Utkrama, Utkrāma: 14 definitions


Utkrama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Utkrama (उत्क्रम).—A variety of the Krama described in the Prātiśākhya works.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

1)  Utkrama (उत्क्रम) or “inverse process” (i.e., beginning from the units place) refers to one of two types of Saṃklita (“addition”) which represents one of the twenty operations (logistics) of pāṭīgaṇita (“science of calculation which requires the use of writing material—the board”), according to Pṛthudakasvāmī’s commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta, a Sanskrit treatise on ancient Indian mathematics (gaṇita-śāstra) and astronomy from the 7th century.—In the inverse process (utkrama) of addition (saṃklita), the numbers standing in the last place (extreme left) are added together and the result is placed below this last place. The numbers in the next place are then added and so on. The numbers of the partial sum are corrected, if necessary, when the figures in the next vertical line are added. For instance, if 12 be the sum of the numbers in the last place, 12 is put below the bottom line, 2 being directly below the numbers added; then, if the sum of the numbers in the next place is 13 (say), 3 is placed below the figures added and 1 is carried to the left. Thus the figure 2 of the partial sum 12 is rubbed out and substituted by 3.

2)  Utkrama (उत्क्रम) or “direct process” also refers to one of two types of Vyavakalita (“subtraction”).—The inverse process (utkrama) is similar, the only difference being that it begins from the- last place of the minuend, and the previously obtained partial differences are corrected, if required. The process is suitable for working on a pāṭī (board) where figures can be easily rubbed out and corrected. This process seems to have been in general use in India, and was considered to be simpler than the direct process.

Note: According to Gaṅgādhara, the inverse process (utkrama) of working is easier in the case of subtraction (vyavakalita ), and the direct in the case of addition.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

utkrama (उत्क्रम).—m S Irregularity, want of order or method.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Utkrama (उत्क्रम).—

1) Going up or out, departure.

2) Progressive increase.

3) Going astray, deviation, transgression, violation.

Derivable forms: utkramaḥ (उत्क्रमः).

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Utkrāma (उत्क्राम).—

1) Going out or up, departure.

2) Surpassing, excelling.

3) Violation, transgression.

4) Opposition, contrariety.

Derivable forms: utkrāmaḥ (उत्क्रामः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Utkrama (उत्क्रम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Going up or out. 2. Progressive increase. 3. Going astray, acting improperly, deviation, transgression. E. ut before kram to go, ac aff.

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Utkrāma (उत्क्राम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Opposition, contrariety. 2. Going, going above, surpassing. 3. Going from or out. 4. Deviating from propriety, transgressing. E. ut out, kram to go, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Utkrama (उत्क्रम).—[masculine] going up or out.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Utkrama (उत्क्रम):—[=ut-krama] [from ut-kram] m. going up or out, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] inverted order, [Sūryasiddhānta]

3) [v.s. ...] progressive increase

4) [v.s. ...] going astray, acting improperly, deviation, transgression, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] dying, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Utkrāma (उत्क्राम):—[=ut-krāma] [from ut-kram] m. going from or out, going above, surpassing, deviating from propriety, transgression

7) [v.s. ...] opposition, contrariety, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Utkrama (उत्क्रम):—[utkra+ma] (maḥ) 1. m. Going up; irregularity; transgression.

2) Utkrāma (उत्क्राम):—(maḥ) 4. m. Opposition; going out, deviating from propriety.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Utkrama (उत्क्रम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ukkama, Ukkāma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Utkrama in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Utkrama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Utkrama (उत्क्रम) [Also spelled utkram]:—[[~ṇa]] (nm) reversal.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Utkrama (ಉತ್ಕ್ರಮ):—

1) [noun] the act of going up; a moving in the space above; progressive increase.

2) [noun] a wrong, illegal, extreme action or behaviour; a going astray.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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