Vac, Vāc: 13 definitions



Vac means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vach.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Vāc (वाच्, “speech”):—One of the nine Dūtī presided over by one of the nine bhaivaravas named Hāṭakeśa (emanation of Ananta, who is the central presiding deity of Dūtīcakra), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra and the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā.

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Vāc (वाच्, “speech”):—One of the names of Sarasvatī, the Hindu goddess of speech, eloquence and all forms of knowledge.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Vāc (वाच्) is a Sanskrit word referring to “speech”. It is one of the fourteen Adhyātma (pertaining to the body) mentioned in the Subālopaniṣad (fifth section). The corresponding Ādhibhūta (pertaining to the elements) is called vaktavya (that which is acted upon by vāc) and the corresponding Adhidaivata (presiding deity) is agni. Accordingly, “the nādis form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in speech (vāc), in vaktavya, in agni, in the nādis, in prāṇa, in vijñāna, in ānanda, in the ākāśa of the heart and within all else—That is Ātman. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow or end.”

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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Vāc (वाच्) refers to “words”, and according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15, “words” are regarded as the source of everything. From vāc is derived vācika (“verbal representation”), which represents one of the four categories of representation (abhinaya).

Source: Natya Shastra

Vāc (वाच्, “words”).—One should take care of words. For these are known as the body of the dramatic art. And Gestures, Costumes and Make-up and the acting of Sattva [merely] clarify the meaning of words. In this world; (lit. here) the Śāstras are made up of words (vāc) and rest on words; hence there is nothing beyond words, and words are at the source of everything.

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Vāc (वाच्).—Expression from the mouth ; speech; series of sounds caused by expelling the air from the lungs through differently shaped positions of the mouth and the throat; cf. स संघातादीन् प्राप्य वाग्भवति (sa saṃghātādīn prāpya vāgbhavati) Vaj. Pr.I.9; see the word वाणी (vāṇī);

2) Vāc.—The sacred or divine utterance referring to the Veda; cf. त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् (trayyā vācaḥ paraṃ padam) ;

3) Vāc.—Term used for उपपद (upapada) in the Jainendra Vyākarana; cf. वाग्विभक्तेः कारक-विभक्तिर्बलीयसी (vāgvibhakteḥ kāraka-vibhaktirbalīyasī) Jain. Pari. 104.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Vāk or Vāc (stem vāc-, nominative vāk) is the Sanskrit word for "speech", "voice", "talk", or "language", from a verbal root vac- "speak, tell, utter".

Personified, Vāk is a goddess; most frequently she is identified with Bharati or Sarasvati, the goddess of speech. In the Veda she is also represented as created by Prajapati and married to him; in other places she is called the mother of the Vedas and wife of Indra.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Vāc (वाच्, “speech”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.19.—The function of matter (pudgala) is to form the basis of the body (śarīra), the organs of speech (vāc), the mind (manas) and the respiration (prāṇa). What is meant by speech (vāc)? Whatever is spoken in the form of speech particles (bhāsāvargaṇā) is called speech.

How many types of speech (vāc) are there? It is of two types namely physical and psychic. What is psychic speech? The capacity to speak due to the rise of āṃgopāṃga (major and minor limbs making) karma and the subsidence cum destruction of energy obscuring karma and knowledge (mind based and scriptural knowledge) obscuring karmas is called psychic speech. What is the meaning of physical speech? The matter particles which are transformed as sounds due (the efficient cause) to the state of psychic speech of the soul are called physical speech.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vac (वच्).—I. 2 P. (Ā. also in non-conjugational tenses; in conjugational tenses it is said to be defective in the third person plural by some authorities, or in the whole plural by others; vakti, uvāca, avocat, vakṣyati, vaktum, ukta)

1) To say, speak; वैराग्यादिव वक्षि (vairāgyādiva vakṣi) K. P.1; (oft. with two. acc.); तामूचतुस्ते प्रियमप्यमिथ्या (tāmūcatuste priyamapyamithyā) R.14.6; sometimes with accusative of words meaning 'speech'; उवाच धात्र्या प्रथमोदितं वचः (uvāca dhātryā prathamoditaṃ vacaḥ) R.3.25;2.59; क एवं वक्ष्यते वाक्यम् (ka evaṃ vakṣyate vākyam) Rām.

2) To relate, describe; रघूणामन्वयं वक्ष्ये (raghūṇāmanvayaṃ vakṣye) R.1.9.

3) To tell, communicate, announce, declare; उच्यतां मद्वचनात्सारथिः (ucyatāṃ madvacanātsārathiḥ) Ś.2; Me.1.

4) To name, call; तदेकसप्ततिगुणं मन्वन्तरमिहोच्यते (tadekasaptatiguṇaṃ manvantaramihocyate) Ms.1.79.

5) To signify, denote (as sense).

6) To recite, repeat.

7) To censure; reproach; वृत्तिविज्ञानवान् धीरः कस्तं वा वक्तुमर्हति (vṛttivijñānavān dhīraḥ kastaṃ vā vaktumarhati) Mb. 12.132.6. -II. 1 P. To inform, to tell; L. D. B. -Caus. (vācayati-te)

1) To cause to speak.

2) To go over, read, peruse; वाचयति नान्यलिखितं लिखितमनेन वाचयति नान्यः । अयमपरोऽस्य विशेषः स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति (vācayati nānyalikhitaṃ likhitamanena vācayati nānyaḥ | ayamaparo'sya viśeṣaḥ svayamapi likhitaṃ svayaṃ na vācayati) || Subhāṣ.

3) To say, tell, declare.

4) To promise. -Desid. (vivakṣati) To wish to speak, intend to say (something); विवक्षता दोषमपि च्युतात्मना त्वयैकमीशं प्रति साधु भाषितम् (vivakṣatā doṣamapi cyutātmanā tvayaikamīśaṃ prati sādhu bhāṣitam) Ku.5.81.

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Vāc (वाच्).—f. [vac-kvip dīrgho'saṃprasāraṇaṃ ca Uṇ.2.67]

1) A word, sound, an expression (opp. artha); वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये (vāgarthāviva saṃpṛktau vāgarthapratipattaye) R.1.1.

2) Words, talk, language, speech; वाचि पुण्यापुण्यहेतवः (vāci puṇyāpuṇyahetavaḥ) Māl.4; लौकिकानां हि साधूनामर्थं वागनुवर्तते । ऋषीणां पुनराद्यानां वाचमर्थोऽनुधावति (laukikānāṃ hi sādhūnāmarthaṃ vāganuvartate | ṛṣīṇāṃ punarādyānāṃ vācamartho'nudhāvati) U.1.1; विनिश्चितार्थामिति वाचमाददे (viniścitārthāmiti vācamādade) Ki.1.3 'spoke these words', 'spoke as follows'; R.1.49; Śi.2.13,23; Ku.2.3.

3) A voice, sound; अशरीरिणी वागुदचरत् (aśarīriṇī vāgudacarat) U.2; मनुष्यवाचा (manuṣyavācā) R.2.33.

4) An assertion, a statement.

5) An assurance, a promise.

6) A phrase, proverb, saying.

7) Name of Sarasvatī, the goddess of speech.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vac (वच्).—[(au)auvaca] r. 1st cl. (vacati) r. 2nd cl. (vakti) and 10th cl. (vācayati-te) 1. To speak, to tell. 2. To inform. 3. To read, to expound. 4. To name: (the second cl. is the most usual form of the root, in which its inflections however are very irregular.) With pra, 1. To begin to speak. 2. To call. 3. To announce. With prati, To answer. With anu, To recite. With nis, To explain etymologically.

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Vāc (वाच्).—f. (-vāk) 1. Speech. 2. Speaking. 3. Saraswati, the goddess of speech. 4. A phrase, a proverb or adage. 5. An assertion, an assurance. E. vac speak, aff. kvipa, and the vowel made long.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vac (वच्).—ii. 2, [Parasmaipada.] (also [Ātmanepada.]), 1. To speak, [Draupadīpramātha] 6, 24 (avocas, aor. with augment after ); to say, with the acc. of the object and of the addressed person, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 2, 1. 2. To describe, Chr. 34, 7. Pass. ucya, 1. To be spoken of (tat kim ucyate, That needs not to be spoken of, i. e. that is of course the best), [Pañcatantra] 154, 24. 2. To be told, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 81, 5; to be admonished, [Pañcatantra] 32, 11. 3. To be called, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 71. Ptcple. of the pf. pass. ukta, Addressed (paruṣāṇi, with hard words), [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 25. n. 1. A sentence, [Pañcatantra] 68, 1. 2. Speech, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 205. Comp. An-, adj. not uttered, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 14, 21. Ardha-, adj. half uttered; ºtena, instr. without finishing one’s speech, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 29, 19. Durukta, i. e. dus-, I. adj. 1. harshly spoken to, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 100. 2. injurious, Mahābhārata 13, 4987. Ii. n. injurious speech, ib. 13, 501. Punar-, I. adj. 1. repeated, Mahābhārata 5, 632. 2. useless, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 40, 2. Ii. n. 1. repetition, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 153 (a second string of pearls). 2. tautology. Pratikūla-, n. disagreeable speech, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1525. Ptcple. of the fut. pass. I. vaktavya. 1. Fit or proper to be said. 2. Reprehensible. 3. One of bad fame, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 66. 4. Vile, low. 5. Depen-lant, subject. n. 1. A rule. 2. Speaking, [Pañcatantra] 194, 23. 3. Speech. Comp. Bahu-, adj. much to be praised, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 67. Ii. vacanīya. 1. To be spoken. 2. To be noticed, censurable, n. Blame, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 28, 13. Iii. vācya. 1. Fit or proper to be spoken, [Pañcatantra] 83, 20. 2. To be predicated of anything, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 210, 9; 212, 13. 3. Blameable, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 1, 32. 4. Contemptible, vile, outcaste. n. 1. A predicate. 2. Blame, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 112. Comp. A-, adj. 1. not to be spoken of, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 36, 81. 2. not to be addressed, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 128. Dus-, adj. difficult to be spoken, harsn, Mārk. P. 8, 27. n. evil tidings, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 15, 42. Comp. absol. an -uktvā, without being ordered, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 62. Desider. vivakṣa, To desire to speak, to say to, Chr. 57, 26. [Causal.] vācaya. 1. To order to recite, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 25, 28. 2. To order to recite blessings, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 6, 7; Chr. 25, 51 (anomal. absol. vācya). 3. To read, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 26, 7.

— With the prep. anu anu, To teach, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 191. anūcāna, see s. v. [Causal.] To read, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 17, 4; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 26, 3.

— With abhi abhi, To address, to say to (with two acc.), Mahābhārata 2, 1998.

— With nis nis, 1. To declare, Mahābhārata 3, 1223; to explain, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 204, 11. 2. To speak, to put properly, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 55. nirukta, Distinctly declared. n. 1. Etymological explanation, Mahābhārata 1, 266. 2. The name of one of the Vedāṅgas (see aṅga), ib. 12, 13232.

— With pra pra, 1. To begin to speak, [Pañcatantra] 77, 1. 2. To explain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 103; to tell, [Pañcatantra] 116, 1. 3. To say, [Pañcatantra] 4, 14; Mahābhārata 2, 503. 4. To address, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 64; Chr. 44, 5. prokta, 1. Declared, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 74. 2. Called, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 10; [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 93. pravacanīya, 1. To be well spoken. 2. (m.), A good speaker.

— With saṃpra sam-pra, To explain comprehensively, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 61.

— With prati prati, To answer (with two acc.), [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 68, 1. pratyukta, n. Answer, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 112.

— With sam sam, To address, [Pañcatantra] 97, 12.

— Cf. [Latin] vocare, vox; [Old High German.] ga-wahan, memorare; (i. e. and ),

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Vāc (वाच्).— (vb. vac), f. 1. Speaking, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 2647. 2. Speech, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 112. 3. A word, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 20 (voice?). 4. A phrase, a proverb. 5. Sarasvatī. 6. Voice, Chr. 44, 36.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vac (वच्).—vivakti vakti [participle] ukta (q.v.) say, speak, tell (2 [accusative] or [dative] [genetive] of [person or personal] & [accusative] of th.); name, call (2 [accusative], [Middle] refl. 2 [nominative]); reproach, censure, blame ([accusative]); [with] punar repeat or reply. [Passive] ucyate be called, pass for ([nominative]). [Causative] vācayati, te cause to say, speak etc. (2 [accusative]); read, recite; agree, promise. [Desiderative] vivakṣati, (te), [participle] vivakṣita wish to say, speak, etc.; [Passive] be meant or in question.

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Vāc (वाच्).—[feminine] speech, voice, sound, word, language, discourse; also speech personif. or the goddess of speech, Sarasvatī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vac (वच्):—[class] 2. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxiv, 55]) vakti (occurs only in sg. vacmi, vakṣi, vakti, and [imperative] vaktu; [Vedic or Veda] also [class] 3. [Parasmaipada] vivakti; [perfect tense] uvāca, ūj, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.; uvaktha, [Atharva-veda]; vavāca, vavakṣe, [Ṛg-veda]; [Aorist] avocat, cata, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.; in Veda also [subjunctive] vocati, te, vecāti; [Potential] vocet, ceta; [imperative] vocatu; Prec. ucyāsam, [Brāhmaṇa]; [future] vaktā, [ib.] etc.; vakṣyati, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.; te, [Mahābhārata]; [Conditional] avakṣyat, [Brāhmaṇa; Upaniṣad]; [infinitive mood] vāktum, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; tave, [Ṛg-veda]; tos, [Brāhmaṇa]; [indeclinable participle] uktvā, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; -ucya, [ib.]),

—to speak, say, tell, utter, announce, declare, mention, proclaim, recite, describe (with [accusative] with or without prati [dative case] or [genitive case] of [person], and [accusative] of thing; often with double [accusative] e.g. tam idaṃ vākyam uvāca, ‘he spoke this speech to him’; with double [accusative] also ‘to name, call,’ [Ātmanepada] with [nominative case] ‘one’s self’; with punar, ‘to speak again, repeat’; or ‘to answer, reply’), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to reproach, revile ([accusative]), [Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa] :—[Passive voice] ucyate ([Aorist] avāci, or in later language avoci), to be spoken or said or told or uttered etc., [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (yad ucyate, ‘what the saying is’);

—to resound, [Ṛg-veda];

—to be called or accounted, be regarded as, pass for ([nominative case] [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] also [locative case]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.:—[Causal] vācayati, te ([Potential] vācayīta, [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra]; [Aorist] avīvacat; [Passive voice] vācyate),

—to cause to say or speak or recite or pronounce (with, double [accusative]; often the object is to be supplied), [Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to cause anything written or printed to speak id est. to read out loud, [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.;

— ([Dhātupāṭha xxxiv, 35]) to say, tell, declare, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya];

—to promise, [Mahābhārata] :—[Desiderative] vivakṣati, te ([Passive voice] vivakṣyate), to desire to say or speak or recite or proclaim or declare, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;

— ([Passive voice]) to be meant, [Śaṃkarācārya; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha] :—[Intensive] (only avāvacīt) to call or cry aloud, [Ṛg-veda x, 102, 6.]

2) cf. [Greek] ἐπ for ϝεπ in ἔπος, ὄψ, ὄσσα etc.; [Latin] vocare, vox; [German] gi-waht, gi-wahinnen, er-wähnen.

3) Vāc (वाच्):—f. ([from] √vac) speech, voice, talk, language (also of animals), sound (also of inanimate objects as of the stones used for pressing, of a drum etc.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (vācam-√ṛ, īr, or iṣ, to raise the voice, utter a sound, cry, call)

4) a word, saying, phrase, sentence, statement, asseveration, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (vācaṃ-√vad, to speak words; vācaṃ vyā-√hṛ, to utter words; vācaṃ-√dā with [dative case], to address words to; vācā satyaṃ-√kṛ, to promise verbally in marriage, plight troth)

5) Speech personified (in various manners or forms e.g. as Vāc Āmbhṛṇī in [Ṛg-veda x, 125]; as the voice of the middle sphere in [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska] and, [Nirukta, by Yāska]; in the Veda she is also represented as created by Prajā-pati and married to him; in other places she is called the mother of the Vedas and wife of Indra; in [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] she is the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Kaśyapa; but most frequently she is identified with Bhāratī or Sarasvatī, the goddess of speech; vācaḥ sāma and vāco vratam Name of Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]; vācaḥ stomaḥ, a [particular] Ekāha, [???])

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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