Utsanga, Utsaṅga, Utsamga: 25 definitions


Utsanga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with ‘combined hands’ (saṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Utsaṅga (embrace): Mṛga-śīrṣa hands held upon opposite armpits. Usage: embrace, modesty, armlet, education of children.

According to another book: Arāla hands held crosswise on the shoulders. The patron deity is Gautama. Usage: modesty,embrace, assent, cold, saying “Sādhu”, hiding the breasts, etc.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with combined hands (saṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): When the Arāla hands are contrarily placed and are held upturned and bent, the Utsaṅga hand will be the result.

(Uses): It is used to indicate feeling of touch. It is also used to indicate acts of anger and indignation, in pressing of hands similar to women’s acts of jealousy.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) refers to one of the thirteen Saṃyuktahastas or “combined hand gestures” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The hasta-mudrās (lit. “hand-gestures”) are very essential to denote some particular action or state in dancing and these mudrās are formed with the help of hands and fingers.—According to the Śabdakalpadruma, the word utsaṅga means embrace. In the utsaṅga posture, hands are in arāla position and the palm upwards and overturned and this posture shows the touch of other. In the Abhinayadarpaṇa, the utsanga posture is suggested to denote embrace as the word itself means. Moreover this posture is also used to show shame, displaying ornaments, and teaching of boys.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग):—[utsaṅgaṃ] Elevated

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) refers to the “lap”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “He has eight faces and, very powerful, shines like a white lotus. He is mightily proud and has sharp teeth and great body. He is terrible and fierce and his face is deformed. O Śambhu, he has twenty arms and the goddess sits on his lap [i.e., utsaṅga-dhārin]. He holds a sword, mallet and noose, a double-headed drum, a dagger, the Kaustubha jewel, a rosary, a skull bowl full of fruit and the like and a piece of human flesh. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) refers to “union” (e.g., ‘being joined in union with Bhairava’), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.1-7ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Bhairava]—“[...] He] bears a sword and shield, holds a hook and noose. [His] hand[s and posed] in the wish fulfilling and protection [mudrās. He] holds the thunderbolt of a great hero. [He also] holds an axe and a hatchet. Having worshipped Bhairava, [the Mantrin] remembers being joined in union [with] him (utsaṅgatu tasyotsaṅgagatāṃ smaret), [in the same way as] dissolution in fire”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) refers to “one’s lap”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.36 (“The statements of the seven sages”).—Accordingly, after Himavat (Himācala) spoke to the mountains: “After saying so, he bedecked his daughter with various ornaments. Then he took them all and placed them on the lap (utsaṅgaṛṣyutsaṃge) of the sage saying ‘These are the presents I have to give her’”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) refers to “(the marks consisting of having a) high (instep)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 19).—Accordingly, “Furthermore, some say that generosity is the cause and condition (hetupratyaya) for obtaining the thirty-two marks. Why is that? [...] When one gives, one says: “May I be useful”, and the generous disposition (dānacitta) increases; this is why one obtains the marks consisting of having a high instep (utsaṅga-caraṇa) and hair standing up (ūrdhvāgraroma). [...]”.

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics (Mahayana)

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) refers to a “sextillion” (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) in a list of numeral denominations, according to the Lalitavistara-sūtra, a well-known Buddhist work of the first century B.C.—Accordingly, “The mathematician Arjuna asked the Bodhisattva, ‘O young man, do you know the counting which goes beyond the koṭi on the centesimal scale? Bodhisattva: I know. Arjuna: How does the counting proceed beyond the koṭi on the centesimal scale? Bodhisattva: [hundred vivāhas are called utsaṅga, hundred utsaṅgas are called bahula,...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) is the twenty-fourth of sixty digits (decimal place) in an special enumeration system mentioned by Vasubandhu in his Abhidharmakośa (“treasury of knowledge”). The explanations of the measure of years, eons, and so forth must be comprehended through calculation based on a numerical system. Enumeration begins from one and increases by a factor of ten for each shift in decimal place. The sixtieth number in this series is called “countless”.

Among these decimal positions (e.g., utsaṅga), the first nine positions from one to one hundred million are called ‘single set enumeration’. From a billion up to, but not including countless is “the enumeration of the great companion” and is called the ‘recurring enumeration’.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Utsaṅga.—(HRS), extra cess levied upon villagers and citizens on occasions of festival events, such as the birth of a prince, as suggested by the Arthaśāstra. Note: utsaṅga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

utsaṅga (उत्संग).—m S The lap.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

utsaṅga (उत्संग).—m The lap.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग).—[ud-sañj-ādhāraṃ ghañ]

1) The lap; पुत्रपूर्णोत्सङ्गा (putrapūrṇotsaṅgā) with a boy seated in the lap Uttararāmacarita 1; उत्सङ्गवर्धितानां गुरुषु भवेत्कीदृशः स्नेहः (utsaṅgavardhitānāṃ guruṣu bhavetkīdṛśaḥ snehaḥ) V.5.1; न केवलमुत्सङ्गश्चिरान्मनोरथोऽपि मे पूर्णः (na kevalamutsaṅgaścirānmanoratho'pi me pūrṇaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 4; Meghadūta 88; cf. also विशालतरमुत्सङ्गं कुरु (viśālataramutsaṅgaṃ kuru) (spread out the garment on the lap Pratimā Act. I.).

2) Embrace, contact, union; विस्तारिस्तनकुम्भकुडमलभरोत्सङ्गेन संभाविता (vistāristanakumbhakuḍamalabharotsaṅgena saṃbhāvitā) (mālā) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 8.6;

3) Interior, vicinity; दरिगृहो- त्सङ्गनिषक्तभासः (darigṛho- tsaṅganiṣaktabhāsaḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.1; कर्ण° (karṇa°) K.15; शय्योत्सङ्गे (śayyotsaṅge) Meghadūta 95.

4) Surface, side, slope; दृषदो वासितोत्सङ्गाः (dṛṣado vāsitotsaṅgāḥ) R.4.74; 14.76.

5) The haunch or part above the hip (nitamba).

6) The upper part, top; सौधोत्सङ्गप्रणयविमुखो मा स्म भूरुज्जयिन्याः (saudhotsaṅgapraṇayavimukho mā sma bhūrujjayinyāḥ) Meghadūta 27; K.52.

7) (a) The acclivity or edge of a hill; तुङ्गं नगोत्सङ्गमिवारुरोह (tuṅgaṃ nagotsaṅgamivāruroha) R.6.3; (b Peak, summit; utsaṅge mahādreḥ Kirātārjunīya 7.21.

8) The roof of a house.

9) Vault, canopy (as of sky); अपिहितगगनोत्सङ्ग- मङ्गं धुनोति (apihitagaganotsaṅga- maṅgaṃ dhunoti) Mv.5.53.

1) The bottom or deep part of an ulcer.

11) A high number (= 1 Vivāhas).

12) An ascetic (utkrāntaḥ saṅgam).

-gam A high number.

Derivable forms: utsaṅgaḥ (उत्सङ्गः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) or Ucchaṅkha or Ucchaṅga.—(°-), [compound] with -pāda (or -caraṇa), (= Pali ussaṅkha-pāda,) epithet of a mahā- [Page118-b+ 71] puruṣa (especially Buddha), no. 7 of the 32 lakṣaṇa; orig. form, [etymology], and meaning obscure; according to Pali Dīghanikāya (Pali) commentary ii.446.28 ff. it means that the soles of the feet can be seen as they walk, because ‘the ankles are fixed high’; if from utsaṅga, having feet characterized by a ‘lap’ (an up-curve under the foot, making the sole visible?). Tibetan on Mahāvyutpatti 260 says having the ankle-bone (or, joint of the ankle-bone) not visible (so one Chin. version, and Japanese); but Tibetan on Bodhisattvabhūmi 375.14, cited by Wogihara, having feet not uneven; another Chin. gloss (also cited in Mahāvyutpatti 260, and elsewhere, Burnouf infra) refers the epithet to the knees; Gaṇḍavyūha 399.24 glosses suvyak- taparamopaśobhitopari-pādacchavikusumagarbhātireka- prabhāsvarā (not very clear or specific). These northern interpretations make the impression of floundering in a morass of ignorance. See Burnouf, Lotus, 573. Forms: utsaṅga-pāda Mahāvyutpatti 260 (but Mironov ucchaṅkha-); Lalitavistara 106.1; Dharmasaṃgraha 83 (v.l. utsaṅkha-); utsaṅga-caraṇa Bodhisattvabhūmi 375.14; 378.19; 379.9; 381.10; ucchaṅga-pāda Lalitavistara 429.13— 14; ucchaṅkha-pāda, Mironov Mahāvyutpatti (see above); Mahāvastu i.226.16; ii.29.19; 304.19 (the mss. clearly intend this all three times! correct Senart's text); Gaṇḍavyūha 399.24 (note also v.l. utsaṅkha- in Dharmasaṃgraha 83, above). This form ucchaṅkha is closest to the Pali; the very obscurity of its etymology may argue for its originality.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग).—m.

(-ṅgaḥ) 1. The haunch or part above the hip. 2. The acclivity or slope of a hill. 3. Association, union. 4. Embrace. 5. The bottom or deep part of an ulcer. E. ut before ṣañj to embrace, affix ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग).—i. e. ud-saṅj + a, m. 1. The lap, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 71, 11; figuratively, [Daśakumāracarita] 199, 7; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 6. 2. The slope of a mountain, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 6, 3. 3. A roof, [Pañcatantra] 128, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग).—[masculine] lap, roof, surface; seat, bottom.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग):—[=ut-saṅga] m. (√sañj) the haunch or part above the hip, lap, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Pañcatantra] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] any horizontal area or level (as a roof of a house etc.), [Raghuvaṃśa; Meghadūta; Bhartṛhari] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] the bottom or deep part of an ulcer, [Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] embrace, association, union, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a particular position of the hands, [Purāṇa-sarvasva; Hasta-ratnāvalī]

6) [v.s. ...] n. a high number (= 100 Vivāhas), [Lalita-vistara]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग):—(ṅgaḥ) 1. m. The haunch; slope of a hill; union; embrace.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Utsaṅga (उत्सङ्ग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ucchaṃga, Ussaṃga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Utsanga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Utsaṃga (ಉತ್ಸಂಗ):—

1) [noun] the front part from the waist to the knees of a person in a sitting position; the lap.

2) [noun] the part of the body between the ribs and the hips; the waist.

3) [noun] the side potion of a human or of an animal body.

4) [noun] the space beside one.

5) [noun] a taking another person into one’s arms and pressing to the bosom in affection; an embrace.

6) [noun] a union or assemblage of a few persons.

7) [noun] (dance) a posture of holding lightly the waist with both the palms.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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