Vaidurya, Vaiḍūrya: 18 definitions

Introduction

Vaidurya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Vaidūrya (गोमेद, “Cat’s eye (cymophane)”):—One of the nine gems (navaratna) according to the 13th century Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

The Cats’ eye (vaidūrya) has Pharmaco-therapeutic properties and possesses the following characteristics:

  • pacifies rakta-doṣa and pitta-doṣa or raktapitta disease,
  • promotes intelligence,
  • stimulates disgestive fire,
  • always destroys pittaroga and malabaddhatā (irregular and constipated bowel habits)
  • bearing it gives sukha (pleasure or happiness) to its user

Superior: When the Cats eye’ is possessed of the following characteristics, it is considered superior: Clear, sama (uneven), blackish white, heavy, bright, and containing three white lines in its middle portion just like yajnopavīta.

Inferior: The Cat’s eye is considered inferior when it exhibits the following traits: Rough, light in weight, flat, always looking like śyāmatoya (blackish water), containing red uttarīya like structure in its middle.

Source: Google Books: Iatro-chemistry of Āyurveda, Rasaśāstra

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य, “Cat’s eye”):—Vaiḍūrya is like cat’s eye. It is blue and yellow and exceedingly clean (transparent). Vaiḍūryacures rakta-pitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body). It promotes intellect, longevity and strength. It cures diseases caused by the aggravation of pitta. It stimulates the power of digestion. It alleviates ailments caused by the afflictions by evil planets.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 10.3.9-10

The Vaidūrya gem, which sometimes appears bluish, sometimes yellow and sometimes red, is available in Vaikuṇṭhaloka. The Lord’s (Viṣṇu) helmet and earrings were decorated with this particular gem.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Sāndhāra, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56. The Sāndhāra group contains twenty-five out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under four groups in this chapter. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य) is a Sanskrit word referring to “cat’s eye” (the precious stone). When constructing the plinth of the stage (raṅgaśīrṣa), of a playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa), there should be jewels and precious stones be placed underneath by expert builders, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.72-74. Accordingly, cat’s eye (vaiḍūrya) is to be put in the south (dakṣiṇā).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (V) next»] — Vaidurya in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य).—A hill range on the west of Meru.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 29.

2a) Vaidūrya (वैदूर्य).—A mountain on the base of Meru, and west of Śitoda.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 26; Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 27; 42. 50.

2b) An Asura of the Mahātalam.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 35.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य) refers to the name of a Mountain or Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.86.15, III.87.4). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vaiḍūrya) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य) refers to “cat’s eye” and represents a kind of precious stone (gem) used for the making of images (Hindu icons), as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The materials listed in the Āgamas for the making of images are wood, stone, precious gems, metals, terracotta, laterite, earth, and a combination of two or three or more of the materials specified above. The precious stones mentioned in the Āgamas for the purpose of making images are [for example] vaiḍūrya (cat’s eye).

Precious stones (eg., vaiḍūrya or ‘cat’s eye’) are preferred materials for fashioning images.—The materials recommended in the śilpaśāstra for the fashioning of images are unburnt clay, burnt clay as in brick or terracotta, sudhā (a special kind of mortar/plaster), composite earth, wood, stone, metal, ivory, dhātu (mineral), pigment, and precious stones. Wood is considered superior to earth, stone as better than wood, metal better than stone, and precious stone (such as vaiḍūrya) is the most preferred of all.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य) or Vaiḍūryapātra refers to a type of utensil/vessel (used for food) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different metallic vessels are described in the text. The vessels/utensils that are made of Vaiḍūrya have the following dietetic effects: pavitra (pure) and śītala (cooling).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Vaidūrya (वैदूर्य, ‘beryl’) is first found in the late Adbhuta-brāhmaṇa.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य, “lapis-lazuli”) refers to a type of jewel (ratna), into which the universe was transformed by the Buddha’s miraculous power (ṛddhibala) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “The other jewels, [viz.,] lapis-lazuli (vaiḍūrya), etc., all come from caves”.

Also, “These jewels (eg, vaiḍūrya) are of three types, Human jewels (manuṣya-ratna), Divine jewels (divya-ratna) and Bodhisattva jewels (bodhisattva-ratna). These various jewels remove the poverty (dāridrya) and the suffering (duḥkha) of beings”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य) refers to “cat’s eye”, and is the name of a type of precious stone (gem or jewel) typically used in ancient India. It is also known by the name Vaiḍūya. Both the king (rājan) and the people used to keep previous stones as a part of their wealth and affluence. The king’s mansion was studded with precious stones of various kinds. The rich people possessed them in large quantity and used them in ornaments and for other purposes. The courtesans (gaṇiya) possessed costly jewels and their chambers were adorned with precious jewels. The palanquins of the kings, nobles and rich persons (śreṣṭhins) were inlaid with costly gems.

There were persons expert in the field of gem and jewels (eg., vaiḍūrya) called maṇikāras (jewellers). There is a reference of maṇikāra-śreṣṭhin in Rājagṛha who had abundant gems and jewels. Various ornaments of pearls and jewels are mentioned in the texts viz. Kaṇagāvali (necklace of gold and gems), rayaṇāvali (necklace of jewels), muttāvali (necklace of pearls), etc. The above description of the various agricultural, agro-based, mining or forestry occupations clearly depicts the high level of perfection achieved in the respective fields.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य).—n (Properly vaidūrya S) A turkois or lapis lazuli.

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vaidūrya (वैदूर्य).—n m S A turkois or lapis lazuli.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य).—A cat's-eye gem.

Derivable forms: vaiḍūryam (वैडूर्यम्).

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Vaidūrya (वैदूर्य).—a. (- or -ryī f.)

1) Brought from, or produced in, Vidūra.

2) Eminent (śreṣṭha); को न्वयं नरवैदूर्यः (ko nvayaṃ naravaidūryaḥ) Bhāg 1. 55.31.

-ryam [vidūre girau bhavaṃ śyañ] Lapis lazuli; Ku. 7.1; Śi.3.45; भुवि वैदूर्यनकाशशाद्वलायाम् (bhuvi vaidūryanakāśaśādvalāyām) Bu. Ch.5.9; (the cat's-eye gem; cf. mārjārekṣaṇapiṅgalacchavijuṣ Rājanighaṇṭu); स्थाल्यां वैदूर्यमय्यां पचति तिलकणानिन्धनैश्चन्दनाद्यैः (sthālyāṃ vaidūryamayyāṃ pacati tilakaṇānindhanaiścandanādyaiḥ) Bh.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaidūrya (वैदूर्य) or Vaidūryya.—n.

(-ryaṃ) A gem of a dark colour, the lapis lazuli. E. vidūra said to be the name of a mountain where the stone is found, or a city where it is polished, and ṣyañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य).—[neuter] ([masculine]) the cat’s eye (a kind of gem).

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Vaidūrya (वैदूर्य).—v. vaiḍūrya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vaiḍūrya (वैडूर्य):—n. (rarely m.; cf. vidūra-ja) a cat’s-eye gem (ifc. ‘a jewel’, = ‘anything excellent of its kind’), [Adbhuta-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) m. Name of a mountain (also -parvata), [Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

3) mf(ā)n. made of cat’s-eye gems, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa etc.]

4) Vaidurya (वैदुर्य):—[wrong reading] for vaidūrya (or vaiḍūrya), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

5) Vaidūrya (वैदूर्य):—1. vaidūrya mf(ī or )n. ([from] vi-dūra) brought from Vidūra, [Pāṇini 4-3, 84.]

6) 2. vaidūrya [wrong reading] for vaiḍūrya.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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