kakṣe śerate te'bhimārutam) Śiśupālavadha 2.42.

2) Hatred, revenge.

3) Heroism, prowess.

4) A hostile host; यदा हि पूर्वं निकृतो निकृन्तेद्वैरं सपुष्पं सफलं विदित्वा (yadā hi pūrvaṃ nikṛto nikṛntedvairaṃ sapuṣpaṃ saphalaṃ viditvā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.34.2

Derivable forms: vairam (वैरम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vaira (वैर).—name of a slave (dāsa): Gaṇḍavyūha 185.24 ff.

--- OR ---

Vairā (वैरा).—name of a place: Mahā-Māyūrī 9 (see Lévi p. 61).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaira (वैर).—n.

(-raṃ) 1. Enmity, hostility. 2. Heroism, prowess. E. vīra a warrior, aff. aṇ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaira (वैर).—i. e. vīra + a, n. 1. Heroism, prowess. 2. Enmity, [Pañcatantra] 66, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaira (वैर).—[adjective] hostile, revengeful; [neuter] enmity, quarrel with ([instrumental] ±saha or sārdham & —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vaira (वैर):—mfn. ([from] vīra) hostile, inimical, revengeful, [Atharva-veda]

2) n. (exceptionally m. [?] ifc. f(ā). ) enmity, hostility, animosity, grudge, quarrel or feud with ([instrumental case] with or without saha, or sārdham, or [compound]; often [plural]), [Atharva-veda; Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) n. heroism, prowess, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) a hostile host, [Śiśupāla-vadha]

5) money paid as a fine for manslaughter, [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vaira (वैर):—(raṃ) 1. n. Enmity, hostility; heroism.

2) śuddhi (ddhiḥ) 2. f. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vaira (वैर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vera.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vaira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vaira (वैर) [Also spelled vair]:—(nm) enmity, animosity, hostility; ~[kara/kāraka/kārī] arousing or instigating hostility/animosity; -[pratikāra/pratiśota] revenge; -[bhāva] animosity, hostility, bad blood.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Vaira (वैर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Vajra.

2) Vairā (वैरा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Vajrā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vaira (ವೈರ):—

1) [noun] the bitter attitude or feelings of an enemy or of mutual enemies; hostility; antagonism; enmity.

2) [noun] the return of an injury for an injury, in punishment or retribution; avenging of an injury or offense; revenge.

3) [noun] an enemy; an adversary.

4) [noun] marked courage, bravery; valour.

5) [noun] ವೈರವಿದ್ದವನ ಹತ್ತಿರ ಕ್ಷೌರ ಮಾಡಿಕೊಂಡ ಹಾಗೆ [vairaviddavana hattira kshaura madikomda hage] vairaviddavana hattira kṣaura māḍisikoṇḍa hāge (proverbial simile) it is madness for a sheep to have dealings with a wolf.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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