Vaṇij, Vanij: 9 definitions

Introduction:

Vaṇij means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Vaṇij (वणिज्) refers to “merchants”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. If they should be eclipsed when in the first section of the firmament, those that live by fire and virtuous Brahmins will suffer as well as men belonging to one of the holy orders. If they should be eclipsed when in the second section of the firmament, agriculturists, heretics, merchants [i.e., vaṇij], the Kṣatriyas and commanders of the army will suffer. If when in the third section, artisans, the Śūdras, the Mlecchas and ministers will suffer”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra

Vaṇij (वणिज्) refers to “merchants” and represents an official title used in the political management of townships in ancient India. Officers, ministers, and sovereigns bearing such titles [eg., Vaṇij] were often present in ancient inscriptions when, for example, the king wanted to address his subjects or make an important announcement.

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Vaṇij (वणिज्) is a Sanskrit word referring to a “merchant” or a “trader”.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vaṇij (वणिज्) refers to the “merchants (of the Dharma)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 3).—Accordingly, “[...] Then, after their parinirvāṇa, the Devas, from those of the six realms of desire (kāmaloka) up to those of the pure abodes (śuddhāvāsa), seeing that the Arhats had all entered into nirvāṇa, had this thought: ‘[...] Now that these physicians of the Dharma hasten to enter into nirvāṇa, who then will heal them? Like the lotus (puṇḍarīka), the disciples, arisen in the immense ocean of wisdom, are now withered. The tree of the Dharma (dharmavṛkṣa) has been cut down; the cloud of Dharma (dharmamegha) has dissipated. The king of elephants (ajapati) of great wisdom has withdrawn, the offspring of the elephants (gajapota) follow after him. The merchants of the Dharma (dharma-vaṇij) have gone, from whom can we request the jewel of the Dharma (dharmaratna)? ’.”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vaṇij (वणिज्).—m. [Uṇādi-sūtra 2.7]

1) A merchant, trader; यस्यागमः केवलजीविकायै तं ज्ञानपण्यं वणिजं वदन्ति (yasyāgamaḥ kevalajīvikāyai taṃ jñānapaṇyaṃ vaṇijaṃ vadanti) M.1.17.

2) The sign Libra of the zodiac. -f. Merchandise, trade.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaṇij (वणिज्).—see baṇij.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaṇij (वणिज्).—[masculine] merchant, trader; trade, merchandise.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vaṇij (वणिज्):—m. (also written baṇij) a merchant, trader, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) the zodiacal sign Libra, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

3) Name of a [particular] Karaṇa (q.v.), [ib.]

4) trade, traffic, commerce, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Manu-smṛti]

[Sanskrit to German]

Vaṇij in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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